The Unified Modeling Language User Guide (Second Edition) / Edition 2

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Overview

For nearly ten years, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been the industry standard for visualizing, specifying, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of a software-intensive system. As the de facto standard modeling language, the UML facilitates communication and reduces confusion among project stakeholders. The recent standardization of UML 2.0 has further extended the language's scope and viability. Its inherent expressiveness allows users to model everything from enterprise information systems and distributed Web-based applications to real-time embedded systems.

In this eagerly anticipated revision of the best-selling and definitive guide to the use of the UML, the creators of the language provide a tutorial to its core aspects in a two-color format designed to facilitate learning. Starting with an overview of the UML, the book explains the language gradually by introducing a few concepts and notations in each chapter. It also illustrates the application of the UML to complex modeling problems across a variety of application domains. The in-depth coverage and example-driven approach that made the first edition of The Unified Modeling Language User Guide an indispensable resource remain unchanged. However, content has been thoroughly updated to reflect changes to notation and usage required by UML 2.0.

Highlights include:

  • A new chapter on components and internal structure, including significant new capabilities for building encapsulated designs
  • New details and updated coverage of provided and required interfaces, collaborations, and UML profiles
  • Additions and changes to discussions of sequence diagrams, activity diagrams, and more
  • Coverage of many other changes introduced by the UML 2.0 specification

With this essential guide, you will quickly get up to speed on the latest features of the industry standard modeling language and be able to apply them to your next software project.


From the developers of UML, this tutorial reviews the core aspects of the language used to specify construct, visualize and document software-intensive systems. The authors begin with a conceptual model and progressively apply UML to increasingly complex models for a variety of applications. To derive the most benefit from this publication, you should be familiar with software engineering concepts and object-oriented modeling. After all, the author's intent is to teach you how to use UML effectively, not to go through the entire development process, or provide a reference for UML. Other publications listed below address those important issues.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A tutorial to the core aspects of the UML by the language's original developers. Begins with a conceptual model of the UML and then progressively applies the UML to a series of increasingly complex modeling problems across a variety of application domains. Covers structural modeling, behavioral modeling, and architectural modeling. Also includes a learning track focused on applying the UML to advanced modeling systems for more advanced developers. Appends information on UML notation, standard elements, and rational unified processes. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Eduardo Fernandez

More UML Books

Until now, object-oriented projects in the computer industry have emphasized languages over models; many people believe that object-oriented programming means using C++ or Java. This is clearly a misunderstanding. Object-oriented programming is a method of problem solving, not a language issue; one can write object-oriented programs in Assembly language and write nonobject-oriented programs in C++. The key to object-oriented programming is modeling. Hopefully, the emergence of UML (Unified Modeling Language), as the OMG (Object Management Group) standard, will help change that situation. The standardization of modeling notations ends the confusion produced by a myriad of competing notations, which although they all had similar semantics, made claims to be unique or better than the others. While UML may not be perfect, its use as a standard will make modeling more uniform and better understood.

UML: The Unified Modeling Language User Guide, and The UML Reference Manual, both by Grady Booch, Jim Rumbaugh, and Ivor Jacobson, are long-awaited books from the main designers of UML. They will not disappoint those who waited. These books are excellent descriptions of what users need to know in order to use UML for practical applications.

The User Guide is divided into six main sections: "Getting Started" (three chapters), "Basic Structural Modeling" (five chapters), "Advanced Structural Modeling" (six chapters ), "Basic Behavioral Modeling" (five chapters), "Advanced Behavioral Modeling" (five chapters), and "Architectural Modeling" (seven chapters). The chapters include every aspect of UML, with examples and detailed discussions. The material is well organized and each chapter includes a general description of the concepts and some practical advice on their use. The examples are carefully chosen and I could not find any errors. Each chapter also includes a section on reverse engineering, which should be very valuable for practitioners. Thirty-three pages of appendices summarize UML and the Rational process (the authors all work for Rational, Inc.). It also includes a superfluous glossary (it even has a definition of UML in case you still didn't understand what it is).

