Understanding UMTS Radio Network Modelling, Planning and Automated Optimisation: Theory and Practice / Edition 1

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Overview

This book sets out to provide the theoretical foundations that will enable radio network planners to plan model and optimize radio networks using state-of-the-art findings from around the globe. It adopts a logical approach, beginning with the background to the present status of UMTS radio network technology, before devoting equal coverage to planning, modelling and optimization issues. All key planning areas are covered, including the technical and legal implications of network infrastructure sharing, hierarchical cell structure (HCS) deployment, ultra-high-site deployment and the benefits and limitations of using computer-aided design (CAD) software. Theoretical models for UMTS technology are explained as generic system models, stand-alone services and mixed services. Business modelling theory and methods are put forward, taking in propagation calculations, link-level, UMTS static and UMTS dynamic simulations. The challenges and goals of the automated optimization process are explored in depth using cutting-edge cost function and optimization algorithms. This theory-based resource containing prolific illustrative case studies explains the reasons for UMTS radio networks performance issues and how to use this foundational knowledge to model, plan and optimize present and future systems. 

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"…this book really fills a gap in the existing literature …it really helps one understand the WCDMA network…" (IEEE Communications magazine, August 2007)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470015674
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 7/11/2006
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 544
  • Product dimensions: 6.52 (w) x 10.26 (h) x 1.41 (d)

Meet the Author

Maciej J. Nawrocki currently works for the Centre for Telecommunications Research at King’s College London.  His areas of interest include WCDMA based cellular networks, CDMA network planning methods, optimization methods for 3G systems radio planning and, latterly, efficient modeling algorithms for UMTS radio network organization.

Mischa Dohler has a PhD from Kings College London where he has also held a lecturing post. His areas of interest include propagation, coding, transceiver design and link level simulations.

Hamid Aghvami is presently Director of the Centre for Telecommunications Research at King’s College London. He is considered a world expert in the field of personal and mobile radio communications and is a fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, a fellow member of the IEE and senior member of the IEEE.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xvii

