Upgrading and Repairing PCs: A+ Certification Study Guide

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Mueller takes you through test objectives one by one, pointing out the most frequently missed questions and explaining them with a greater detail than easier questions need. Spend your time learning--not deciphering bad writing! Just the essentials! Scott covers the essentials that you'll need to pass the test and point you where to go for more information. Frequent study reminders throughout help you focus and remember the core concepts for the exam--and not the not-so-necessary details. Practice Exams cover the...
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Mueller takes you through test objectives one by one, pointing out the most frequently missed questions and explaining them with a greater detail than easier questions need. Spend your time learning--not deciphering bad writing! Just the essentials! Scott covers the essentials that you'll need to pass the test and point you where to go for more information. Frequent study reminders throughout help you focus and remember the core concepts for the exam--and not the not-so-necessary details. Practice Exams cover the topics that you'll be tested on and asks them in the manner they'll be asked on the test.

Learn just what you need to know to ace the tests-from the world's most trusted authority on upgrading and repairing computers.

An Objectives Index shows you where each A+ test objective is discussed in the book, so you'll be ready for anything CompTIA can throw your way.

Each chapter begins with a self-test and ends with the answers, so you can gauge how much you've learned from each study session.

Hands-on lab exercises help you gain practical experience to solidify the lessons learned from the text.

Want to see whether you're ready for the tests? Use the test engine on the CD to simulate an actual test and find out!

Been awhile since you've taken a test? Never fear. This book provides many tips along the way to pump you up and give you the best chance for success.

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Editorial Reviews

This study guide for the CompTIA core hardware and operating system technologies exams reviews the motherboard and CPU, RAM, ports, video, storage, printers, portables, Windows 9x and 2000, troubleshooting, and networking. The CD-ROM contains practice exams and technical specifications, schematics, and diagrams. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780789724533
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 3/16/2001
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 640
  • Product dimensions: 7.31 (w) x 9.03 (h) x 1.52 (d)

Meet the Author

Scott Mueller has sold more than two million copies of his bestseller Upgrading and Repairing PCs since it became an instant classic in 1988. Scott's industry-defining hardware book has been translated into 11 languages and has received accolades from PC technicians, enthusiasts, and students worldwide.

Scott is president of Mueller Technical Research, an international research and corporate training firm. Since 1982, MTR has specialized in the industry's longest-running, most in-depth, accurate, and effective corporate PC hardware and technical training seminars, maintaining a client list that includes Fortune 500 companies, the U.S. and foreign governments, and major software and hardware corporations, as well as PC enthusiasts and entrepreneurs. His seminars have been presented to thousands of PC-support professionals throughout the world.

Scott has developed and presented training courses in all areas of PC hardware and software. He is an expert in PC hardware, operating systems, and data-recovery techniques. For more information about a custom PC hardware or data-recovery training seminar for your organization.

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1: Basic Concepts

Introduction To understand the operation of personal computers, you need to understand some of the basic terms and concepts you will encounter. In this chapter, you'll learn about data measurements, the differences between permanent and temporary memory, what hardware, software, and firmware are, how data is transferred through the computer, and the four methods used to regulate data movement and access to different devices attached to the computer.

The Essential Parts of Any Computer

All computers need a CPU (central processing unit) to create and modify information. All computers need instructions that tell the CPU what to do. All computers need a place to store the instructions and the output they produce (data), and all computers need a workspace where the CPU can work with instructions and data.

These essential parts can be broken down into three categories: hardware, software, and firmware.

As a computer technician, you will be dealing on a day-to-day basis with the three major parts of any computing environment. Whether you're working on a computer, printer, or component such as a video card, you must determine whether the problem involves hardware, software, firmware, or a combination of these three.

Hardware Overview Hardware is the physical part of computing. From disk drives to printer cables, from speakers to printers, hardware is the part of computing you can pick up, move around, open, and close. Although hardware might represent the glamorous side of computing (whose computer is faster, has a larger hard disk, more memory, and so on), it can do nothing without software and firmware to provide instructions.

