Universal Keys for Writers (with 2009 MLA Update Card) / Edition 2

Universal Keys for Writers (with 2009 MLA Update Card) / Edition 2

by Ann Raimes, Maria Jerskey

With superior accessibility, clear organization, and comprehensive content, Universal Keys is the easiest-to-use text in the hardback handbook market. Appealing to diverse classrooms, the book includes "Worlds of Writing" boxes on language diversity, an ESL chapter, "The Guide to Language Transfer Errors," and integrated ESL Notes. The respectful, inclusive

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With superior accessibility, clear organization, and comprehensive content, Universal Keys is the easiest-to-use text in the hardback handbook market. Appealing to diverse classrooms, the book includes "Worlds of Writing" boxes on language diversity, an ESL chapter, "The Guide to Language Transfer Errors," and integrated ESL Notes. The respectful, inclusive approach displays an awareness of language diversity issues and reflects the varying backgrounds of students. Lively Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) exercises engage students with high-interest topics from the humanities, social sciences, and physical sciences. Clear style coverage with the popular "5 C's of Style" (Cut, Check for Action, Connect, Commit, and Choose the Best Words) helps students to submit their best work. Students receive the most up-to-date information on MLA documentation with the enclosed tri-fold card providing NEW 2009 MLA Handbook formats.

Product Details

Cengage Learning
Publication date:
Edition description:
New Edition
Sales rank:
Product dimensions:
5.70(w) x 8.50(h) x 1.40(d)

Meet the Author

Ann Raimes, a respected authority on writing, research, grammar, and ESL, created the KEYS FOR WRITERS family of handbooks (Cengage Learning) to be the most accessible, user-friendly handbooks available.

Maria Jerskey teaches at a large community college and understands many of the issues facing career school students.

