Understanding World Societies, Volume 2: A Brief History / Edition 1

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Based on the highly successful A History of World Societies, Understanding World Societies: A Brief History combines innovative pedagogy with a manageable regional and comparative approach to capture students' interest in the everyday life of the past. Abridged by 25%, the narrative is paired with distinctive pedagogy, designed to help students focus on significant developments as they read and review. An innovative end-of-chapter study guide helps students master key facts and move towards synthesis.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781457618741
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 8/3/2012
  • Edition description: First Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 608
  • Sales rank: 328,082
  • Product dimensions: 10.86 (w) x 8.40 (h) x 0.86 (d)

Meet the Author

John P. McKay (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) is professor emeritus at the University of Illinois. He has written or edited numerous works, including the Herbert Baxter Adams Prize-winning book Pioneers for Profit: Foreign Entrepreneurship and Russian Industrialization, 1885-1913.
Patricia B. Ebrey (Ph.D., Columbia University), Professor of History at the University of Washington in Seattle, specializes in China. She has published numerous journal articles and The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, as well as numerous monographs.  In 2010 she won the Shimada Prize for outstanding work of East Asian Art History for Accumulating Culture: The Collections of Emperor Huizong.
Roger B. Beck (Ph.D., Indiana University) is Distinguished Professor of African and twentieth-century world history at Eastern Illinois University. His publications include The History of South Africa, a translation of P. J. van der Merwe's The Migrant Farmer in the History of the Cape Colony, 1657-1842, and more than a hundred articles, book chapters, and reviews. He is a former treasurer and Executive Council member of the World History Association.
Clare Haru Crowston (Ph.D., Cornell University) teaches at the University of Illinois, where she is currently associate professor of history. She is the author of Fabricating Women: The Seamstresses of Old Regime France, 1675-1791, which won the Berkshire and Hagley Prizes. She edited two special issues of the Journal of Women's History, has published numerous journal articles and reviews, and is a past president of the Society for French Historical Studies.
Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison) taught first at Augustana College in Illinois, and since 1985 at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where she is currently UWM Distinguished Professor in the department of history. She is the coeditor of the Sixteenth Century Journal and the author or editor of more than twenty books, most recently The Marvelous Hairy Girls: The Gonzales Sisters and Their Worlds and Gender in History. She is the former Chief Reader for Advanced Placement World History.

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Table of Contents

Maps, Figures and Tables

Special Features


Version and Supplements

Chapter 16

The Acceleration of Global Contact, 1450-1600

How did trade link the peoples of Africa, Asia, and Europe prior to 1492?

  The Trade World of the Indian Ocean

  Peoples and Cultures of the Indian Ocean

  Trade with Africa and the Middle East

  Genoese and Venetian Middlemen

How and why did Europeans undertake voyages of expansion?

  Causes of European Expansion

  Technology and the Rise of Exploration

  The Expanding Portuguese Empire

  Christopher Columbus's Voyages to the Americas

  Later Explorers

  Spanish Conquest in the New World

What was the impact of conquest?

  Colonial Administration

  The Impact of European Settlement on the Lives of Indigenous Peoples

  The Columbian Exchange

  Sugar and Early Transatlantic Slavery

  The Birth of the Global Economy

How did expansion shape cultural values and beliefs in Europe and the Americas?

  New Ideas About Race

  Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity

  William Shakespeare and His Influence

  Religious Conversion in the New World


Chapter Study Guide

Individuals in Society: Zheng He

Listening to the Past: Columbus Describes His First Voyage

Global Trade: Silver

Chapter 17

European Power and Expansion, 1500-1750

How did European states respond to the crises of the seventeenth century?

  Crises Among Peasants and the Urban Poor

  The Return of Serfdom in Eastern Europe

  The Thirty Years' War

  Achievements in State Building

How did the absolutist monarchies of France and Spain fare in this era?

  The Foundations of Absolutism

  Louis XIV and Absolutism

  Life at Versailles

  French Finances

  Louis XIV's Wars

  The Decline of Absolutist Spain

How did absolutism develop in Austria, Prussia, and Russia?

  The Austrian Habsburgs

  Prussia in the Seventeenth Century

  The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism

  Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow

  The Tsar and His People

  The Reforms of Peter the Great

Where and why did constitutionalism triumph?

  Absolutist Claims in England

  Religious Divides and Civil War

  The Puritan Protectorate

  Restoration of the English Monarchy

  Constitutional Monarchy

  The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century

How did European nations compete to build new colonies in the Americas?