The Reference Manual complements the User Guide by alphabetically describing in detail each language concept. For each concept, its notation and semantics are described; in many cases there is also a discussion section and an example. The coverage is quite complete (the reference section covers about 400 pages), in clear and precise language. The book also includes 12 chapters (90 pages) with general aspects of UML. Three appendices describe the UML metamodel, a notation summary, and process extensions. I'd have liked to see the explanation of concepts in terms of the metamodel; the examples are good for understanding, but not very precise.

Overall, these books fulfill their mission very well--they are authoritative sources of notation, definitions, usage, style, and general insight into UML. However, don't get any ideas about learning object-oriented concepts from them because this is not their purpose, and the books assume you already know this. For some ideas of where to look for basic concepts see my "Programmer's Bookshelf," DDJ, December 1998. The style of both books is clear, although at times perhaps too simple in an attempt to reach a wide audience, and at times verbose. There are also repetitions because of the organization of each chapter or section.

For a method that is the result of many suggestions and somewhat controversial as a standard, it is surprising that no references are given in the User Guide and only a few (mostly books) in the Reference Manual. A more complete set of references would have helped the reader to see how some of their ideas originated, what alternatives exist, what is missing, and in general, to provide a deeper understanding of the language.

I have used books by Rumbaugh and Booch in my classes, and the high level of their writing shines through these books. Jacobson is the originator of the concept of Use Cases and his style also shows here. The authors have incorporated ideas and suggestions from many sources, but they have been able to keep the core philosophy of their early work.

The Object Constraint Language: Precise Modeling With UML, by J. Warner and A. Kloppe, describes the OCL (Object Constraint Language), a language intended to complement UML and similar languages with a notation to express constraints precisely. A constraint is a restriction in some of the values of the model. OCL originated in IBM and one of the authors works for that company.

In contrast to similar approaches (such as Syntropy, see "Let's Get Formal," by S. Cook and J. Daniels, Journal of Object-Oriented Programming, July-August 1994), that use Z or a known formal language to make UML constraints more precise, OCL is a language expressly designed for this purpose, attempting to be both formal and simple. Its supposed simplicity comes from making the notation more verbose and less symbolic. I have my doubts that this really provides simplicity: If I know the meaning of "element x belongs to set A" written symbolically as in Z , seeing it written as "x belongs to A" doesn't make it simpler; if I don't know its meaning, the words don't help.

The book illustrates most of the concepts with a small, clear example. I'd have liked to see a more complex example, similar to the ones described by Cook and Daniels, to appreciate whether it is really simpler than Z. This is a slim book, 86 pages of material, and the rest includes two appendices, a concise reference manual for OCL, and a description of its formal grammar. A short but well chosen set of references ends this book. In spite of my doubts, I like the attempt to make software more rigorous. We need that for the complex software systems of the future.

In summary, UML: The Unified Modeling Language User Guide and The UML Reference Manual are must-have books for any development group and each developer should at least have the User Guide. The Object Constraint Language: Precise Modeling With UML is highly recommended. I'd like to see programmers increasing the precision of their analysis models.

UML is a notation to produce models, and its variety of diagrams is not easy to handle in a complex project. A process book by the three authors of the User Guide is due to appear shortly and will describe how to use these models along the development lifecycle.--Dr. Dobb's Electronic Review of Computer Books

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321267979
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 5/19/2005
  • Series: Addison-Wesley Object Technology Series
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 475
  • Sales rank: 1,247,071
  • Product dimensions: 7.60 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 1.23 (d)

Meet the Author

Grady Booch, James Rumbaugh, and Ivar Jacobson are the original designers of the Unified Modeling Language and three of the most widely known names in the field of software engineering. Accomplished authors, they are recognized worldwide for many significant contributions to the development of object technology, including the Booch Method, the Object Modeling Technique (OMT), and the Objectory (OOSE) Process. Booch and Rumbaugh work at IBM, and Jacobson is an independent consultant.

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Read an Excerpt

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a graphical language for visualizing, specifying, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of a software-intensive system. The UML gives you a standard way to write a system's blueprints, covering conceptual things such as business processes and system functions, as well as concrete things such as classes written in a specific programming language, database schemas, and reusable software components.