List of Acronyms xix

Notes on Editors and Contributors xxix

PART I INTRODUCTION 1

1 Modern Approaches to Radio Network Modelling and Planning 3
Maciej J. Nawrocki, Mischa Dohler and A. Hamid Aghvami

1.1 Historical aspects of radio network planning 3

1.2 Importance and limitations of modelling approaches 5

1.3 Manual versus automated planning 7

References 9

2 Introduction to the UTRA FDD Radio Interface 11
Peter Gould

2.1 Introduction to CDMA-based networks 11

2.2 The UTRA FDD air interface 15

2.2.1 Spreading codes 15

2.2.2 Common physical channels 20

2.2.3 Dedicated physical channels 27

2.3 UTRA FDD key mechanisms 29

2.3.1 Cell breathing and soft capacity 29

2.3.2 Interference and power control 31

2.3.3 Soft handover and compressed mode 32

2.4 Parameters that require planning 34

2.4.1 Signal path parameters 34

2.4.2 Power allocation 35

2.4.3 System settings 35

References 35

3 Spectrum and Service Aspects 37
Maciej J. Grzybkowski, Ziemowit Neyman and Marcin Ney

3.1 Spectrum aspects 37

3.1.1 Spectrum requirements for UMTS 38

3.1.2 Spectrum identified for UMTS 39

3.1.3 Frequency arrangements for the UMTS terrestrial component 39

3.1.4 Operator spectrum demands 45

3.2 Service features and characteristics 46

References 52

4 Trends for the Near Future 55
Maciej J. Nawrocki, Mischa Dohler and A. Hamid Aghvami

4.1 Introduction 55

4.2 Systems yet to be deployed 56

4.2.1 UTRA TDD 56

4.2.2 TD-SCDMA 57

4.2.3 Satellite segment 58

4.3 Enhanced coverage 60

4.3.1 Ultra High Sites (UHS) 61

4.3.2 High Altitude Platform System (HAPS) 61

4.4 Enhanced capacity 61

4.4.1 Hierarchical Cell Structures (HCS) 61

4.4.2 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) 62

4.4.3 High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) 63

4.4.4 Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (OFDM) 64

4.5 Heterogeneous approaches 64

4.5.1 Wireless LANs 64

4.5.2 Wireless MANs (WiMAX) 65

4.6 Concluding Remarks 65

References 65

PART II MODELLING 67

5 Propagation Modelling 69
Kamil Staniec, Maciej J. Grzybkowski and Karsten Erlebach

5.1 Radio channels in wideband CDMA systems 69

5.1.1 Electromagnetic wave propagation 69

5.1.2 Wideband radio channel characterisation 73

5.1.3 Introduction to deterministic methods in modelling WCDMA systems 75

5.1.4 Deterministic methods: comparison of performance 79

5.2 Application of empirical and deterministic models in picocell planning 80

5.2.1 Techniques for indoor modelling 80

5.2.2 Techniques for outdoor-to-indoor modelling 82

5.3 Application of empirical and deterministic models in microcell planning 84

5.3.1 COST 231 Walfisch–Ikegami model 85

5.3.2 Manhattan model 87

5.3.3 Other microcellular propagation models 88

5.4 Application of empirical and deterministic models in macrocell planning 90

5.4.1 Modified Hata 90

5.4.2 Other models 91

5.5 Propagation models of interfering signals 94

5.5.1 ITU-R 1546 model 94

5.5.2 ITU-R 452 model 100

5.5.3 Statistics in the Modified Hata model 104

5.6 Radio propagation model calibration 105

5.6.1 Tuning algorithms 106

5.6.2 Single and multiple slope approaches 108

Appendix: Calculation of inverse complementary cumulative normal distribution function 110

References 111

6 Theoretical Models for UMTS Radio Networks 115
Hans-Florian Geerdes, Andreas Eisenblätter, Piotr M. S³obodzian, Mikio Iwamura, Mischa Dohler, Rafa³ Zdunek, Peter Gould and Maciej J. Nawrocki