  Colonial Expansion of Northern European Powers

  Mercantilism and Colonial Wars

  Life in the Colonies


Chapter Study Guide

Listening to the Past: A German Account of Russian Life

Individuals in Society: Gluckel of Hameln

Chapter 18

New Worldviews and Ways of Life, 1540-1790

What was revolutionary about the Scientific Revolution?

  Scientific Thought Through the Early 1500s

  Origins of the Scientific Revolution

  Copernican Hypothesis

  Proving Copernicus Right

  Newton's Synthesis

  Bacon, Descartes, and the Scientific Method

  Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry

  Science and Society

What were the core principles of the Enlightenment?

  The Emergence of the Enlightenment

  The Influence of the Philosophes

  Enlightenment Across Europe

  Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere

  Late Enlightenment

What did enlightened absolutism mean?

  Reforms in Prussia, Russia, and Austria

  Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism

How did consumerism and the Atlantic economy influence Enlightenment ideas?

  A Revolution in Consumption and Daily Life

  The Atlantic Economy

  Identities and Communities of the Atlantic World

  Race and the Enlightenment


Chapter Study Guide

Individuals in Society: Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment

Listening to the Past: Denis Diderot's "Supplement to Bougainville's Voyage"

Chapter 19

Africa and the World, 1400-1800

What kinds of states and societies coexisted in early modern West Africa?

  The West Coast: Senegambia and Benin

  The Sudan: Songhai, Kanem-Bornu, and Hausaland

  The Lives of the People of West Africa

  Trade and Industry

How did the arrival of outsiders impact East Africa ?

  Muslim and European Incursions in Ethiopia, ca. 1500-1630

  The Swahili City-States and the Arrival of the Portuguese, ca. 1500-1600

What were the causes and consequences of the transatlantic slave trade?

  The Institution of Slavery in Africa

  The Transatlantic Slave Trade

  Impact on African Societies


Chapter Study Guide

Listening to the Past: Duarte Barbosa on the Swahili City-States

Global Trade: Slaves

Individuals in Society: Olaudah Equiano

Chapter 20

The Islamic World Powers, 1300-1800

How were the three Islamic empires established?

  The Ottoman Turkish Empire's Expansion

  The Ottoman Empire's Use of Slaves

  The Safavid Empire in Persia

  The Mughal Empire in India

What characterized the cultural flowering of the Islamic empires?

  The Arts

  City and Palace Building


  Intellectual Advances and Religious Trends

  Coffeehouses and Their Social Impact

How were non-Muslims treated in the Islamic empires?

How did shifts in global trading patterns affect the Islamic empires?

  European Rivalry for Trade in the Indian Ocean

  Merchant Networks in the Islamic Empires

  From the British East India Company to the British Empire in India

What factors led to the decline of central power in the Islamic empires?


Chapter Study Guide

Individuals in Society: Hurrem

Listening to the Past: Katib Chelebi on Tobacco

Chapter 21

Continuity and Change in East Asia, 1400-1800

What sort of state and society developed in China under the Ming?

  The Rise of Zhu Yuanzhang and the Founding of the Ming Dynasty

  Problems with the Imperial Institution

  The Mongols and the Great Wall

  The Examination Life

  Everyday Life in Ming China

  Ming Decline

How did the Manchus build on Ming accomplishments?

  The Rise of the Manchus

  Competent and Long-Lived Emperors

  Imperial Expansion

How did war and political instability shape Japan in the Middle Ages?

  Muromachi Culture

  Civil War

  The Victors: Nobunaga and Hideyoshi

What was life like in Japan during the Tokugawa peace?

  Tokugawa Government

  Commercialization and the Growth of Towns

  The Life of the People in the Edo Period

How did the arrival of Europeans change the Asian maritime sphere?

  Zheng He's Voyages

  Piracy and Japan's Overseas Adventures

  Europeans Enter the Scene

  Christian Missionaries

  Learning from the West

  The Shifting International Environment in the Eighteenth Century


Chapter Study Guide

Individuals in Society: Tan Yunxian, Woman Doctor

Listening to the Past: Keinen's Poetic Diary of the Korea Campaign

Chapter 22

Revolutions in the Atlantic World, 1775-1815

What factors combined to spark revolutions in the Atlantic world?

  Social Change

  Growing Demands for Liberty and Equality

  The Seven Years' War

How did American colonists forge a new, independent nation?