This book teaches you how to use the UML effectively.

This book covers UML version 2.0.Goals

In this book, you will

  • Learn what the UML is, what it is not, and why the UML is relevant to the process of developing software-intensive systems.
  • Master the vocabulary, rules, and idioms of the UML and, in general, learn how to "speak" the language effectively.

Understand how to apply the UML to solve a number of common modeling problems.

The user guide provides a reference to the use of specific UML features. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive reference manual for the UML; that is the focus of another book, The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual, Second Edition (Rumbaugh, Jacobson, Booch, Addison-Wesley, 2005).The user guide describes a development process for use with the UML. However, it is not intended to provide a complete reference to that process; that is the focus of yet another book, The Unified Software Development Process (Jacobson, Booch, Rumbaugh, Addison-Wesley, 1999).

Finally, this book provides hints and tips for using the UML to solve a number of common modeling problems, but it does not teach you how to model. This is similar to a user guide for a programminglanguage that teaches you how to use the language but does not teach you how to program.Audience

The UML is applicable to anyone involved in the production, deployment, and maintenance of software. The user guide is primarily directed to members of the development team who create UML models. However, it is also suitable to those who read them, working together to understand, build, test, and release a software-intensive system. Although this encompasses almost every role in a software development organization, the user guide is especially relevant to analysts and end users (who specify the required structure and behavior of a system), architects (who design systems that satisfy those requirements), developers (who turn those architectures into executable code), quality assurance personnel (who verify and validate the system's structure and behavior), librarians (who create and catalogue components), and project and program managers (who generally wrestle with chaos, provide leadership and direction, and orchestrate the resources necessary to deliver a successful system).

The user guide assumes a basic knowledge of object-oriented concepts. Experience in an object-oriented programming language or method is helpful but not required.How to Use This Book

For the developer approaching the UML for the first time, the user guide is best read linearly. You should pay particular attention to Chapter 2, which presents a conceptual model of the UML. All chapters are structured so that each builds upon the content of the previous one, thus forming a linear progression.For the experienced developer seeking answers to common modeling problems using the UML, this book can be read in any order. You should pay particular attention to the common modeling problems presented in each chapter.Organization and Special Features

The user guide is organized into seven parts:

  • Part 1Getting Started
  • Part 2Basic Structural Modeling
  • Part 3Advanced Structural Modeling
  • Part 4Basic Behavioral Modeling
  • Part 5Advanced Behavioral Modeling
  • Part 6Architectural Modeling
  • Part 7Wrapping Up

The user guide contains two appendices: a summary of the UML notation and a summary of the Rational Unified Process. A glossary of common terms is also provided. An index follows.

Each chapter addresses the use of a specific UML feature, and most are organized into the following four sections:

  1. Getting Started
  2. Terms and Concepts
  3. Common Modeling Techniques
  4. Hints and Tips

The third section introduces and then solves a set of common modeling problems. To make it easy for you to browse the guide in search of these use cases for the UML, each problem is identified by a distinct heading, as in the following example.Modeling Architectural Patterns

Each chapter begins with a summary of the features it covers, as in the following example.In this chapter

  • Active objects, processes, and threads
  • Modeling multiple flows of control
  • Modeling interprocess communication
  • Building thread-safe abstractions

Similarly, parenthetical comments and general guidance are set apart as notes, as in the following example.

Note:
Abstract operations map to what C++ calls pure virtual operations; leaf operations in the UML map to C++ nonvirtual operations.

The UML is semantically rich. Therefore, a presentation about one feature may naturally involve another. In such cases, cross references are provided in the left margin, as on this page.

Blue highlights are used in figures to indicate explanations about a model, as opposed to the model itself, which is always shown in black. Code is distinguished by displaying it in a monospace font, as in

this example.

