Upgrading and Repairing PCs

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For 25 years, Upgrading and Repairing PCs has been the world's #1 guide to PC hardware: the single source for reliable information on troubleshooting and fixing problems, adding hardware, optimizing performance, and building new PCs. Now, better than ever, this 21st edition offers beefed-up coverage of the newest hardware innovations and maintenance techniques, plus more than two hours of new DVD video. Scott Mueller delivers practical answers about PC processors, mother-boards, buses, BIOSes, memory, SSD and HDD...

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Upgrading and Repairing PCs: Field Guide

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For 25 years, Upgrading and Repairing PCs has been the world's #1 guide to PC hardware: the single source for reliable information on troubleshooting and fixing problems, adding hardware, optimizing performance, and building new PCs. Now, better than ever, this 21st edition offers beefed-up coverage of the newest hardware innovations and maintenance techniques, plus more than two hours of new DVD video. Scott Mueller delivers practical answers about PC processors, mother-boards, buses, BIOSes, memory, SSD and HDD storage, video, audio, I/O, input devices, networks, Internet connectivity, power, and much more. Students will find the industry's best coverage of diagnostics, testing, and repair-plus cutting-edge discussions of improving performance via overclocking and other techniques. On the DVD: 2 hours of up-to-the minute, studio-quality how-to videos-all playable on a DVD player or computer! Students will see a detailed tour of a modern high-performance motherboard, showing all the components from the processor socket and CPU voltage regulators to the audio and network chipsets, and more. Students will learn how all the devices on the board are interconnected, so they can more easily understand their importance. There is a detailed segment comparing solid-state drives (SSDs) to conventional hard disk drives (HDDs), explaining all the differences and similarities between them in an easy to understand fashion. Finally, there are several segments on building a state-of-the art system from scratch using a high-performance overclockable motherboard and processor combination. Students will see tips on how to best prepare the components, how to assemble the system properly, how to make the front panel connections much easier to deal with, and finally how to route the cables for maximum airflow and ease of future upgrades or repairs. This DVD also contains the complete 19th and 20th editions of this book in printable form, plus extensive te

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Editorial Reviews

From Barnes & Noble
The Barnes & Noble Review
In 2003, there has been a bumper crop of new PC technology. And to help you assess it, implement it, fix it, Scott Mueller produced the indispensable 15th edition of his legendary Upgrading & Repairing PCs.

For example, this edition includes detailed coverage of AMD's Opteron, the revolutionary 64-bit processor that delivers remarkable performance without sacrificing compatibility. Intel's latest innovations are here, too -- notably the new Hyper Threading Technology, which gives you two "virtual processors" inside the same Pentium 4.

These processors have immense performance potential, but you'll need new motherboards, memories, and chipsets to deliver on it. Mueller covers the latest, hottest stuff -- from higher bus speeds to dual-channel memory architecture. Along the way, he addresses everything from processor slots to form factors, cases, and power connectors -- the details wherein the devil often hides.

He's equally strong on the "almost new" technologies now coming into widespread use. For example, as part of a detailed chapter on optical storage, he demystifies the bewildering menagerie of DVD standards (DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-R, DVD-RW). Which ones are likely to last? How do you minimize your risks? What do you need to know about copyright protection and other, umm, realities?

As the value of computers increasingly moves to the network, Mueller has increased the book's coverage of networking, from LANs to broadband Internet connectivity. This edition covers all of today's Wi-Fi wireless standards, slow to fast, cheap to expensive -- with a focus on interoperability issues.

Most computers that need repair or upgrading aren't brand new, so Mueller presents systematic coverage of mainstream technologies, including every significant PC component. You'll find entire chapters dedicated to your PC's BIOS; to hard drives; to audio hardware; to I/O devices ranging from ancient RS-232 to contemporary USB 2.0, Serial ATA, and IEEE-1394b. Where you can upgrade existing devices to get the performance offered by newer interfaces, he tells you.

He covers myriad removable storage media from today's external USB 2.0 and FireWire drives to those failed media formats that doubtless hold your Great American Novel. His detailed coverage of backup/restore issues includes exceptional guidance on trying to recover data that seems irretrievably lost (even data on formatted, repartitioned, or erased hard drives and formatted flash memory devices).

In recent editions, Mueller added a detailed troubleshooting index that identifies hundreds of common PC hardware problems and points you directly to the solutions. That's still here, but the 15th edition adds new coverage on resurrecting dead systems and tracking down the flakiness in flaky systems.