Table of Contents

Writing: Communicating and Presenting Ideas I. Writing an Essay 1. Think Critically as You Read and Write 1a Read texts critically 1b Read visuals critically 1c Write critically 1d Standard English and its alternatives 2. Define the Assignment 2a What are the requirements? 2b Who is your audience? 2c What is your purpose? 2d What is the right tone? 2e What's the plan? 2f When is it due? 3. Generate, Shape, and Focus Ideas 3a Keep a journal or blog 3b Freewrite 3c Brainstorm, list, and map 3d Learn what others think: electronic classroom conversations 3e Use journalists' questions and formal prompts 3f Find and refine an essay topic 3g Formulate a thesis 3h Provide evidence and support 3i Prepare an outline, a purpose statement, or a proposal 4. Draft and Revise 4a Get your drafts down 4b Analyze and revise your drafts 4c Use feedback and peer review 4d Write and revise collaboratively 4e The power of a title 4f Turn writer's block into building blocks 5. How are you going to say it? Build Paragraphs to Build Essays 5a Paragraph basics 5b Focus and topic sentence 5c Unity 5d Strategies for structuring paragraphs 5e Strengthening coherence: links, word repetitions, parallel structures, and transitions 5f Drafting introductions and conclusions 6. Edit and Proofread 6a Editing and proofreading 6b Computer tools for checking (and their limitations) 6c Computer tools for editing and collaborating 6d A student's drafts 6e Using a writing center II. Writing through College 7. Writing an Argument 7a What makes a good written argument? 7b What makes a good visual argument? 7c Select a topic 7d Formulate an arguable claim (thesis) 7e Support the claim with reasons and concrete evidence 7f Identify and appeal to the audience, and establish common ground 7g Refute opposing views 7h Structure the argument 7i Ask Toulmin's four questions 7j Check your logic 7k Avoid logical fallacies 7l Sample arguments: a student's essay and a letter in a community newspaper 8. Writing about Literature 8a Reading literature critically 8b What do you need to say? Defining the assignment about literature 8c What do you want to say? Guidelines for writing about literature 8d How are you going to say it? Conventions in writing about literature 8e Analyzing literature: Ten approaches 8f Recognizing and analyzing figures of speech 8g Writing about prose fiction 8h Writing about poetry 8i Writing about drama, film, and video 8j Students' essays on literature 9. Writing across the Curriculum 9a Different styles and conventions for different disciplines 9b Writing in the humanities and arts 9c Writing in the social sciences 9d Writing in the sciences, medicine, and mathematics 9e Community service learning courses 9f Oral reports and presentations 9g Preparing a portfolio/e-portfolio 10. Writing under Pressure 10a Essay exams 10b Short-answer tests 10c Terms used in essay assignments and short-answer tests III. Writing with Technology for Academic and Professional Purposes 11. Designing Documents 11a Document Design 11b Features of Microsoft Word for college writing 11c Typefaces, color, headings, lists, and columns 11d Visuals: Tables, graphs, maps, and images 11e Honesty in visuals 11e Design principles: Brochures, newsletters, and flyers 12. Presentation for Academic Purposes 12a College essay format 12b Academic presentations: PowerPoint and other tools 12c Posting academic writing online 12d E-mailing in an academic environment (netiquette) 12e Writing a personal statement for graduate school admission 13. Designing a Web Site 13a Planning and organizing a Web site 13b Tips for Web site design 13c Getting feedback 13d Sample student Web site 14. Writing for Employment 14a Preparing your resume: Length and format 14b Preparing your resume: Content 14c Electronic resumes 14c Cover letter: Print or electronic 14d After the interview 15. Writing in the Professional World 15a Writing business letters 15b Business memos and e-mails 15c Business presentations and multimedia Language: Style, Accuracy, Punctuation, Fluency IV. The 5 C's of Style 16. The First C: Cut 16a Cut repetition and wordiness 16b Cut formulaic phrases 16c As appropriate, cut references to your intentions 16d Cut redundant words and phrases 16e Cut material quoted unnecessarily 17. The Second C: Check for Action 17a Ask "Who's doing what?" about subject and verb 17b Use caution in beginning a sentence with there or it 17c Avoid unnecessary passive voice constructions 18. The Third C: Connect 18a Use consistent subjects and topic chains for coherence 18b Place information at the end of a sentence for emphasis 18c Explore options for connecting ideas: Coordination, subordination, and transitions 18d Perhaps begin a sentence with and or but 18e Connect paragraphs 19. The Fourth C: Commit 19a Commit to a point of view 19b Commit to an appropriate tone 19c Commit to a confident stance 19d Commit to sentence variety 20. The Fifth C: Choose the Best Word 20a Word choice checklist 20b Use a dictionary and a thesaurus 20c Use exact words and connotations 20d Monitor the language of speech, region, and workplace 20e Use figurative language for effect, but use it sparingly 20f Avoid biased and exclusionary language 20g Avoid pretentious language, tired expressions (cliches), and euphemisms V. Common Sentence Problems 21. How a Sentence Works 21a Parts of speech 21b What a sentence is, needs, and does 21c The basis of a sentence: Subject and predicate 21d Phrases 21e Independent and dependent clauses 21f Sentence types 21g Building up sentences 22. Top Ten Sentence Problems 23. Sentence Fragments, Run-Ons, and Comma Splices 23a What is a fragment? 