6.1 Antenna modelling 115

6.1.1 Mobile terminal antenna modelling 117

6.1.2 Base station antenna modelling 118

6.2 Link level model 122

6.2.1 Relation to other models 123

6.2.2 Link level simulation chain 124

6.2.3 Link level receiver components 126

6.2.4 Link level receiver detectors 128

6.3 Capacity considerations 134

6.3.1 Capacity of a single cell system 134

6.3.2 Downlink power-limited capacity 134

6.3.3 Uplink power-limited capacity 137

6.4 Static system level model 139

6.4.1 Link level aspects 140

6.4.2 Propagation data 141

6.4.3 Equipment modelling 142

6.4.4 Transmit powers and power control 144

6.4.5 Services and user-specific properties 146

6.4.6 Soft handover 147

6.4.7 Complete model 148

6.4.8 Applications of a static system-level network model 149

6.4.9 Power control at cell level 152

6.4.10 Equation system solving 157

6.5 Dynamic system level model 161

6.5.1 Similarities and differences between static and dynamic models 161

6.5.2 Generic system model 162

6.5.3 Input/output parameters 164

6.5.4 Mobility models 164

6.5.5 Traffic models 165

6.5.6 Path loss models 167

6.5.7 Shadowing models 168

6.5.8 Modelling of small scale fading 169

6.5.9 SIR calculation 170

References 172

7 Business Modelling Goals and Methods 177
Marcin Ney

7.1 Business modelling goals 177

7.1.1 New business planning 177

7.1.2 Infrastructure development 178

7.1.3 Budgeting 179

7.2 Business modelling methods 179

7.2.1 Trends and statistical approach 180

7.2.2 Benchmarking and drivers 181

7.2.3 Detailed quantitative models 181

7.2.4 Other non-quantitative methods 182

References 183

PART III PLANNING 185

8 Fundamentals of Business Planning for Mobile Networks 187
Marcin Ney

8.1 Process description 187

8.1.1 Market analysis and forecasting 187

8.1.2 Modelling the system 189

8.1.3 Financial issues 190

8.1.4 Recommendations 190

8.2 Technical investment calculation 191

8.2.1 CAPEX calculation methods 191

8.2.2 OPEX calculation methods 196

8.2.3 The role of drivers: Sanity checking 197

8.3 Revenue and non-technical related investment calculation 198

8.3.1 Input parameters and assumptions 198

8.3.2 Revenue calculation methods 199

8.3.3 Non-technical related investments 199

8.4 Business planning results 199

8.4.1 Business plan output parameters 200

8.4.2 Business plan assessment methods 200

References 201

9 Fundamentals of Network Characteristics 203
Maciej J. Nawrocki

9.1 Power characteristics estimation 203

9.1.1 Distance to home base station dependency 203

9.1.2 Traffic load dependency 207

9.2 Network capacity considerations 210

9.2.1 Irregular base station distribution grid 210

9.2.2 Improper antenna azimuth arrangement 212

9.3 Required minimum network size for calculations 214

References 218

10 Fundamentals of Practical Radio Access Network Design 219
Ziemowit Neyman and Mischa Dohler

10.1 Introduction 219

10.2 Input parameters 222

10.2.1 Base station classification 222

10.2.2 Hardware parameters 222

10.2.3 Environmental specifics 229

10.2.4 Technology essentials 231

10.3 Network dimensioning 238

10.3.1 Coverage versus capacity 238

10.3.2 Cell coverage 239

10.3.3 Cell Erlang capacity 249

10.4 Detailed network planning 251

10.4.1 Site-to-site distance and antenna height 252

10.4.2 Site location 254

10.4.3 Sectorisation 256

10.4.4 Antenna and sector direction 259

10.4.5 Electrical and mechanical tilt 260

10.4.6 Temporal aspects in HCS 263

References 268

11 Compatibility of UMTS Systems 271
Maciej J. Grzybkowski

11.1 Scenarios of interference 272

11.1.1 Interference between UMTS and other systems 272

11.1.2 Intra-system interference 274

11.2 Approaches to compatibility calculations 275

11.2.1 Principles of compatibility calculations 275

11.2.2 Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) method 280

11.2.3 Monte Carlo (MC) method 283

11.2.4 Propagation models for compatibility calculations 284

11.2.5 Characteristics of UTRA stations for the compatibility calculations 286

11.3 Internal electromagnetic compatibility 286

11.4 External electromagnetic compatibility 292

11.4.1 UMTS TDD versus DECT WLL 292

11.4.2 Compatibility between UMTS and Radio Astronomy Service 294

11.4.3 Compatibility between UMTS and MMDS 295

11.5 International cross-border coordination 296

11.5.1 Principles of coordination 296

11.5.2 Propagation models for coordination calculations 297

11.5.3 Application of preferential frequencies 298

11.5.4 Use of preferential codes 300

11.5.5 Examples of coordination agreements 301

References 305

12 Network Design – Specialised Aspects 309
Marcin Ney, Peter Gould and Karsten Erlebach

12.1 Network infrastructure sharing 309

12.1.1 Network sharing methods 309

12.1.2 Legal aspects 313

12.1.3 Drivers for sharing 314

12.2 Adjacent channel interference control 315

12.3 Fundamentals of Ultra High Site deployment 318

References 320

PART IV OPTIMISATION 321

13 Introduction to Optimisation of the UMTS Radio Network 323
Roni Abiri and Maciej J. Nawrocki

13.1 Automation of radio network optimisation 324

13.2 What should be optimised and why? 325

13.3 How do we benchmark the optimisation results? 326

13.3.1 Location based information 327

13.3.2 Sectors and network statistical data 328

13.3.3 Cost and optimisation efforts 330

References 331

14 Theory of Automated Network Optimisation 333
Alexander Gerdenitsch, Andreas Eisenblätter, Hans-Florian Geerdes, Roni Abiri, Michael Livschitz, Ziemowit Neyman and Maciej J. Nawrocki