Last but definitely not least, there's a DVD-ROM with two full hours of thoroughly updated digital video, in which Mueller walks you through a laundry list of current PC maintenance and repair tasks. Thankfully, the DVD will run on your home DVD player -- so if you've taken your computer apart and you've got no idea what to do next, you can still have Mueller show you. Bill Camarda

Bill Camarda is a consultant, writer, and web/multimedia content developer. His 15 books include Special Edition Using Word 2000 and Upgrading & Fixing Networks for Dummies, Second Edition.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780880223959
  • Publisher: Que
  • Publication date: 12/29/1988
  • Pages: 800

Meet the Author

Scott Mueller is the president of Mueller Technical Research (MTR), an international research and corporate training firm. Since 1982, MTR has produced the industry’s most in-depth, accurate, and effective seminars, books, articles, videos, and FAQs covering PC hardware and data recovery. MTR maintains a client list that includes Fortune 500 companies, the U.S. and foreign governments, major software and hardware corporations, as well as PC enthusiasts and entrepreneurs. Scott’s seminars have been presented to several thousands of PC support professionals throughout the world.

Scott personally teaches seminars nationwide covering all aspects of PC hardware (including troubleshooting, maintenance, repair, and upgrade), A+ Certification, and data recovery/forensics. He has a knack for making technical topics not only understandable, but entertaining; his classes are never boring! If you have ten or more people to train, Scott can design and present a custom seminar for your organization.

Although he has taught classes virtually nonstop since 1982, Scott is best known as the author of the longest-running, most popular, and most comprehensive PC hardware book in the world, Upgrading and Repairing PCs, which has become the core of an entire series of books, including Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Upgrading and Repairing Laptops, and Upgrading and Repairing Windows.

Scott’s premiere work, Upgrading and Repairing PCs, has sold more than two million copies, making it by far the most popular and longest-running PC hardware book on the market today. Scott has been featured in Forbes magazine and has written several articles for PC World magazine, Maximum PC magazine, the Scott Mueller Forum, various computer and automotive newsletters, and the Upgrading and Repairing PCs website.

Contact MTR directly if you have a unique book, article, or video project in mind or if you want Scott to conduct a custom PC troubleshooting, repair, maintenance, upgrade, or data-recovery seminar tailored for your organization:

Mueller Technical Research

Web: www.muellertech.com

Email: info@muellertech.com

Forum: www.forum.scottmueller.com

Scott has a forum exclusively for his readers at www.forum.scottmueller.com. Anybody can view the forum, but posting is only available to registered members.

If you have suggestions or comments about the book or new book or article topics you would like to see covered, send them to info@muellertech.com.