Hardware failures can take place because of loose connections, electrical or physical damage, or incompatible devices.

For more about troubleshooting hardware failures, see Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 12th Edition, Chapter 25, "PC Diagnostics, Testing, and Maintenance." Software Overview Software provides the instructions that tell hardware what to do. The same computer system can be used for word processing, gaming, accounting, or Web surfing by installing and using new software. Software comes in various types, including operating systems, application programs, and utility programs.

Operating systems provide standard methods for saving, retrieving, changing, printing, and transmitting information. The most common operating systems today are various versions of Microsoft Windows. The 2001 version of A+ Certification focuses on Windows 9x and Windows 2000 Professional, but much of what you learn can also apply in various amounts to Windows Me and Windows NT 4.0, as well as MS-DOS.

Because operating systems provide the "glue" that connects hardware devices and applications, they are written to work on specified combinations of CPUs and hardware.

Operating system commands come in two major types: internal and external. Internal commands are those built into the operating system when it starts the computer. External commands require that you run a particular program that is included with the operating system.

Application programs are used to create, store, and modify information you create, also called data. Because an operating system provides standard methods for using storage, printing, and network devices to work with information, applications must be written to comply with the requirements of an operating system and its associated CPUs. A+ Certification does not require any knowledge of application programs, but to provide the best technical support, you should learn the basics of the major applications your company supports, such as Microsoft Office, Corel WordPerfect Office, Adobe Photoshop, and many others.

Utility programs are used to keep a computer in good working condition or to set up new devices. In the operating system chapters, you'll learn how to use the major utilities that are included with Windows 9x and Windows 2000 Professional.

Because these utilities have limited capabilities, you might also want to invest in other utility programs, such as Symantec's Norton System Works, in your day-to-day work; however, only standard Windows utilities, such as ScanDisk and Defrag, are covered on the A+ Certification Exam.

Firmware Overview Firmware represents a middle ground between hardware and software. Like hardware, firmware is physical: a chip or chips attached to devices such as motherboards, video cards, network cards, modems, and printers. However, firmware is also software: Firmware chips (such as the motherboard BIOS) contain instructions for hardware testing, hardware configuration, and input/output routines. In essence, firmware is "software on a chip," and the task of that software is to control the device to which the chip is connected.

Because firmware works with both hardware and software, changes in either one can cause firmware to become outdated. Outdated firmware can lead to device or system failure or even data loss.

Traditionally, the only way to change firmware was to remove the chip and replace it with one containing new instructions. Most firmware today is "flashable," meaning that its contents can be changed through software. You'll learn more about the most common type of firmware, the motherboard's BIOS, in Chapter 3, "BIOS and CMOS Configuration."

Memory: RAM and ROM

There are two types of memory in a computer: RAM and ROM. In the early days of personal computing, some vendors made their systems sound more impressive by adding these two totals. However, their function in computer systems is very different.

The contents of RAM (Random Access Memory) can be accessed in any order and can change instantly. The contents of RAM are in constant flux as you start a computer; load its operating system and drivers for particular devices; load an application; create, store, change, and copy data; and shut down the computer.

Programs are loaded into RAM; until data is stored, it exists only in RAM (that's why you should save your work so often!). The "enemies" of data stored in RAM include System crashes User error (forgetting to save before you close a program) Power failures Because RAM must receive a steady dose of electricity to keep its contents around, even momentary power failures can destroy its contents. Because all data must be created or changed in RAM before it's stored, you must make sure that RAM is working correctly. In Chapter 4, "RAM," you'll learn more about adding, configuring, and using RAM.

