Upgrading and Repairing Microsoft Windows (Upgrading and Repairing Series) / Edition 2

Upgrading and Repairing Microsoft Windows (Upgrading and Repairing Series) / Edition 2

by Scott M. Mueller, Brian Knittel
     
 

ISBN-10: 0789736950

ISBN-13: 9780789736956

Pub. Date: 09/11/2008

Publisher: Que

The ultimate guide for anyone who wants to know how Windows ticks and how to keep it ticking.

Upgrading and Repairing Microsoft Windows, Second Edition, is the book hardcore Windows Vista and XP users have been clamoring for. Mueller, author of the bestselling Upgrading and Repairing PCs, and Knittel, famous for his bestselling Special Edition Using Windows

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Overview

The ultimate guide for anyone who wants to know how Windows ticks and how to keep it ticking.

Upgrading and Repairing Microsoft Windows, Second Edition, is the book hardcore Windows Vista and XP users have been clamoring for. Mueller, author of the bestselling Upgrading and Repairing PCs, and Knittel, famous for his bestselling Special Edition Using Windows books, now bring you an equally in-depth guide to Windows troubleshooting and repair. This comprehensive resource includes information on:

  • Installation
  • Licensing issues
  • Managing security
  • Optimizing performance
  • Backing up and recovering data
  • Networking your Vista and XP computers
  • Dealing with annoying User Account (UAC) prompts
  • Configuring settings and the registry
  • Protecting Windows from viruses and spyware
  • Multibooting Vista with other operating systems
  • Automated Windows deployment for IT professionals

Touted as the greatest operating system to ever be released, Vista is considered by many to be a vast improvement over its predecessors, such as XP and 95/98. All that power, however, comes at a price. As with most major OS revisions, Vista is rife with usability and compatibility issues that frustrate even the most seasoned system techs. If you only buy one book on Windows, this is the one. You won’t find tried and true Vista coverage anywhere else. Find out how to make Windows work with you and not against you with Upgrading and Repairing Microsoft Windows, Second Edition.

On the DVD

The DVD contains two hours of all new, studio quality video–playable in your set-top DVD player and your computer! Scott digs deep into both Windows Vista and Windows XP. Topics include the differences between all of the various Windows editions and versions, coverage of the most important improvements in Vista, and reasons why you might even want to stay with

XP instead. Also covered are Vista and XP installation tips and tricks, updating Windows, dealing with product activation,

and more.

Scott Mueller is the most trusted, authoritative hardware voice in the industry. In addition to teaching hardware repair to thousands of computer professionals and enthusiasts, he has sold more than 2.2 million copies of Upgrading and Repairing PCs, making him the most world-renowned hardware author in history. Scott has taught hardware repair to a host of agencies in the U.S. and foreign governments and to corporations in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Europe. Scott also has appeared on Computer America, TechTV, and numerous local and national radio programs and serves as an industry expert for the news media.

Brian Knittel has been a software developer for 30 years, with more than 20 years of real-world experience with MS-DOS, Windows, and computer networking in the business world. Previously, he wrote Windows XP Under the Hood: Hardcore Scripting and Command Line Power and is coauthor of several other Que books including Special Edition Using Microsoft Windows editions covering Vista, XP Home, XP Professional, and Windows 2000 Professional.

www.informit.com/upgrading

If you don’t have a DVD player or only have a set-top DVD, visit the site to download all the video from the DVD in Windows Media Player format!

Category Windows Operating System

Covers Microsoft Windows Vista and XP

User Level Intermediate–Advanced

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780789736956
Publisher:
Que
Publication date:
09/11/2008
Series:
Upgrading and Repairing
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
876
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 9.10(h) x 2.10(d)

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

1 Windows Version History 5

A Brief History of PC Operating Systems......................... 5

DOS History............................................................... 5

Evolution of DOS....................................................... 6

MS-DOS Versus PC DOS...................................... 10

DOS Versions.......................................................... 12

MS-DOS Alternatives............................................... 18

The Evolution of Microsoft Windows............................... 19

16-Bit Windows....................................................... 20

The Windows 9x Family.......................................... 26

The Windows NT Family......................................... 30

Alternative CPU OS Versions: Intel, Alpha, MIPS, and Motorola 40

Service Packs, Hotfixes, and Rollups..................... 42

2 Windows Boot (Startup) 45

System Layers................................................................. 45