Acknowledgement. The authors wish to thank Bruce Douglass, Per Krol, and Joaquin Miller for their assistance in reviewing the manuscript of the second edition. A Brief History of the UML

The first object-oriented language is generally acknowledged to be Simula-67, developed by Dahl and Nygaard in Norway in 1967. This language never had a large following, but its concepts were a major inspiration for later languages. Smalltalk became widely available in the early 1980s, followed by other object-oriented languages such as Objective C, C++, and Eiffel in the late 1980s. Object-oriented modeling languages appeared in the 1980s as methodologists, faced with a new genre of object-oriented programming languages and increasingly complex applications, began to experiment with alternative approaches to analysis and design. The number of object-oriented methods increased from fewer than 10 to more than 50 during the period between 1989 and 1994. Many users of these methods had trouble finding a modeling language that met their needs completely, thus fueling the so-called method wars. A few methods gained prominence, including Booch's method, Jacobson's OOSE (Object-Oriented Software Engineering), and Rumbaugh's OMT (Object Modeling Technique). Other important methods included Fusion, Shlaer-Mellor, and Coad-Yourdon. Each of these was a complete method, although each was recognized as having strengths and weaknesses. In simple terms, the Booch method was particularly expressive during the design and construction phases of projects; OOSE provided excellent support for use cases as a way to drive requirements capture, analysis, and high-level design; and OMT was most useful for analysis and data-intensive information systems.

A critical mass of ideas started to form by the mid 1990s when Grady Booch (Rational Software Corporation), James Rumbaugh (General Electric), Ivar Jacobson (Objectory), and others began to adopt ideas from each other's methods, which collectively were becoming recognized as the leading object-oriented methods worldwide. As the primary authors of the Booch, OMT, and OOSE methods, we were motivated to create a unified modeling language for three reasons. First, our methods were already evolving toward each other independently. It made sense to continue that evolution together rather than apart, eliminating the potential for any unnecessary and gratuitous differences that would further confuse users. Second, by unifying our methods, we could bring some stability to the object-oriented marketplace, allowing projects to settle on one mature modeling language and letting tool builders focus on delivering more useful features. Third, we expected that our collaboration would yield improvements for all three earlier methods, helping us to capture lessons learned and to address problems that none of our methods previously handled well.

As we began our unification, we established three goals for our work:

  1. To model systems, from concept to executable artifact, using object-
  2. oriented techniques
  3. To address the issues of scale inherent in complex, mission-critical systems
  4. To create a modeling language usable by both humans and machines

Devising a language for use in object-oriented analysis and design is not unlike designing a programming language. First, we had to constrain the problem: Should the language encompass requirements specification? Should the language be sufficient to permit visual programming? Second, we had to strike a balance between expressiveness and simplicity. Too simple a language would limit the breadth of problems that could be solved; too complex a language would overwhelm the mortal developer. In the case of unifying existing methods, we also had to be sensitive to the installed base. Make too many changes and we would confuse existing users; resist advancing the language and we would miss the opportunity to engage a much broader set of users and to make the language simpler. The UML definition strives to make the best trade-offs in each of these areas.

The UML effort started officially in October 1994 when Rumbaugh joined Booch at Rational. Our project's initial focus was the unification of the Booch and OMT methods. The version 0.8 draft of the Unified Method (as it was then called) was released in October 1995. Around the same time, Jacobson joined Rational and the scope of the UML project was expanded to incorporate OOSE. Our efforts resulted in the release of the UML version 0.9 documents in June 1996. Throughout 1996, we invited and received feedback from the general software engineering community. During this time, it also became clear that many software organizations saw the UML as strategic to their business. We established a UML consortium, with several organizations willing to dedicate resources to work toward a strong and complete UML definition. Those partners contributing to the UML 1.0 definition included Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, I-Logix, Intellicorp, IBM, ICON Computing, MCI Systemhouse, Microsoft, Oracle, Rational, Texas Instruments, and Unisys. This collaboration resulted in the UML 1.0, a modeling language that was well-defined, expressive, powerful, and applicable to a wide spectrum of problem domains. Mary Loomis was instrumental in convincing the Object Management Group (OMG) to issue a request for proposals (RFP) for a standard modeling language. UML 1.0 was offered for standardization to the OMG in January 1997 in response to their RFP.