ROM stands for Read-Only Memory, meaning that its contents can't be changed by normal computer operations. Because ROM's contents don't change when a system is powered down or restarted, it's the perfect storage place for firmware. As we saw earlier, firmware is the "software on a chip" used to control various devices in the computer. ROM isn't suitable for software storage, however, because its capacity is too limited for today's large programs. And, of course, ROM can't be used to store data files that are constantly changing. The way that ROM chips have been made has changed several times over the years. Originally, ROMs contained a permanently etched pattern; later, ROMs were made of reprogrammable materials that could be changed through controlled ultraviolet light or electricity. Because the chip had to be removed from the motherboard for replacement or reprogramming, changing the contents of ROMs was difficult and inconvenient.

Current ROMs can be reprogrammed with software. This process is called flashing the ROM and is performed with the BIOS firmware found on motherboards and in modems, among other devices. The reasons for upgrading ROMs are covered in Chapter 3.

Measurement: Bits, Bytes, and Beyond

The basic unit of measurement for all parts of the computer that involve the storage or management of information (RAM, storage, ROM) is the byte. Software stored on a floppy disk occupies a finite number of bytes; a modem can transmit so many bytes per second; RAM is measured in megabytes...

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Table of Contents

Introduction 1
1 Basic Concepts 5
Introduction 6
The Essential Parts of Any Computer 6
Memory: RAM and ROM 8
Measurement: Bits, Bytes, and Beyond 8
Numbering Systems Used in Computers 10
Serial Versus Parallel Information Transfer 15
IRQs, DMAs, I/O Port Addresses, and Memory Addresses 17
Summary 21
2 The Motherboard and CPU 23
Introduction 24
The Motherboard 24
The CPU 38
CPU Optimization 51
Troubleshooting 60
Summary 63
3 BIOS and CMOS Configuration 65
Introduction 66
The BIOS and Standard Devices 66
System Configuration 72
Getting Support for Your BIOS 82
BIOS Upgrades 83
BIOS Troubleshooting 86
Summary 86
4 RAM 89
Introduction 90
Memory Types and Forms 90
Memory Banks 91
Memory Chips and Modules 91
Specifying Memory for a Given System 99
Installing SIMMs 102
Installing DIMMs 103
Cache RAM and Main Memory 104
Troubleshooting 110
Summary 113
5 Input/Output Devices and Cables 115
Introduction 116
Parallel Port 117
Parallel Port Configuration 119
Troubleshooting Parallel Ports 125
Serial Ports 127
Serial Port UARTs 135
Adding Serial and Parallel Ports to an Existing System 139
USB Ports 139
Modems 143
Keyboard 152
Mouse 153
Sound Cards 158
IEEE-1394 165
Summary 168
6 Video 171
Introduction 172
The Video Card 172
Video Memory 180
Common Video Card Bus Types 181
Installing a Video Card or Monitor 182
Adjusting Video Displays 184
Troubleshooting 186
Summary 188
7 Storage 189
Common Characteristics of Magnetic Storage Devices 190
Floppy Disk Drives 191
Floppy Disk Drive Hardware Configuration 194
The Care of Floppy Disks, Data, and Drives 200
Hard Drives 203
IDE Hard Drive 205
SCSI Interface 220
CD-ROM, CD-RW, and DVD-ROM Drives 229
Summary 232
8 Power Supplies and Circuit Testing 235
Power Supply Ratings 236
Multivoltage Power Supplies 237
Causes and Cures of Power Supply Overheating 238
Replacement Power Supply Form Factors and Connectors 241
Removal and Replacement of the Power Supply 244
Testing Power Supplies with a Multimeter 245
Troubleshooting Power Problems 247
Determining Power Supply DC Voltage Levels 248
Power Protection Types 250
Summary 253
9 Printers 255
The Printing Process 256
Line Versus Page Printers 257
Printer Controls for Text and Graphics 257
Major Printer Technologies and Interfaces 264
Dot-Matrix 265
Inkjet Printers 270
Laser Printers 275
Software and Printers 286
Summary 286
10 Portables 289
Introduction 290
LCD Display 291
Graphics Circuitry 292