14.1 Introduction 333

14.1.1 From practice to optimisation models 334

14.1.2 Optimisation techniques 335

14.2 Optimisation parameters for static models 339

14.2.1 Site location and configuration 340

14.2.2 Antenna related parameter 340

14.2.3 CPICH power 344

14.3 Optimisation targets and objective function 345

14.3.1 Coverage 345

14.3.2 Capacity 346

14.3.3 Soft handover areas and pilot pollution 347

14.3.4 Cost of implementation 348

14.3.5 Combination and further possibilities 348

14.3.6 Additional practical and technical constraints 348

14.3.7 Example of objective function properties 349

14.4 Network optimisation with evolutionary algorithms 354

14.4.1 Genetic algorithms 355

14.4.2 Evolution strategies 357

14.4.3 Practical implementation of GA for tilt and CPICH 361

14.5 Optimisation without simulation 366

14.5.1 Geometry-based configuration methods 366

14.5.2 Coverage-driven approaches 368

14.5.3 Advanced models 369

14.5.4 Expected coupling matrices 372

14.6 Comparison and suitability of algorithms 373

14.6.1 General strategies 374

14.6.2 Discussion of methods 374

14.6.3 Combination of methods 375

References 375

15 Automatic Network Design 379
Roni Abiri, Ziemowit Neyman, Andreas Eisenblätter and Hans-Florian Geerdes

15.1 The key challenges in UMTS network optimisation 379

15.1.1 Problem definition 379

15.1.2 Matching UMTS coverage to GSM 380

15.1.3 Supporting high bit rate data services 381

15.1.4 Handling dual technology networks 382

15.2 Engineering case studies for network optimisation 382

15.2.1 Example network description 383

15.2.2 Pre-launched (unloaded) network optimisation 383

15.2.3 Loaded network optimisation 389

15.3 Case study: optimising base station location and parameters 395

15.3.1 Data setting 396

15.3.2 Optimisation approach 397

15.3.3 Results 399

15.3.4 Conclusions 402

References 403

16 Auto-tuning of RRM Parameters in UMTS Networks 405
Zwi Altman, Hervé Dubreil, Ridha Nasri, Ouassim Ben Amor, Jean-Marc Picard, Vincent Diascorn and Maurice Clerc

16.1 Introduction 405

16.2 Radio resource management for controlling network quality 406

16.3 Auto-tuning of RRM parameters 408

16.3.1 Parameter selection for auto-tuning 408

16.3.2 Target selection for auto-tuning 410

16.3.3 Fuzzy logic controllers (FLC) 410

16.3.4 Case study: Auto-tuning of macrodiversity 412

16.4 Optimisation strategies of the auto-tuning process 415

16.4.1 Off-line optimisation using Particle Swarm approach 416

16.4.2 On-line optimisation using reinforcement learning 421

16.5 Conclusions 425

Acknowledgement 425

References 425

17 UTRAN Transmission Infrastructure Planning and Optimisation 427
Karsten Erlebach, Zbigniew Jóskiewicz and Marcin Ney

17.1 Introduction 427

17.1.1 Short UTRAN overview 428

17.1.2 Requirements for UTRAN transmission infrastructure 428

17.2 Protocol solutions for UTRAN transmission infrastructure 430

17.2.1 Main considerations for ATM layer protocols in current 3G networks 430

17.2.2 MPLS-architecture for future 3G transmissions 443

17.2.3 The path to direct IP transmission networking 444

17.3 End-to-end transmission dimensioning approach 446

17.3.1 Dimensioning of Node B throughput 446

17.3.2 Traffic dimensioning of the ATM network 451

17.3.3 Traffic dimensioning of the IP-Network 452

17.4 Network solutions for UTRAN transmission infrastructure 456

17.4.1 Leased lines 456

17.4.2 Point-to-point systems 457

17.4.3 Point-to-multipoint systems – LMDS 460

17.4.4 WiMAX as a potential UTRAN backhaul solution 468

17.5 Efficient use of WiMAX in UTRAN 472

17.5.1 Dimensioning of WiMAX for UTRAN infrastructure 472

17.5.2 Current WiMAX limitations 473

17.6 Cost-effective radio solution for UTRAN infrastructure 474

17.6.1 RF planning aspects 474

17.6.2 Throughput dimensioning 475

17.6.3 Methods of finding optimal LMDS network configurations 476

17.6.4 Costs evaluation of UTRAN infrastructure – software example 485

17.6.5 Example calculations and comparison of results 487

References 493

Concluding Remarks 497

Index 501

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