Between January 1997 and July 1997, the original group of partners was expanded to include virtually all of the other submitters and contributors of the original OMG response, including Andersen Consulting, Ericsson, ObjecTime Limited, Platinum Technology, PTech, Reich Technologies, Softeam, Sterling Software, and Taskon. A semantics task force was formed, led by Cris Kobryn of MCI Systemhouse and administered by Ed Eykholt of Rational, to formalize the UML specification and to integrate the UML with other standardization efforts. A revised version of the UML (version 1.1) was offered to the OMG for standardization in July 1997. In September 1997, this version was accepted by the OMG Analysis and Design Task Force (ADTF) and the OMG Architecture Board and then put up for vote by the entire OMG membership. UML 1.1 was adopted by the OMG on November 14, 1997.

For several years, UML was maintained by an OMG Revision Task Force, which produced versions 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5. From 2000 to 2003, a new and expanded set of partners produced an updated specification of UML, version 2.0. This version was reviewed for a year by a Finalization Task Force (FTF) headed by Bran Selic of IBM, and the official version of UML 2.0 was adopted by the OMG in early 2005. UML 2.0 is a major revision of UML 1 and includes a large number of additional features. In addition, many changes were made to previous constructs based on experience with the previous version. The actual UML specification documents are found on the OMG Website at www.omg.org.

UML is the work of a large number of individuals, and the ideas in it come from a wide range of previous works. It would be a major historical research project to reconstruct a complete list of sources, and even more difficult to identify the many predecessors who have influenced UML in manners large and small. As with all scientific research and engineering practice, UML is a small hill atop a large mountain of previous experience.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Part 1: Getting Started 1