Hardware Layers..................................................... 46

BIOS........................................................................ 46

Hardware Abstraction Layer.................................... 48

Device Drivers......................................................... 50

File Systems and Filters.......................................... 51

Services................................................................... 52

The Startup Process....................................................... 52

BIOS Startup............................................................ 52

Bootstrap Loaders................................................... 54

Windows XP/2000/NT Startup................................. 56

Windows Vista Startup............................................ 57

The Windows NT Kernel......................................... 58

The Logon Process................................................. 60

Windows Boot Options.................................................... 63

Boot.ini and the Boot Menu (Windows NT Through XP) 64

Windows Vista Boot Configuration Data Store....... 71

Adjusting Boot Options with MSConfig.................... 76

Windows Advanced Options Menu (Safe Mode)..... 77

Installing a Multibooting System............................... 82

Windows Services........................................................... 83

List of Windows Services........................................ 87

Using the Services Manager.................................. 125

Managing Services from the Command Line........ 127

Device Drivers and the sc Command................... 128

3 Installing Windows 129

Preinstallation Considerations....................................... 129

System Requirements for Windows XP Professional 130

System Requirements for Windows Vista............ 131

Checking Hardware and Software Compatibility... 131

Known Compatibility Issues for Windows XP....... 132

Known Compatibility Issues for Windows Vista.... 132

Migrating Files and Settings to New Installations.. 135

Getting the Network Configuration......................... 139

Choosing a File System........................................ 141

Installation Types........................................................... 144

