Improved understanding of the unique needs of school nurses is crucial for developing strategies to increase implementation of evidence-based healthcare practices in schools. This study discusses the (1) development and evaluation of the School Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (SN-EBP), (2) analyses of data obtained from 386 school nurses using the SN-EBP and (3) the selection and adaptation of a model to guide implementation strategies and research for use of evidence-based practice (EBP) in school nursing based on information obtained from the study. Principal components factor analysis with Promax rotation identified 18 factors in the five sections of the questionnaire, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the sections ranging from .62 to .88. The SN-EBP showed good discrimination between known groups on key factors, and demonstrated sufficient construct validity to warrant further use and evaluation in other school nurse groups. The SN-EBP was mailed to all school nurses in Iowa with a response rate of 56.8% (n=386). Descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to describe the variables of interest. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used to identify variables explaining variance in use of EBP. Analyses indicate that information sources, professional membership, and district size explain 22% of the variance in current use of EBP. School nurses identified resources needed to increase use of EBP, including availability of networking opportunities with other school nurses, pre-developed EBP guidelines and education on implementation strategies and outcome evaluation. Nurses with better current EBP identified three stakeholder groups that were perceived as barriers to implementation of EBP. Data obtained from the study were used in the selection and adaptation of a model to guide implementation strategies and implementation research for adoption of EBP in school nursing. The Knowledge Transfer Framework developed for the AHRQ patient safety portfolio provides the most appropriate model for use in school nursing. This model offers solutions to overcome context variables common to school nursing, such as the broad scope of practice, varying educational backgrounds among school nurses, geographic isolation, and the challenge of working in two organizational systems simultaneously (nursing and education).