Chapter 1: Why We Model 3

The Importance of Modeling 4

Principles of Modeling 8

Object-Oriented Modeling 10

Chapter 2: Introducing the UML 13

An Overview of the UML 14

A Conceptual Model of the UML 17

Architecture 31

Software Development Life Cycle 33

Chapter 3: Hello, World! 37

Key Abstractions 38

Mechanisms 41

Artifacts 43

Part 2: Basic Structural Modeling 45

Chapter 4: Classes 47

Getting Started 47

Terms and Concepts 49

Common Modeling Techniques 54

Hints and Tips 59

Chapter 5: Relationships 61

Getting Started 62

Terms and Concepts 63

Common Modeling Techniques 69

Hints and Tips 74

Chapter 6: Common Mechanisms 75

Getting Started 76

Terms and Concepts 77

Common Modeling Techniques 84

Hints and Tips 88

Chapter 7: Diagrams 89

Getting Started 90

Terms and Concepts 91

Common Modeling Techniques 96

Hints and Tips 101

Chapter 8: Class Diagrams 103

Getting Started 103

Terms and Concepts 105

Common Modeling Techniques 106

Hints and Tips 113

Part 3: Advanced Structural Modeling 115

Chapter 9: Advanced Classes 117

Getting Started 117

Terms and Concepts 118

Common Modeling Techniques 130

Hints and Tips 131

Chapter 10: Advanced Relationships 133

Getting Started 134

Terms and Concepts 135

Common Modeling Techniques 148

Hints and Tips 149

Chapter 11: Interfaces, Types, and Roles 151

Getting Started 151

Terms and Concepts 153

Common Modeling Techniques 157

Hints and Tips 161

Chapter 12: Packages 163

Getting Started 164

Terms and Concepts 165

Common Modeling Techniques 170

Hints and Tips 174

Chapter 13: Instances 175

Getting Started 175

Terms and Concepts 176

Common Modeling Techniques 182

Hints and Tips 183

Chapter 14: Object Diagrams 185

Getting Started 185

Terms and Concepts 187

Common Modeling Techniques 188

Hints and Tips 191

Chapter 15: Components 193

Getting Started 193

Terms and Concepts 194

Common Modeling Techniques 203

Hints and Tips 205

Part 4: Basic Behavioral Modeling 207

Chapter 16: Interactions 209

Getting Started 210

Terms and Concepts 211

Common Modeling Techniques 221

Hints and Tips 222

Chapter 17: Use Cases 225

Getting Started 225

Terms and Concepts 228

Common Modeling Techniques 236

Hints and Tips 237

Chapter 18: Use Case Diagrams 239

Getting Started 239

Terms and Concepts 241

Common Modeling Techniques 242

Hints and Tips 248

Chapter 19: Interaction Diagrams 249

Getting Started 250

Terms and Concepts 251

Common Modeling Techniques 260

Hints and Tips 264

Chapter 20: Activity Diagrams 267

Getting Started 268

Terms and Concepts 269

Common Modeling Techniques 280

Hints and Tips 284

Part 5: Advanced Behavioral Modeling 285

Chapter 21: Events and Signals 287

Getting Started 287

Terms and Concepts 288

Common Modeling Techniques 293

Hints and Tips 296

Chapter 22: State Machines 297

Getting Started 298

Terms and Concepts 300

Common Modeling Techniques 315

Hints and Tips 318

Chapter 23: Processes and Threads 319

Getting Started 320

Terms and Concepts 321

Common Modeling Techniques 326

Hints and Tips 330

Chapter 24: Time and Space 331

Getting Started 331

Terms and Concepts 332

Common Modeling Techniques 335

Hints and Tips 338

Chapter 25: State Diagrams 339

Getting Started 340

Terms and Concepts 341

Common Modeling Techniques 343

Hints and Tips 347

Part 6: Architectural Modeling 349

Chapter 26: Artifacts 351

Getting Started 351

Terms and Concepts 352

Common Modeling Techniques 355

Hints and Tips 360

Chapter 27: Deployment 361

Getting Started 361

Terms and Concepts 362

Common Modeling Techniques 366

Hints and Tips 368

Chapter 28: Collaborations 369

Getting Started 369

Terms and Concepts 371

Common Modeling Techniques 376

Hints and Tips 382

Chapter 29: Patterns and Frameworks 383

Getting Started 383

Terms and Concepts 385

Common Modeling Techniques 389

Hints and Tips 394

Chapter 30: Artifact Diagrams 395

Getting Started 395

Terms and Concepts 396

Common Modeling Techniques 398

Hints and Tips 407

Chapter 31: Deployment Diagrams 409

Getting Started 409

Terms and Concepts 411

Common Modeling Techniques 413

Hints and Tips 419

Chapter 32: Systems and Models 421

Getting Started 421

Terms and Concepts 423

Common Modeling Techniques 426

Hints and Tips 428

Part 7: Wrapping Up 431

Chapter 33: Applying the UML 433

Transitioning to the UML 433

Where to Go Next 435

Appendix A: UML Notation 437

Appendix B: Rational Unified Process 443

Glossary 451

Index 463

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Preface

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a graphical language for visualizing, specifying, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of a software-intensive system. The UML gives you a standard way to write a system's blueprints, covering conceptual things such as business processes and system functions, as well as concrete things such as classes written in a specific programming language, database schemas, and reusable software components.

This book teaches you how to use the UML effectively.

This book covers UML version 2.0.

Goals

In this book, you will

  • Learn what the UML is, what it is not, and why the UML is relevant to the process of developing software-intensive systems.
  • Master the vocabulary, rules, and idioms of the UML and, in general, learn how to "speak" the language effectively.

Understand how to apply the UML to solve a number of common modeling problems.

The user guide provides a reference to the use of specific UML features. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive reference manual for the UML; that is the focus of another book, The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual, Second Edition (Rumbaugh, Jacobson, Booch, Addison-Wesley, 2005).The user guide describes a development process for use with the UML. However, it is not intended to provide a complete reference to that process; that is the focus of yet another book, The Unified Software Development Process (Jacobson, Booch, Rumbaugh, Addison-Wesley, 1999).

Finally, this book provides hints and tips for using the UML to solve a number of common modeling problems, but it does not teach you how to model. This is similar to a user guide for a programming language that teaches you how to use the language but does not teach you how to program.

Audience

The UML is applicable to anyone involved in the production, deployment, and maintenance of software. The user guide is primarily directed to members of the development team who create UML models. However, it is also suitable to those who read them, working together to understand, build, test, and release a software-intensive system. Although this encompasses almost every role in a software development organization, the user guide is especially relevant to analysts and end users (who specify the required structure and behavior of a system), architects (who design systems that satisfy those requirements), developers (who turn those architectures into executable code), quality assurance personnel (who verify and validate the system's structure and behavior), librarians (who create and catalogue components), and project and program managers (who generally wrestle with chaos, provide leadership and direction, and orchestrate the resources necessary to deliver a successful system).