Portables' Keyboards 295
Battery Technologies 300
Expansion Bus 306
Portable Storage 309
PC Cards (PCMCIA Cards) 314
Infrared Ports 317
Memory Upgrades 319
Standard I/O Interfaces Used on Portable Computers 321
Summary 321
11 Safety and Recycling 323
Cleaning Equipment Safely 324
Recycling and Disposal Issues 325
How to Read an MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) 326
Electro Static Discharge (ESD) 327
Correct Storage for Equipment 328
Hazards 329
Precautions 331
Summary 333
12 Preparing Hard Drives with Windows 335
Hard Disk Preparation Prerequisites 336
Creating a Boot Disk Suitable for Hard-Disk Preparation 336
Understanding File Systems and Partition Types 338
Comparing Windows 98's Fdisk and Format 346
Preparing a Hard Disk for Use with Windows 98 348
Windows 98 Format 355
Preparing a Hard Disk for Use with Windows 2000 358
Troubleshooting Drive-Preparation Problems 362
Summary 365
13 Operating System Installation and Upgrades 367
Installing Versus Upgrading an Operating System 368
Preparing to Upgrade Your Operating System 368
Upgrading to Windows 98--Overview 373
Installing Windows 2000--Overview 376
Troubleshooting Installation 384
14 Using and Optimizing Windows 9x and Windows 2000 387
Differences Between Windows 9x and Windows 2000 388
Windows 9x Startup Files and Their Uses 390
Windows 2000 Startup Files and Their Uses 398
Memory Management in Windows 98 399
Memory Management in Windows 2000 403
Core Files and Commands of Windows 98 and Windows 2000 405
Using Command-Prompt Commands and Utilities 411
Disk Management 430
Installing Windows Software 448
Installing Non-Windows Software 450
15 Installing and Configuring Hardware in Windows 453
Using the Control Panel 454
Printing and Printer Configuration 456
Installing Hardware 464
Troubleshooting Hardware 468
16 Troubleshooting Windows Software 477
Startup Error Messages and Solutions 478
Operating Error Messages and Solutions 489
Using Windows Utilities for Troubleshooting 495
Computer Viruses 500
17 Networking 505
What Is a Network? 506
Network Operating Systems 506
Protocols 508
Networking Configuration 510
Network Types 511
Cabling Types and Network Topologies 512
Network Interface Card Installation and Configuration 517
Setting Up the Server 518
Setting Up the Client 521
Using Shared Resources 521
Beyond LANs--Repeaters, Switches, and Routers 526
Internet Concepts 527
Troubleshooting 540
Summary 543
18 Troubleshooting Principles 547
Introduction 548
Troubleshooting Methods Overview 548
Determining Whether a Problem Is Caused by Hardware or by Software 552
Useful Hardware and Software Tools 556
Summary 557
A Glossary 559
B The A+ Certification Process 579
Overview of the Process 579
Learning More About the A+ Exams 579
Selecting a Test Vendor 580
Preparing for the Exam 582
Online and Other Training Resources 582
Exam Day 584
Receiving the A+ Certification Materials 586
Learning from Your Mistakes 586
A+ Certified for Life! 586
C CD-ROM Instructions 587
Introduction 587
Self-Test Software 587
CD-ROM Content for Study and Mastery 588
D Objectives Index 591
Core Exam 591
A+ Operating Systems Exam 600
E Lab Exercises
Index 609
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Customer Reviews

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( 18 )
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Sort by: Showing all of 18 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted February 24, 2000


    I first looked in this book for a serial-port pin-diagram to settle an argument at a hardware troubleshooting seminar. While browsing through I was so impressed by the quality of it's content that I immediately paid the $59.95 purchase price & comitted myself to reading it 'cover-to-cover.' I am now about 200-300 pages into the book and am even more impressed than I was at first. This book is a MUST HAVE for any good tech-support area (I recommend keeping 3-5 copies on-hand as you will end up with techs fighting for them when a call-in pops ANY hard question).