23b Identifying and correcting a phrase fragment 23c Identifying and correcting a dependent clause fragment 23d Identifying and correcting a fragment resulting from a missing subject, verb, or verb part 23e Identifying and correcting a fragment consisting of one part of a compound predicate 23f Using fragments intentionally 23g Identifying run-on (or fused) sentences and comma splices 23h Correcting run-on sentences and comma splices 23i Correcting run-on sentences and comma splices occurring with transitional expressions 24. Sentence Snarls 24a Avoid fuzzy syntax 24b Position modifiers appropriately 24c Avoid dangling modifiers 24d Avoid shifts in mood, pronoun person and number, and direct/indirect quotation 24e Make subject and predicate a logical match: avoid faulty predication 24f Avoid faulty predication with definitions and reasons 24g Avoid using an adverb clause as the subject of a sentence 24h Include all necessary words and apostrophes 24i State the grammatical subject only once 24j Use parallel structures 25. Verbs 25a Verb basics 25b Forms of regular and irregular verbs 25c Verbs commonly confused 25d Do, have, be, and the modal auxiliaries 25e Time and verb tenses 25f Present tenses 25g Past tenses 25h -ed endings: Past tense and past participle forms 25i Avoiding unnecessary tense shifts 25j Tenses in indirect quotations 25k Verbs in conditional sentences, wishes, requests, demands, and recommendations 25l Passive voice 26. How a Sentence Works 26a What is agreement? 26b The -s ending 26c Words between the subject and the verb 26d Agreement after a linking verb 26e When the subject follows the verb 26f Tricky subjects 26g Collective nouns 26h Compound subjects with and, or, and nor 26i Agreement with indefinite pronouns and quantity word 26j Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives (this, that, these, those) as subject 26k Possessive pronouns as subject 26l Agreement with a what clause as the subject 27. Pronouns 27a Use the correct forms of personal pronouns 27b Use appropriate possessive forms of pronouns 27c Make a pronoun refer to a clear antecedent 27d Make a pronoun agree in number with its antecedent 27e Avoid gender bias in pronouns 27f Be consistent in your perspective 27g Use the pronoun you appropriately 27h Use standard forms of intensive and reflexive pronouns 27i Use who and whom and whoever and whomever correctly 28. Adjectives and Adverbs 28a Use correct forms of adjectives and adverbs 28b Know when to use adjectives and adverbs 28c Use adjectives after linking verbs 28d Use correct forms of compound adjectives 28e Know where to position adverbs 28f Know the usual order of adjectives 28g Avoid double negatives 28h Know the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs 28i Avoid faulty or incomplete comparisons 29. Relative Clauses and Relative Pronouns 29a Use an appropriate relative pronoun: who, whom, whose, which, or that 29b Distinguish between restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses 29c Make the verb agree with the antecedent of a subject relative pronoun 29d Take care when a relative clause contains a preposition 29e Position a relative clause close to its antecedent 29f Avoid using a pronoun after a relative clause to rename the antecedent 29g Use where and when as relative pronouns when appropriate VI. Punctuation, Mechanics, and Spelling 30. Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points 30a Period (.) 30b Question mark (?) 30c Exclamation point (!) 31. Commas 31a Two checklists—comma: yes, comma: no 31b Comma before a coordinating conjunction, connecting independent clauses 31c Comma after an introductory word, phrase, or dependent clause 31d Comma to set off an extra (nonrestrictive) phrase or clause 31e Commas with transitional expressions and explanatory insertions 31f Commas separating three or more items in a series 31g Commas between coordinate evaluative adjectives 31h Comma with a direct quotation 31i Special uses of commas 31j When not to use commas: Nine rules of thumb 32. Semicolons and Colons 32a When to use a semicolon (;) 32b Semicolon between independent clauses 32c Semicolons between clauses or items in a series containing internal commas 32d When not to use a semicolon 32e When to use a colon 32f When not to use a colon 33. Apostrophes 33a Two checklists—apostrophe: yes, apostrophe: no 33b -'s to signal possession 33c Apostrophe with a plural noun ending in -s 33d Apostrophe with contractions 33e -'s for plurals only in special instances 33f The difference between it's and its 34. Quotation Marks 34a Guidelines for using quotation marks 34b Introducing and ending a quotation 34c Quotation marks in dialogue 34d Double and single quotation marks 34e Quotation marks around titles of short works, definitions, and translations 34f When not to use quotation marks 35. Other Punctuation Marks 35a Dashes 35b Parentheses 35c Brackets 35d Slashes 35e Ellipsis dots 36. Italics and Underlining 36a Italics or underlining for titles of long, whole works 36b Italics or underlining for main entries in a list of works cited 36c Italics or underlining for names of ships, trains, airplanes, and spacecraft 36d Italics or underlining for letters, numerals, and words referring to the words themselves, not to what they represent 36e Italics or underlining for