The user guide assumes a basic knowledge of object-oriented concepts. Experience in an object-oriented programming language or method is helpful but not required.

How to Use This Book

For the developer approaching the UML for the first time, the user guide is best read linearly. You should pay particular attention to Chapter 2, which presents a conceptual model of the UML. All chapters are structured so that each builds upon the content of the previous one, thus forming a linear progression.For the experienced developer seeking answers to common modeling problems using the UML, this book can be read in any order. You should pay particular attention to the common modeling problems presented in each chapter.

Organization and Special Features

The user guide is organized into seven parts:

  • Part 1Getting Started
  • Part 2Basic Structural Modeling
  • Part 3Advanced Structural Modeling
  • Part 4Basic Behavioral Modeling
  • Part 5Advanced Behavioral Modeling
  • Part 6Architectural Modeling
  • Part 7Wrapping Up

The user guide contains two appendices: a summary of the UML notation and a summary of the Rational Unified Process. A glossary of common terms is also provided. An index follows.

Each chapter addresses the use of a specific UML feature, and most are organized into the following four sections:

  1. Getting Started
  2. Terms and Concepts
  3. Common Modeling Techniques
  4. Hints and Tips

The third section introduces and then solves a set of common modeling problems. To make it easy for you to browse the guide in search of these use cases for the UML, each problem is identified by a distinct heading, as in the following example.

Modeling Architectural Patterns

Each chapter begins with a summary of the features it covers, as in the following example.

In this chapter

  • Active objects, processes, and threads
  • Modeling multiple flows of control
  • Modeling interprocess communication
  • Building thread-safe abstractions

Similarly, parenthetical comments and general guidance are set apart as notes, as in the following example.

Note:
Abstract operations map to what C++ calls pure virtual operations; leaf operations in the UML map to C++ nonvirtual operations.

The UML is semantically rich. Therefore, a presentation about one feature may naturally involve another. In such cases, cross references are provided in the left margin, as on this page.

Blue highlights are used in figures to indicate explanations about a model, as opposed to the model itself, which is always shown in black. Code is distinguished by displaying it in a monospace font, as in this example.

Acknowledgement. The authors wish to thank Bruce Douglass, Per Krol, and Joaquin Miller for their assistance in reviewing the manuscript of the second edition.

A Brief History of the UML

The first object-oriented language is generally acknowledged to be Simula-67, developed by Dahl and Nygaard in Norway in 1967. This language never had a large following, but its concepts were a major inspiration for later languages. Smalltalk became widely available in the early 1980s, followed by other object-oriented languages such as Objective C, C++, and Eiffel in the late 1980s. Object-oriented modeling languages appeared in the 1980s as methodologists, faced with a new genre of object-oriented programming languages and increasingly complex applications, began to experiment with alternative approaches to analysis and design. The number of object-oriented methods increased from fewer than 10 to more than 50 during the period between 1989 and 1994. Many users of these methods had trouble finding a modeling language that met their needs completely, thus fueling the so-called method wars. A few methods gained prominence, including Booch's method, Jacobson's OOSE (Object-Oriented Software Engineering), and Rumbaugh's OMT (Object Modeling Technique). Other important methods included Fusion, Shlaer-Mellor, and Coad-Yourdon. Each of these was a complete method, although each was recognized as having strengths and weaknesses. In simple terms, the Booch method was particularly expressive during the design and construction phases of projects; OOSE provided excellent support for use cases as a way to drive requirements capture, analysis, and high-level design; and OMT was most useful for analysis and data-intensive information systems.