  The Origins of the Revolution

  Independence from Britain

  Framing the Constitution

What were the causes and consequences of the French Revolution?

  Breakdown of the Old Order

  The Formation of the National Assembly

  Popular Uprising and the Rights of Man

  A Constitutional Monarchy and Its Challenges

How and why did the French Revolution take a radical turn?

  The International Response

  The Second Revolution and the New Republic

  Total War and the Terror

  The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory

How did Napoleon assume control of France and much of Europe?

  Napoleon's Rule of France

  Napoleon's Expansion in Europe

  The Grand Empire and Its End

What led to the creation of the independent state of Haiti in 1804?

  Revolutionary Aspirations in Saint-Domingue

  The Outbreak of Revolt

  The War of Haitian Independence


Chapter Study Guide

Listening to the Past: Abbe de Sieyes, "What Is the Third Estate?"

Individuals in Society: Toussaint L'Ouverture

Chapter 23

The Revolution in Energy and Industry, 1760-1850

How and why did Britain industrialize between 1780 and 1850?

  Origins of the British Industrial Revolution

  The First Factories

  The Steam Engine Breakthrough

  The Coming of the Railroads

  Industry and Population

When and how did industrialization spread beyond Britain?

  National and International Variations

  The Challenge of Industrialization in Continental Europe

  Agents of Industrialization

  Government Support and Corporate Banking

  The Situation Outside of Europe

What were the social consequences of industrialization?

  The New Class of Factory Owners

  The New Factory Workers

  Work in Early Factories

  Working Families and Children

  The Sexual Division of Labor

  The Early Labor Movement in Britain

  The Impact of Slavery


Chapter Study Guide

Individuals in Society: Josiah Wedgwood

Listening to the Past: The Testimony of Young Mine Workers

Chapter 24

Ideologies of Change in Europe, 1815-1914

How was European conservatism challenged between 1815 and 1848?

  The European Balance of Power

  Coerced Conservatism After 1815

  Liberalism and the Middle Class

  The Growing Appeal of Nationalism

  The Birth of Socialism

What led to the Revolutions of 1848 and why did they fail?

  Liberal Reform in Great Britain

  Revolutions in France

  The Revolutions of 1848 in Central Europe

How did nation building transform Italy, Germany, and Russia?

  Cavour, Garibaldi, and the Unification of Italy

  Bismarck and German Unification

  The Modernization of Russia

How did urbanization impact cities, society, and ideas?

  Taming the City

  New Social Hierarchies and the Middle Classes

  The People and Occupations of the Working Classes

  The Changing Family

  Science for the Masses

  Cultural Shifts

How did nationalism and socialism shape politics before 1914?

  Trends in Suffrage

  The German Empire

  Republican France

  Great Britain and the Austro-Hungarian Empire

  Jewish Emancipation and Modern Anti-Semitism

  The Socialist Movement


Chapter Study Guide

Individuals in Society: Giuseppe Garibaldi

Listening to the Past: Mrs. Beeton's Guide for Running a Victorian Household

Chapter 25

Africa, Southwest Asia, and the New Imperialism, 1800-1914

How did slavery, Islam, and imperialism shape Africa's development?

  Trade and Social Change

  Islamic Revival and Expansion in Africa

  The Scramble for Africa, 1880-1914

  Southern Africa in the Nineteenth Century

  Colonialism's Impact After 1900

What were the causes and consequences of European empire building?

  Causes of the New Imperialism

  A "Civilizing Mission"

  Critics of Imperialism

  African and Asian Resistance

How and why did Ottoman and Egyptian leaders reform their states?

  Decline and Reform in the Ottoman Empire

  Egypt: From Reform to British Occupation

How did Western industrialization change the world economy?

  The Rise of Global Inequality

  The World Market

What explains global migration patterns in this period?


Chapter Study Guide

Listening to the Past: A French Leader Defends Imperialism

Individuals in Society: Muhammad Ali

Global Trade: Indigo

Chapter 26

Asia in the Era of Imperialism, 1800-1914

What were the consequences of British rule for India?

  The Evolution of British Rule

  The Socioeconomic Effects of British Rule

  The British and the Indian Educated Elite

Why were most but not all Southeast Asian societies colonized?

  The Dutch East Indies

  Mainland Southeast Asia

  The Philippines

What factors contributed to China's decline in the nineteenth century?

  The Opium War

  Internal Problems

  The Self-Strengthening Movement

  Republican Revolution

How did Japan respond to the challenges posed by the West?