words from other languages 36f When not to use italics or underlining 37. Capital Letters, Abbreviations, and Numbers 37a Capital letters 37b Abbreviations and acronyms 37c Numbers 38. Spelling and Hyphenation 38a Checking spelling 38b Plurals of nouns 38c Doubling consonants 38d Spelling with -y or -i 38e Internal ie or ei 38f Adding a suffix 38g Multinational characters: accents, umlauts, tildes, and cedillas 38h Hyphens 39. Guidelines for Online Punctuation and Mechanics 39a Punctuation in URLs 39b Underscoring, underlining, and italics online 39c Capital letters online 39d Hyphens online 39e Abbreviations online VII. Writing in Standard English: A Guide for Speakers of Other Languages, Other Englishes 40. Writing across Cultures 40a English and Englishes 40b Difference, not deficit 40c Learning from errors 40d Editing guide to multilingual transfer errors 40e Editing guide to vernacular Englishes 41. Nouns and Articles 41a Categories of nouns 41b Uncountable nouns 41c Basic rules for articles 41d The for a specific reference 41e Which article? Four basic questions 41f Proper nouns and articles 42. Verbs and Verb Forms 42a The be auxiliary 42b Modal auxiliary verbs: Form and meaning 42c Infinitives after verbs and adjectives 42d Verbs followed by an -ing verb form used as a noun 42e Verbs followed by either an infinitive or an -ing verb form 42f -ing and -ed verb forms used as adjectives 43. Word Order and Sentence Structure 43a Inclusion of a subject 43b Order of sentence elements 43c Direct and indirect objects 43d Direct and indirect (reported) quotations and questions 43e Dependent clauses with although and because 43f Unnecessary pronouns 44. Prepositions and Idioms 44a Idioms with prepositions 44b Adjective + preposition 44c Verb + preposition 44d Phrasal verbs 44e Preposition + -ing verb form used as a noun 45. Frequently Asked ESL Editing Questions 45a When do I use no and not? 45b What is the difference between too and very? 45c Does few mean the same as a few? 45d How do I know when to use been or being? 45e How do I distinguish most, most of, and the most? 45f What structures are used with easy, hard, and difficult? 45g How do I use it and there to begin a sentence? 45h Which possessive pronoun do I use: his or her? 45i What is the difference between get used to and used to? Research VIII. Writing a Research Paper 46. Planning 46a The requirements of the research assignment 46b Organizing your research 46c Making a tentative schedule 46d The types of sources: Basic, primary, and secondary 46e Writing a statement of purpose 46f Moving from topic to research question to working thesis 46g Write a proposal 47. Finding Sources 47a Using the Web and your library 47b Basic reference works: bibliographies, biographical sources, directories, dictionaries, and others 47c Indexes and databases 47d Keyword searches 47e Finding print sources: Books and articles 47f Online searches and search engines 47g Finding Web sources 48. Evaluating Sources Critically 48a How to read sources critically 48b How to recognize a scholarly article 48c How to evaluate print sources 48d How to evaluate Web sources: Develop junk antennae 48e Anatomy of a Web site 49. Using Sources 49a What is plagiarism? The seven sins—and the consequences 49b What is documentation? 49c How to avoid plagiarizing 49d What to cite and document 49e Keeping track of sources 49f Annotating and making notes 49g Setting up a working bibliography 49h Introducing source material 49i Summarizing and paraphrasing 49j Quoting 49k Indicating the boundaries of a citation 50. Writing the Research Paper 50a Putting yourself in your paper 50b Driving the organization with ideas, not sources 50c Making use of an outline 50d Using Visuals 50d Guidelines for drafting research papers 50e Writing research papers in the disciplines 50f Research paper resources in 27 subject areas IX. Documenting Sources: MLA Style MLA At a Glance Index 51. MLA Style of Documentation 51a Two basic features of MLA style 51b FAQs about MLA in-text citations 51c MLA author/page citations in text 51d Guidelines for the MLA works-cited list 51e Examples of entries in MLA list of works cited 51f When to use footnotes and endnotes 51g Students' MLA papers X. Documenting Sources: APA, CBE/CSE, and Chicago APA At a Glance Index 52. APA Style of Documentation 52a Two basic features of APA style 52b APA author/year style for in-text citations 52c Guidelines for the APA list of references 52d Examples of entries in APA list of references 52e Notes, tables, and figures 52f Student paper, APA style 53. CSE Style of Documentation CSE At a Glance Index 53a Two basic features of CSE citation-sequence style 53b CSE in-text citations (citation-sequence and citation-name styles) 53c How to list CSE references (citation-sequence and citation-name systems) 53d Examples of entries in CSE citation-sequence or citation-name system 53e A student's list of references (CSE) 53f Student paper excerpt, CSE style 54. Chicago Style of Documentation Chicago At a Glance Index 54a Two basic features of Chicago style 54b Chicago in-text citations and notes 54c Guidelines for Chicago endnotes and footnotes 54d Examples of entries in Chicago notes 54e Chicago bibliography guidelines and sample 54f A student's research paper, Chicago style 55. Glossary of Usage 56. Glossary of Grammatical Terms Index List of Boxes and Notes Correction Guide Common Editing and Proofreading Marks

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