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Table of Contents

Introduction 1

1 Development of the PC 5

Computer History: Before Personal Computers 5

Timeline 5

Electronic Computers 10

Modern Computers 10

From Tubes to Transistors 11

Integrated Circuits 13

History of the PC 14

Birth of the Personal Computer 14

The IBM Personal Computer 15

The PC Industry 30 Years Later 16

2 PC Components, Features, and System Design 19

What Is a PC? 19

Who Controls PC Software? 20

Who Controls PC Hardware? 23

White-Box Systems 26

System Types 26

System Components 28

3 Processor Types and Specifications 29

Microprocessor History 29

The First Microprocessor 29

PC Processor Evolution 32

16-Bit to 64-Bit Architecture Evolution 34

Processor Specifications 35

Data I/O Bus 42

Address Bus 42

Internal Registers (Internal Data Bus) 44

Processor Modes 44

Processor Benchmarks 49

Comparing Processor Performance 49

Cache Memory 53

Processor Features 60

System Management Mode (SMM) 60

Superscalar Execution 61

MMX Technology 62

Dynamic Execution 64

Dual Independent Bus Architecture 65

HT Technology 65

Multicore Technology 66

Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Support 68

Processor Manufacturing 69

Processor Re-Marking 74

PGA Chip Packaging 74

Single Edge Contact and Single Edge Processor Packaging 75

Processor Socket and Slot Types 75

Socket 478 78

Socket LGA775 79

Socket LGA1156 80

Socket LGA1366 81

Socket LGA1155 82

Socket LGA2011 83

Socket 939 and 940 83

Socket AM2/AM2+/AM3/AM3+ 84

Socket F (1207FX) 86

Socket FM1 86

Socket FM2 86

CPU Operating Voltages 87

Math Coprocessors (Floating-Point Units) 87

Processor Bugs and Steppings 88

Processor Code Names 88

P1 (086) Processors 89

P2 (286) Processors 90

P3 (386) Processors 91

P4 (486) Processors 92

P5 (586) Processors 93

AMD-K5 96

Intel P6 (686) Processors 96

Pentium Pro Processors 97

Pentium II Processors 97

Pentium III 99

Celeron 100

Intel Pentium 4 Processors 101

Pentium 4 Extreme Edition 104

Intel Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition 106

Intel Core Processors 108

Intel Core 2 Family 108

Intel (Nehalem) Core i Processors 110

AMD K6 Processors 114

NexGen Nx586 114

AMD-K6 Series 116

AMD K7 Processors 117

AMD Athlon 117

AMD Duron 118

AMD Athlon XP 118

Athlon MP 120

AMD K8 Processors 120

AMD Athlon 64 and 64 FX 120

AMD Sempron 124

AMD Athlon X2, 64 X2, and 64 FX 125

AMD K10 Processors (Phenom, Phenom II, Athlon II, Athlon X2, Sempron) 126

AMD “Bulldozer” and “Piledriver” FX Processors 128

AMD Fusion/HSA (Heterogeneous Systems Architecture) APUs 131

Processor Upgrades 132

Overclocking 133

Quartz Crystals 134

Modern PC Clocks 136

Overclocking Tips 138

Unlocking Cores 139

Bus Speeds and Multipliers 140

Processor Cooling 142

Heatsinks 143

Liquid Cooling 148

Thermally Advantaged Chassis 149

Processor Troubleshooting Techniques 151

4 Motherboards and Buses 155

Motherboard Form Factors 155

Obsolete Form Factors 156

ATX and Other Modern Form Factors 167

Processor Sockets/Slots 178

Chipsets 181

Chipset Evolution 181

Intel Chipsets 183

Intel Chipset Model Numbers 184

Intel Integrated Graphics Architecture 185

AMD Integrated Graphics Architecture 185

Traditional North/South Bridge Architecture 185

Hub Architecture 187

HyperTransport and Other Processor/Chipset Interconnects 188

Intel’s Early 386/486 Chipsets 190

Fifth-Generation (P5 Pentium Class) Chipsets 190

Sixth-Generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III Class) Chipsets 192