  The "Opening" of Japan

  The Meiji Restoration


  Japan as an Imperial Power

Why did people move into and out of Asia in the nineteenth century?

  Westerners to Asia

  Asian Emigration

What common experiences did Asian societies share in this era?


Chapter Study Guide

Individuals in Society: Jose Rizal

Listening to the Past: Fukuzawa Yukichi, Escape from Asia

Chapter 27

Nation Building in the Americas and Australia, 1770-1914

How did Latin American nations fare after independence?

  The Origins of the Revolutions Against Colonial Powers

  Resistance, Rebellion, and Independence

  The Aftermath of Independence

  Neocolonialism and Its Socioeconomic Effects

  The Impact of Immigrants from Europe, Asia, and the Middle East

How did the United States become a world power?

  Manifest Destiny and Its Consequences for Native Americans

  Women's Roles in White Settlements

  Black Slavery in the South

  The Civil War and Its Impact

  Industrialization and the Formation of Large Corporations

  Immigrants and Their Reception

What factors shaped the development of Canada?

How did Australia evolve from penal colony to nation?

  A Distant Land Turned Penal Colony

  An Economy Built on Wool, Gold, and Immigrant Labor

  The Shaping of a Government and a National Identity

What common forces shaped the Americas and Australia?


Chapter Study Guide

Listening to the Past: Mary Seacole on Her Early Life

Individuals in Society: Henry Meiggs, Promoter and Speculator

Chapter 28

World War and Revolution, 1914-1929

How did European conflicts lead to global war?

  The Bismarckian System of Alliances

  The Outbreak of War

  Stalemate and Slaughter

  The War Becomes Global

What made World War I a "total war"?

  Mobilizing for Total War

  The Social Impact

  Growing Political Tensions

How did war lead to revolution in Russia?

  The Fall of Imperial Russia

  The Provisional Government

  Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution

  Dictatorship and Civil War

What were the global consequences of the war?

  The End of the War

  The Treaty of Versailles

  American Rejection of the Versailles Treaty

How did leaders seek to re-establish peace and stability?

  Germany and the Western Powers

  Hope in Foreign Affairs

  Hope in Democratic Government

How were postwar anxieties reflected in art and science?

  Uncertainty in Philosophy and Religion

  The New Physics

  Freudian Psychology

  Twentieth-Century Literature

  Modern Architecture, Art, and Music

  Movies and Radio


Chapter Study Guide

Listening to the Past: The Experience of War

Individuals in Society: Vera Brittain

Chapter 29

Nationalism in Asia, 1914-1939

How did World War I stimulate nationalism in Asia?

  Asian Reaction to the War in Europe

  The Mandates System

  Nationalism's Appeal

What forces shaped nationalism in the Middle East?

  The Arab Revolt

  The Turkish Revolution

  Modernization Efforts in Persia and Afghanistan

  Gradual Independence in the Arab States

  Arab-Jewish Tensions in Palestine

What characterized the Indian independence movement?

  British Promises and Repression

  The Roots of Militant Nonviolence

  Gandhi's Resistance Campaign in India

What nationalist struggles emerged in East and Southeast Asia?

  The Rise of Nationalist China

  China's Intellectual Revolution

  From Liberalism to Ultranationalism in Japan

  Japan Against China

  Striving for Independence in Southeast Asia


Chapter Study Guide

Listening to the Past: Resolution of the General Syrian Congress at Damascus

Individuals in Society: Ning Lao, a Chinese Working Woman

Chapter 30

The Great Depression and World War II, 1929-1945

Why did the Great Depression spread around the world?

  The Economic Crisis

  Mass Unemployment

  The New Deal in the United States

  The European Response to the Depression

  Worldwide Effects

How did totalitarianism differ from conservative authoritarianism?

  Conservative Authoritarianism

  Radical Totalitarian Dictatorships

What characterized Stalin's rule in the Soviet Union?

  From Lenin to Stalin

  The Five-Year Plans

  Life and Culture in Soviet Society

  Stalinist Terror and the Great Purges

How did Italian fascism develop?

  The Seizure of Power

  The Regime in Action

What were the goals of Hitler and his Nazi regime?

  The Roots of Nazism

  Hitler's Road to Power

  The Nazi State and Society

  Hitler's Popularity

  Aggression and Appeasement, 1933-1939

What led to World War II and how did the Allies prevail?