Upgrade Installations to Windows XP................... 144

Upgrade Installations to Windows Vista................ 147

Clean Installations.................................................. 148

Repair Installations................................................ 149

Using Installation Switches for a Windows XP Installation 151

Using Installation Switches to Install Windows Vista 154

Clean Install Procedures............................................... 158

Windows XP Clean Install..................................... 158

Windows Vista Clean Install.................................. 164

Multibooting Other Operating Systems......................... 169

Using Multiple Partitions......................................... 169

Using a Single Partition.......................................... 170

Using a Third-Party Boot Loader........................... 171

Using Virtual Machines.......................................... 171

Clean Install Summary.......................................... 176

Installation Problems with Windows...................... 177

Automated Deployments............................................... 177

Adding and Using the Deployment Tools for Windows XP 178

Windows Installation Tools for Windows Vista..... 188

Installation Tools for Windows XP and Windows Vista 195

Windows Copy Protection............................................. 204

Product Activation for Windows XP....................... 205

Windows Vista Product Activation with MAK and KMS 211

Windows Genuine Advantage for Windows XP and Vista 212

4 Upgrading Windows 215

Windows XP Upgrade Installations............................... 215

Deciding Whether an Upgrade to Windows XP Is Worthwhile 216

Upgrade Scenarios................................................ 218

Troubleshooting a Failed Upgrade......................... 224

Uninstalling Windows XP....................................... 225

Windows Vista Upgrade Installations............................ 226

Deciding Whether an Upgrade to Vista Is Worthwhile 227

Upgrading from Windows XP to Windows Vista... 230

Troubleshooting a Failed Upgrade to Windows Vista 234

Reverting to Windows XP After Upgrading to Windows Vista 235

Migrating Existing Installations....................................... 237

Moving to a New Drive........................................... 237

Moving a Windows Installation to a New Motherboard 240

Moving Data to a New System.............................. 242

Moving Applications............................................... 248

Installing Service Packs................................................. 252

Installing Service Packs for Windows XP............. 252

Installing Service Packs for Windows Vista.......... 255

Uninstalling Vista SP1............................................ 258

Making Vista SP1 Installation Permanent.............. 258

5 Tweaking and Tuning Windows 259

Configuration Settings................................................... 259

Display Settings..................................................... 261

Start Menu Settings............................................... 270

Tuning System Properties..................................... 272

Managing Startup Programs.................................. 283

Internet Explorer..................................................... 287

TweakUI and TweakVI................................................... 288

Using TweakUI to…............................................... 289

Other Useful XP PowerToys................................. 291

Vista Tweaking Tools............................................. 291

The Windows Registry.................................................. 291

Structure of the Registry........................................ 292

Backing Up and Restoring the Registry................ 293

Editing the Registry................................................ 296

Editing the Registry Remotely............................... 297

Editing a Hive File.................................................. 298

Deploying Registry Settings.................................. 299

Managing Windows Services........................................ 302

Managing Services with the GUI............................ 303

Managing Services on Another Computer............. 307

Managing Services from the Command Line........ 307

Running Your Own Program as a Service............ 308

Monitoring Your System to Identify Bottlenecks............ 310

Using the Task Manager........................................ 310

Using the Performance Monitor............................. 311

Tuning for Maximum Performance................................ 314

Installing Sufficient Memory (RAM)........................ 315

Placing the Page File............................................. 318

Defragment the Disk.............................................. 319

Disk Interface Tuning............................................. 320

What to Enable and Disable.................................. 321

Improving Startup and Logon Time....................... 322

6 Networking Windows 325

Setting Up a Network..................................................... 325

Network Hardware......................................................... 326

Wireless Versus Wired......................................... 327

Network Interface Adapters................................... 328

Cabling................................................................... 328

Hubs and Switches................................................ 329

Wireless Access Points........................................ 330

Gateways and Routers.......................................... 330

Wireless Networking...................................................... 331

Wireless Network Basics...................................... 332

Wireless Network Security.................................... 333

Creating a Random Encryption Key...................... 334

Setting Up a Wireless Network Access Point....... 335

Using the Wireless Network Setup Wizard........... 336

Joining a Wireless Network................................... 340

Configuring a Workgroup Network................................ 341

Setting Up a Network on XP.................................. 341

Setting Up a Network on Vista............................... 344

IP Addressing Options........................................... 347

Configuring Additional Useful Network Services... 351

Designating a Master Browser.............................. 355

Simple File Sharing........................................................ 356

Sharing Resources........................................................ 358

Sharing Folders and Drives................................... 359

Sharing Printers..................................................... 362

Sharing Fax Modems and Other Devices............. 364

Avoiding Firewall Issues........................................ 364

Providing Shared Internet Access................................. 365

Adding a Connection-Sharing Router.................... 367

Using Windows Internet Connection Sharing........ 369

Setting Up Remote Access to Your Computer............. 370

7 Protecting and Securing Windows 371

It Takes More Than Just Software................................. 371

Reduce Your Exposure......................................... 372

Take Advantage of the Tools You Have................. 373

Keep Abreast of Updates....................................... 374

Be Skeptical........................................................... 375

Keep Backups....................................................... 376

Apply Defense in Depth......................................... 376

Windows Passwords.................................................... 376

Setting Up a Password.......................................... 377

Improving Password Security................................ 378

User Account Control.................................................... 379

Windows Update........................................................... 382

Using Windows Update......................................... 383

Configuring Automatic Updates............................. 384

Firewalls......................................................................... 386