A critical mass of ideas started to form by the mid 1990s when Grady Booch (Rational Software Corporation), James Rumbaugh (General Electric), Ivar Jacobson (Objectory), and others began to adopt ideas from each other's methods, which collectively were becoming recognized as the leading object-oriented methods worldwide. As the primary authors of the Booch, OMT, and OOSE methods, we were motivated to create a unified modeling language for three reasons. First, our methods were already evolving toward each other independently. It made sense to continue that evolution together rather than apart, eliminating the potential for any unnecessary and gratuitous differences that would further confuse users. Second, by unifying our methods, we could bring some stability to the object-oriented marketplace, allowing projects to settle on one mature modeling language and letting tool builders focus on delivering more useful features. Third, we expected that our collaboration would yield improvements for all three earlier methods, helping us to capture lessons learned and to address problems that none of our methods previously handled well.

As we began our unification, we established three goals for our work:

  1. To model systems, from concept to executable artifact, using object-
  2. oriented techniques
  3. To address the issues of scale inherent in complex, mission-critical systems
  4. To create a modeling language usable by both humans and machines

Devising a language for use in object-oriented analysis and design is not unlike designing a programming language. First, we had to constrain the problem: Should the language encompass requirements specification? Should the language be sufficient to permit visual programming? Second, we had to strike a balance between expressiveness and simplicity. Too simple a language would limit the breadth of problems that could be solved; too complex a language would overwhelm the mortal developer. In the case of unifying existing methods, we also had to be sensitive to the installed base. Make too many changes and we would confuse existing users; resist advancing the language and we would miss the opportunity to engage a much broader set of users and to make the language simpler. The UML definition strives to make the best trade-offs in each of these areas.

The UML effort started officially in October 1994 when Rumbaugh joined Booch at Rational. Our project's initial focus was the unification of the Booch and OMT methods. The version 0.8 draft of the Unified Method (as it was then called) was released in October 1995. Around the same time, Jacobson joined Rational and the scope of the UML project was expanded to incorporate OOSE. Our efforts resulted in the release of the UML version 0.9 documents in June 1996. Throughout 1996, we invited and received feedback from the general software engineering community. During this time, it also became clear that many software organizations saw the UML as strategic to their business. We established a UML consortium, with several organizations willing to dedicate resources to work toward a strong and complete UML definition. Those partners contributing to the UML 1.0 definition included Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, I-Logix, Intellicorp, IBM, ICON Computing, MCI Systemhouse, Microsoft, Oracle, Rational, Texas Instruments, and Unisys. This collaboration resulted in the UML 1.0, a modeling language that was well-defined, expressive, powerful, and applicable to a wide spectrum of problem domains. Mary Loomis was instrumental in convincing the Object Management Group (OMG) to issue a request for proposals (RFP) for a standard modeling language. UML 1.0 was offered for standardization to the OMG in January 1997 in response to their RFP.

Between January 1997 and July 1997, the original group of partners was expanded to include virtually all of the other submitters and contributors of the original OMG response, including Andersen Consulting, Ericsson, ObjecTime Limited, Platinum Technology, PTech, Reich Technologies, Softeam, Sterling Software, and Taskon. A semantics task force was formed, led by Cris Kobryn of MCI Systemhouse and administered by Ed Eykholt of Rational, to formalize the UML specification and to integrate the UML with other standardization efforts. A revised version of the UML (version 1.1) was offered to the OMG for standardization in July 1997. In September 1997, this version was accepted by the OMG Analysis and Design Task Force (ADTF) and the OMG Architecture Board and then put up for vote by the entire OMG membership. UML 1.1 was adopted by the OMG on November 14, 1997.

For several years, UML was maintained by an OMG Revision Task Force, which produced versions 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5. From 2000 to 2003, a new and expanded set of partners produced an updated specification of UML, version 2.0. This version was reviewed for a year by a Finalization Task Force (FTF) headed by Bran Selic of IBM, and the official version of UML 2.0 was adopted by the OMG in early 2005. UML 2.0 is a major revision of UML 1 and includes a large number of additional features. In addition, many changes were made to previous constructs based on experience with the previous version. The actual UML specification documents are found on the OMG Website at www.omg.org.

UML is the work of a large number of individuals, and the ideas in it come from a wide range of previous works. It would be a major historical research project to reconstruct a complete list of sources, and even more difficult to identify the many predecessors who have influenced UML in manners large and small. As with all scientific research and engineering practice, UML is a small hill atop a large mountain of previous experience.

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