    2 out of 2 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 27, 2001

    Very Informative!

    I highly recommend this book to all the newbies in the industry. Well written and easy to follow!

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 23, 2014

    This book is great besides the fact that a lot Fjhljdhawssfbjf

    This boook is great since i have the print version it came with a how to DVD with two hours for runtime it has helped me alot with understandibg not only how to repair and upgrade a pc it has helped me understand a pc more thoroughly and pc history. Thanks Scott Mueller for making a book that completely covers e erything in one book.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 5, 2010

    I Also Recommend:

    Scott Mueller did it again a great book for computer people that want to learn about the newest technology and to UpGrade & Repair their computers.

    Five out of Five Stars

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  • Posted February 22, 2010

    more from this reviewer

    Become an EXPERT with PCs thanks to Scott Mueller!

    Upgrading And Repairing PCs by Scott Mueller is THE reference manual for PCs. This new edition of the book covers the latest technology, while still providing plenty of knowledge regarding the older technology as well. Scott writes in a way that is precise and easy to understand, which is incredibly helpful to everyone from beginners to those with an advanced level of knowledge regarding PCs. I highly recommend this book, as well as any books by Scott Mueller, in your quest for knowledge of PCs!

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted February 21, 2010

    I Also Recommend:

    Everything you ever wanted to know about computer hardware!

    A LOT of information in one place. Could be overwhelming to the casual reader but a real find for someone what wants indepth information on computer hardware in one place. The DVD-ROM is a clear, easy to absorb, chunk of information which I recommend as a "view first" before jumping into the book. I wish I had read the book before I bought my last computer, I'll probably build my next one.

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  • Posted February 21, 2010

    Great Reference Manual

    This book is definitely for people who are technicians or understand the technology gibberish. If you are someone who is just learning computers this is NOT the book for as it is simply too in-depth. This book is a must-have for any technician's reference library.

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  • Posted February 20, 2010

    I Also Recommend:

    An industry standard

    Have worked in all areas of I/T for the past 20 years this book is used more than any other for detailed, cogent. and extremely accurate information on the guts of PC's and laptops.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted September 2, 2003

    Scott 'HELP'

    He is the best when it comes to 'computer technology explained so I can understand.'

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted August 27, 2001

    Excellent Study Guide

    This is a great book in preparing for A+ Certification. I read it and took the sample questions on the CD, for two weeks straight. I passed both portions of the exam first time out.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted April 8, 2000

    A must-have for an PC enthusiast

    This book is great for the intermediate to advanced user in PC upgrades or repair. This guy really knows what he is talking about. I espicially enjoyed the software on the CD.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 7, 2000

    Informative but not definitive

    The author appears to position this book as THE definitive guide to PC upgrade and repair. If so, this proactive assertion does an injustice to the reader. 1) I believe this book (and the 10th edition) contains a fair number of 'sins of omission and comission' (e.g., revisionist/inaccurrate computer history, incomplete understanding of x86 internals). 2) Although books of this size (1500+ pages) are rarely error-free, poetic license can be graced upon honest mistakes/typos. Opinionated diatribe warrants no such respect. It seems that at times, the author will serve opinions as bold facts. The author's take on overclocking (multiplier-lock/unlocking) is an example of this. 3) Fortunately, if you have a good grasp of x86 (PC), most of the 'hiccups' in this book will be trivial. 4) Overall, a good guide -especially to the beginner- but not THE definitive text on the subject of PC upgrade and repair. 5) This review is 100% personal opinion on the text in question. :)

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  • Anonymous

    Posted February 4, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

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    Posted January 8, 2010

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    Posted May 31, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

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    Posted January 15, 2010

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    Posted May 19, 2009

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    Posted January 14, 2010

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