How Software Firewalls Protect Your PC from Attacks 387

Windows Firewall.................................................. 388

Third-Party Firewalls.............................................. 391

Antivirus and Antispyware Software–Which Do You Need? 393

Antivirus Software.................................................. 396

Third-Party Antivirus Programs............................. 396

Antispyware Software.................................................... 398

Windows Defender................................................ 398

Third-Party Spyware Removal Programs............. 401

Cleaning an Infected Computer..................................... 402

Identifying Spyware................................................ 402

Installing and Running Antispyware Software....... 403

Recovering from Browser Hijacks......................... 404

What to Do If the Automated Utilities Fail.............. 405

Bootable Tools........................................................... 407

8 Managing Windows 409

Managing Users............................................................. 409

Domain and Workgroup Environments................. 410

Account Types....................................................... 412

Which Type of Account to Use?............................ 414

Default Accounts and Groups............................... 415

Security Principals................................................. 417

Account Permissions............................................ 419

Adding and Deleting User Accounts from the Control Panel 425

Setting Local Security Policy................................. 432

Local Accounts and Password Reset Disks......... 432

Managing Users from the Management Console.. 433

The Windows 2000 User Manager, for Vista and XP, Too 435

Managing Users from the Command Prompt....... 437

Automating User Management.............................. 438

Managing User Profiles.......................................... 439

Controlling How Users Log On and Off................. 445

Logging on as Administrator.................................. 447

Showing and Hiding Accounts on the Welcome Screen 448

Fast User Switching.............................................. 450

Enabling Automatic Logon..................................... 451

Dealing with a Lost Password............................... 452

Managing Hardware....................................................... 454

Using Device Manager........................................... 454

Forcing Detection and Reinstallation..................... 457

Dealing with the Blue Screen of Death.................. 457

Updating Device Drivers........................................ 458

Replacing Hardware.............................................. 461

Using Driver Rollback............................................ 461

Disk Management.......................................................... 462

Partitioning and Formatting with the Disk Management Console 464

Moving Dynamic Disks to Another Computer....... 470

Resizing Partitions................................................. 470

Converting FAT16/FAT32 File Systems to NTFS. 472

Hard Drive Cleaning............................................... 473

Defragmenting for Greater Speed......................... 475

Backing Up Your Disk.................................................... 478

Backup Integrity..................................................... 479

Volume Shadow Copy........................................... 480

Backup Files and Folders on Vista........................ 482

Previous Versions.................................................. 487

Complete PC Backup on Vista.............................. 489

Automated System Recovery on XP..................... 493

Using NTBackup Backup on XP............................ 493

Third-Party Backup Solutions................................ 499

System Restore............................................................. 500

What Restore Points Actually Restore.................. 500

Creating Restore Points........................................ 502

Restoring a Restore Point..................................... 503

9 Windows Commands and Scripting 505

The Windows Command Prompt................................. 505

What the Command Prompt Really Does............ 506

Environment Variables........................................... 507

Executable Program Types................................... 509

Program Subsystems........................................... 510

Interpreting Command-Line Syntax....................... 513

Environment Variable Substitution......................... 515

Input and Output Redirection................................. 515

Command Pipelines.............................................. 518

Command Separators........................................... 519

Command-Line Quoting........................................ 520

Escaping Special Characters................................ 520

Editing Command Lines........................................ 521

Name Completion.................................................. 522

Copy and Paste in Command Prompt Windows.. 523

DOSKEY Macros................................................... 525

Command Extensions........................................... 527

Printing in the Command-Line Environment......... 528

Stopping Runaway Programs............................... 530

Configuring the Command-Line Environment............... 531

Console Window Properties.................................. 531

Changing the Search Path.................................... 531

Predefined and Virtual Environment Variables...... 532

Setting Default Environment Variables.................. 535

AutoRun................................................................. 537

Configuring the MS-DOS Command Environment 538

User Account Control and the Command Line............. 548

Opening an Elevated Command Prompt.............. 549

Useful and Important Commands................................. 550

cd........................................................................... 550

pushd and popd..................................................... 551

dir........................................................................... 551

more....................................................................... 552

runas...................................................................... 553

start........................................................................ 554

control.................................................................... 555

net.......................................................................... 557

findstr..................................................................... 560

Other Programs..................................................... 562

Batch Files..................................................................... 562

Creating and Editing Batch Files........................... 563

Batch File Programming........................................ 564

Argument Substitution........................................... 565

Argument Editing................................................... 566

Conditional Processing with if............................... 568

Processing Multiple Arguments............................. 571

Working with Environment Variables..................... 574

Processing Multiple Items with the for Command. 576

Using Batch File Subroutines................................ 580

Prompting for Input................................................ 581

Running GUI Applications from a Batch File......... 583

Scripting with Windows Script Host.............................. 583

Script Languages................................................... 584

Creating and Editing Scripts.................................. 585

Security Issues...................................................... 586

Running Scripts..................................................... 587

Scripting and COM Objects................................... 588

Sample Scripts...................................................... 590

Learning More About Scripting............................... 592

Windows PowerShell.................................................... 592

PowerShell Concepts............................................ 593

Downloading and Installing Windows PowerShell 595

Learning More About Windows PowerShell.......... 596

10 Windows File Systems 597

Disks, Partitions, and Volumes..................................... 597

Basic Disks and Volumes..................................... 598

Dynamic Disks and Volumes................................ 598

Creating Partitions......................................................... 599

Assigning Drive Letters to Volumes...................... 601

Running FDISK...................................................... 605

Drive Partitioning and Formatting with Disk Management 607

Drive Partitioning with Aftermarket Utilities............ 610

High-Level (Operating System) Formatting........... 612

File System Tool Limitations................................. 614

Drive Capacity Limitations..................................... 615

Boot Sectors.................................................................. 619