  Hitler's Empire in Europe, 1939-1942

  The Holocaust

  Japan's Asian Empire

  The Grand Alliance

  The War in Europe, 1942-1945

  The War in the Pacific, 1942-1945


Chapter Study Guide

Individuals in Society: Primo Levi

Listening to the Past: Ultranationalist Pamphlet for Japanese Students

Chapter 31

Global Recovery and Division Between Superpowers, 1945 to the Present

What were the causes of the Cold War?

  The Origins of the Cold War

  West Versus East

How did western Europe recover after World War II, and why did progress stall?

  The Postwar Challenge

  Building Europe and Decolonization

  The Changing Class Structure and Social Reform

  Economic and Social Dislocation, 1970-1990

How did the Soviet Union dominate eastern Europe in the postwar era?

  Stalin's Last Years

  Limited De-Stalinization and Stagnation

  The Impact of Reform on Everyday Life

  The Gorbachev Era

  The Revolutions of 1989

  The End of the Cold War and Soviet Disintegration

What factors shaped social and political developments in postwar America?

  America's Economic Boom and Civil Rights Revolution

  Youth and the Counterculture

  The Vietnam War

  Detente and a Return to Cold War Tensions

How did Japan become a global power after its defeat in World War II?

  Japan's American Revolution

  "Japan, Inc."

  Japan in the Post-Cold War World

What opportunities and challenges did Europe face after the Cold War?

  Common Patterns and Problems

  Recasting Russia Without Communism

  Postcommunist Reconstruction in Eastern Europe

  Unity and Identity in Western Europe


Chapter Study Guide

Global Trade: Oil

Listening to the Past: A Solidarity Leader Speaks from Prison

Individuals in Society: Václav Havel

Chapter 32

Independence, Progress, and Conflict in Asia and the Middle East, 1945 to the Present

What explains East Asia's economic success after World War II?

  The Communist Victory in China

  Mao's China

  The Limits of Reform

  The Asian "Economic Tigers"

  Political and Economic Progress in Southeast Asia

  The Reunification of Vietnam

How have India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh fared since independence?

  The End of British India

  Pakistan and the Creation of Bangladesh

  India Since Independence

How has religion shaped Middle Eastern politics since 1945?

  The Arab-Israeli Conflict

  The Palestinian Quest for Independence

  Egypt: Arab World Leader

  A Fractured Lebanon

  Challenges to Turkey's Secularism

  Revolution and War in Iran and Iraq


Chapter Study Guide

Individuals in Society: Liu Xiaobo

Listening to the Past: Aung San Suu Kyi, "Freedom from Fear"

Chapter 33

The Global South: Latin America and Africa, 1945 to the Present

How did Latin American states develop after World War II?

  Economic Nationalism in Mexico and Brazil

  Communist Revolution in Cuba

  From Authoritarianism to Democracy in Latin America

  Pan-Latin American Unity

What factors influenced decolonization in sub-Saharan Africa?

  The Growth of African Nationalism

  Achieving Independence with New Leaders

  Ghana Shows the Way

  French-Speaking Regions

What common features characterize independent African states since 1960?

  Striving for National Unity

  Nigeria, Africa's Giant

  The Struggle in Southern Africa

  Political Reform in Africa Since 1990

How have writers depicted the experience of the emerging world?


Chapter Study Guide

Individuals in Society: Eva Peron

Listening to the Past: Nelson Mandela, The Struggle for Freedom in South Africa

Chapter 34

A New Era in World History

How has global politics changed since 1989?

  The United Nations

  Preemptive War in Iraq

  Complexity and Violence in a Multipolar World

  The Terrorist Threat

  Weapons of Mass Destruction

What are the consequences of increasing global interdependence?

  Multinational Corporations

  Industrialization and Modernization

  Agriculture and the Green Revolution

  The Economics and Politics of Globalization

What are the causes and consequences of worldwide urbanization?

  Rapid Urbanization

  Overcrowding and Shantytowns

  Rich and Poor

  Urban Migration and the Family

  Urbanization and Agriculture

How have developments in science and technology changed the world?

  The Medical Revolution

  Population Change: Balancing the Numbers

  Global Epidemics


  Mass Communication

What social problems do women and children face?

  Women: The Right to Equality

  Children: The Right to Childhood


Chapter Study Guide

Individuals in Society: The Dalai Lama

Listening to the Past: The United Nations Millennium Project Report

Global Trade: Arms

Chapter Endnotes



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