Universal Religions in World History: Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam / Edition 1by Donald Johnson, Jean Johnson
Focusing on Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam, this book traces the origins and spread of these "world" or "universal" religions. By examining cross-cultural encounters and inviting students to consider similarities and differences in the meanings they ascribe to human life, the book highlights the relationship between religious and cultural life and the political… See more details below
Focusing on Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam, this book traces the origins and spread of these "world" or "universal" religions. By examining cross-cultural encounters and inviting students to consider similarities and differences in the meanings they ascribe to human life, the book highlights the relationship between religious and cultural life and the political and social context in which it is embedded.
Table of Contents
Chapter One: The Origins of Buddhism, Christianity, and IslamIntroductionUniversal ReligionsThe Setting and ContextThe Indian SubcontinentWest AsiaThe Arabian PeninsulaThe Spiritual Worlds of Buddhism, Christianity and IslamBuddhismChristianityIslamConclusionChapter Two: The Expanding World of Buddhism: Buddhist Encounters from South to East AsiaBuddhism's Early GrowthThe Formation of the CanonBuddhism Splits into SchoolsBuddhism in the Kushan EmpireBuddhism in Southeast AsiaThe Khmer Kingdom Mahayana Buddhist Carry the Faith to China Schools of Buddhism Buddhism Helps the Sui Unite China Images, Relics, and Printing Why Did Buddhism Decline in China?The Neo Confucian Synthesis Buddhism Travels to the Frontiers of Eurasia Korea Buddhism Travels to Japan Conclusion Chapter Three: From Manger to Metropolis: The Early Spread of ChristianityPaul's Efforts to Promote Christianity The Environment into which Christianity Spread Zoroastrian Legacies: The Eternal Struggle between Good and Evil The Milieu of Mithraism The Persistent Ghost of Gnosticism Why Were Early Converts Attracted to Christianity?Multiple Varieties of the Christian Faith Paul and John The Jewish Christians Gnostic Christians The Macionites The Syrian Church Mainstream Christians Christianity in the Late Roman Empire Christianity Under Constantine Christianity Reaches Nubia and Axum Nestorian Christians Take Christianity to the East Desert Fathers, Mothers, and the First Monasteries Lay Christians and the Secular Clergy Making Sense Out of the Disintegration of the Roman Empire Constantinople and Byzantium The Growing Separation of the Roman and Eastern Churches Christianity Spreads to Ireland and Western Europe The Widening Schism between East and West: Popes and Patriarchs The Debate over Relics The Franks and Charlemagne Christianity Moves Across Asia IndiaKiev and Russia Central Asia Nestorians in China Somalia and Ethiopia Christianity Matures in Europe, 1000 – 1550Reform Movements Renewed Religious Enthusiasm in Europe The Church in Crisis A New Wave of Reform The Break-Up of the Universal Church: The Protestant Reformation Conclusion Chapter Four: The Widening Reach of Dar al-IslamStrengthening the Community The Era of Rightly Guided Caliphs Achievements During the Right Guided Caliphs Period Why Was the Military So Successful? What Did Muslims Think of Non-Muslims? How Did Islam Change Women's Lives? The Umayyad Caliphate Achievements of the Umayyad Caliphate The Ulama and Sufis Initial Conversions Internal Tension Weaken the Umayyad Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate Islamization The Importance of Cities The Place of Law in Dar al-Islam Women, Slaves, Soldiers, and Scholars The Spread of Dar al-Islam Al-Andalus Africa Southeast Asia China Anatolia The Indian Subcontinent Conclusion Chapter Five: Comparisons, Contrasts, and SynthesesThe Gradual Process of Conversion Contact and Borrowing Religious Toleration in Central Asia New Syncretic Faiths Develop Manicheanism The Rise of Sikhism Similarities and Differences among the Universal Religions Similarities Differences Common Religious Rituals and Practices Christian-Muslim RelationsChildren of Abraham, Sibling Rivalry, Clash of CivilizationsConclusion
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