Master Boot Record............................................... 620

Primary and Extended Partitions........................... 621

Windows Disk Probe............................................. 627

Volume Boot Records........................................... 632

The Data Area........................................................ 638

File Systems.................................................................. 638

Clusters (Allocation Units)..................................... 639

File Allocation Table....................................................... 640

FAT12.................................................................... 641

FAT16.................................................................... 642

VFAT and Long Filenames.................................... 644

FAT32.................................................................... 647

File Allocation Table Tutorial.................................. 652

Directories (Folders).............................................. 656

FAT File System Errors......................................... 659

NTFS.............................................................................. 663

NTFS Architecture–The MFT............................... 666

NTFS 3.0/3.1.......................................................... 668

Creating NTFS Drives........................................... 670

NTFS Tools............................................................ 670

File System Utilities....................................................... 672

CHKDSK Operation............................................... 672

The RECOVER Command................................... 673

SCANDISK............................................................. 674

Disk Defragmentation............................................ 675

Third-Party Programs............................................ 678

11 Windows Data Recovery 679

The Windows Recycle Bin and File Deletion................ 679

Recovering Files That Are Not in the Recycle Bin 681

Undeleting Files Under NTFS................................ 681

Retrieving Data from Partitioned and Formatted Drives 682

Norton Unformat and Its Limitations...................... 683

Recovering Lost Partitions and Files..................... 683

Using a Disk Editor........................................................ 686

Types of Disk Editors............................................ 686

Using a Disk Editor to Recover an NTFS Volume Boot Sector 687

Using a Disk Editor to Undelete Files.................... 693

Retrieving a Deleted File from a Disk.................... 701

Data Recovery from Flash Memory Devices................ 704

FAT File System Troubleshooting............................. 705

NTFS File System Troubleshooting.......................... 706

12 Windows Troubleshooting 709

Troubleshooting Basics................................................. 709

What You’ll Find in This Chapter........................... 711

A Word About Viruses and Spyware..................... 711

Windows “Sickbed” Symptoms............................. 712

Windows Installation Troubleshooting........................... 713

Legacy/Unsupported Hardware Devices............... 713

Windows XP Upgrade Advisor.............................. 714

Windows Vista Upgrade Advisor........................... 714

Updating Computer Firmware............................... 715

Other Common Windows Installation Issues........ 716

Pre-Windows Startup Troubleshooting......................... 717

Common Boot Error Messages and Solutions..... 718

Windows Startup Troubleshooting................................ 720

Windows Advanced Options Menu....................... 721

Using the System Restore Tool with Windows XP and Vista 725

Recovery Console for Windows XP...................... 728

Command Prompt in Windows Recovery Environment 746

Automated System Recovery with Windows XP.. 746

Troubleshooting Problem Devices with Device Manager 750

Parallel Windows Installation......................................... 756

The Blue Screen of Death: Interpreting STOP Error Messages 757

Make a Record of STOP Errors............................ 758

Common STOP Errors......................................... 759

Windows XP and Windows Vista Troubleshooting Tools 764

Reading the Event Log.......................................... 764

Dr. Watson............................................................ 769

Windows Troubleshooters.................................... 771

CHKDSK................................................................ 772

DirectX Diagnostic Tool (DXDIAG.EXE)................ 773

Program Compatibility Wizard.............................. 775

System Configuration Utility................................... 776

Installing Additional Windows XP Support Tools... 779

Windows Vista Troubleshooting Tools.......................... 780

Windows Recovery Environment.......................... 780

Problem Reports and Solutions............................ 788

Reliability and Performance Monitor...................... 789

System Health Report........................................... 791

Using the Microsoft Knowledge Base............................ 792

Bonus Elements

A Windows Tool Reference A1

B Windows Command Reference B1

C Remote Desktop and Remote Assistance C1

TOC, 0789736950, 9/3/08

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