Seventh/Eighth-Generation (Pentium 4/D, Core2, and Core i) Chipsets 195

Intel 915 Family 202

Intel 925X Family 203

Intel 945 Express Family 203

Intel 955X and 975X Family 204

Intel 96x Series 204

Intel 3x and 4x Series Chipsets 205

Intel 5x Series Chipsets 208

Intel 6x Series Chipsets 211

Intel 7x Series Chipsets 213

Third-Party Chipsets for Intel Processors 215

SiS Chipsets 215

ULi Electronics Chipsets 215

ATI Chipsets 216

VIA Chipsets 216

NVIDIA Chipsets for Intel Processors 216

Chipsets for AMD Processors 217

AMD Athlon Chipsets 217

AMD Athlon 64 Chipsets 218

AMD 8000 (8151) Chipset 219

AMD (Formerly ATI) Chipsets for Athlon 64, Sempron, Phenom 220

Third-Party Chipsets for AMD Processors 226

VIA Chipsets 226

SiS Chipsets 227

NVIDIA Chipsets 227

Super I/O Chips 228

Motherboard Connectors 228

System Bus Types, Functions, and Features 239

The Processor Bus (FSB) 245

Types of I/O Buses 245

The ISA Bus 245

The Micro Channel Bus 246

The EISA Bus 246

Local Buses (VESA, PCI, PCI Express, AGP) 246

System Resources 254

Interrupts 254

DMA Channels 259

I/O Port Addresses 259

Motherboard Selection Criteria (Knowing What to Look For) 260

Chipset Documentation 262

5 BIOS 263

BIOS Basics 263

Motherboard ROM BIOS 267

ROM Hardware 267

ROM Shadowing 269

ROM Chip Types 269

ROM BIOS Manufacturers 273

BIOS Hardware/Software 274

Upgrading the BIOS 274

Where to Get Your BIOS Update 275

Determining Your BIOS Version 275

Checking the BIOS Date 275

Backing Up Your BIOS 276

Backing Up Your BIOS Setup (CMOS RAM) Settings 276

Upgrading a Flash BIOS 277

Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses 285

Preboot Environment 287

Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) 289

UEFI and BIOS Limitations 290

UEFI Support 291

BIOS Setup 292

Running or Accessing the BIOS Setup Program 292

BIOS Setup Menus 292

Maintenance Menu 293

Main Menu 294

Advanced Menus 295

Security Menu 311

Power Menu 312

Boot Menu (Boot Sequence, Order) 314

Exit Menu 315

Additional BIOS Setup Features 316

PnP BIOS 317

PnP Device IDs 318

ACPI 318

BIOS/MBR Error Messages 319

BIOS Boot Error Messages 320

MBR Boot Error Messages 322

6 Memory 325

Memory Basics 325

ROM 327

DRAM 327

Cache Memory: SRAM 329

Memory Standards 331

Speed and Performance 332

Fast Page Mode DRAM 335

Extended Data Out RAM 336







Memory Modules 346

Registered Modules 351

SDR DIMM Details 352

DDR DIMM Details 353

DDR2 DIMM Details 353

DDR3 DIMM Details 353

Determining a Memory Module’s Size and Features 354

Memory Banks 356

Memory Module Speed 357

Parity and ECC 357

Parity Checking 359

How Parity Checking Works 359

ECC 360

RAM Upgrades 361

Upgrade Options and Strategies 362

Purchasing Memory 364

Replacing Modules with Higher-Capacity Versions 366

Installing Memory Modules 366

Troubleshooting Memory 368

Memory Defect Isolation Procedures 372

The System Logical Memory Layout 374

7 The ATA/IDE Interface 377

An Overview of the IDE Interface 377

Precursors to IDE 377

IDE Origins 378

Origins of ATA 379

ATA Standards 380

ATA-1 (ATA Interface for Disk Drives) 382

ATA-2 (ATA Interface with Extensions-2) 382

ATA-3 (ATA Interface-3) 383

ATA/ATAPI-4 (ATA with Packet Interface Extension-4) 383

ATA/ATAPI-5 (ATA with Packet Interface-5) 384

ATA/ATAPI-6 (ATA with Packet Interface-6) 385

ATA/ATAPI-7 (ATA with Packet Interface-7) 386


PATA 387

PATA I/O Connector 387

PATA I/O Cable 390

Longer or Rounded Cables 392

PATA Signals 392

PATA Dual-Drive Configurations 393

PATA PIO Transfer Modes 396

PATA DMA Transfer Modes 396

SATA 398

SATA Standards and Performance 398

SATA Express 399

SATA Cables and Connectors 401

eSATA 404

SATA Configuration 407

Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI) 408

Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) 409

SATA Transfer Modes 409

ATA Features 410

ATA Commands 410

ATA Security Mode 411

Host Protected Area 412


ATA Drive Capacity Limitations 413

Prefixes for Decimal and Binary Multiples 414

BIOS Limitations 415

CHS Versus LBA 416

CHS/LBA and LBA/CHS Conversions 417

BIOS Commands Versus ATA Commands 418

CHS Limitations (the 528MB Barrier) 419

CHS Translation (Breaking the 528MB Barrier) 421

The 2.1GB and 4.2GB Barriers 423

LBA-Assist Translation 425

The 8.4GB Barrier 427

The 137GB Barrier and Beyond 429

Operating System and Other Software Limitations 430

GPT and the 2.2TB Barrier 432


Software RAID 436

8 Magnetic Storage Principles 439

Magnetic Storage 439

History of Magnetic Storage 439

How Magnetic Fields Are Used to Store Data 440

Read/Write Head Designs 443

Ferrite 444

Metal-In-Gap 444

Thin-Film 444

Magneto-Resistive Heads 445

Giant Magneto-Resistive Heads 446

Head Sliders 448

Data-Encoding Schemes 450

Frequency Modulation Encoding 451

Modified FM Encoding 451

Run Length Limited Encoding 452

Encoding Scheme Comparisons 453

Partial-Response, Maximum-Likelihood Decoders 455

Capacity Measurements 455

Areal Density 456

Perpendicular Magnetic Recording 458

9 Hard Disk Storage 461

Definition of a Hard Disk 461

Hard Drive Advancements 462

Form Factors 463

5 1/4-Inch Drive 464

3 1/2-Inch Drive 465

2 1/2-Inch Drive 465

1.8-Inch Drive 466

1-Inch Drives 466

HDD Operation 466

The Ultimate HDD Analogy 469

Tracks and Sectors 470

ECC 472

Disk Formatting 477

Basic HDD Components 482

Hard Disk Platters (Disks) 483

Recording Media 484

Read/Write Heads 485

Head Actuator Mechanisms 487

Air Filters 494

Hard Disk Temperature Acclimation 495

Spindle Motors 495

Logic Boards 496

Cables and Connectors 497

Configuration Items 497

Hard Disk Features 498

Capacity 498

Performance 500

Reliability 504

10 Flash and Removable Storage 507

Alternative Storage Devices 507

Flash Memory Devices 507

CompactFlash 509

SmartMedia 509

MultiMediaCard 510

SecureDigital 510

Sony Memory Stick 510

ATA Flash PC Card 511

xD-Picture Card 511

SSD (Solid-State Drive) 511

USB Flash Drives 516

Comparing Flash Memory Devices 517

SD Cards Speed Class and UHS Speed Class Markings 519

File Systems Used by Flash Memory 520

Flash Card Readers 520

Card Readers 520

ReadyBoost Support 521

Cloud-Based Storage 522

Floppy Disk Drives 523

Tape Drives 523

11 Optical Storage 525

Optical Technology 525

CD-Based Optical Technology 526

CDs: A Brief History 526

CD Construction and Technology 527

Mass-Producing CDs 527

Writable CDs 539

MultiRead Specifications 545

MultiPlay and MultiAudio 547

DVD 547

DVD History 548

DVD Construction and Technology 549

DVD Tracks and Sectors 550

Handling DVD Errors 554

DVD Capacity (Sides and Layers) 555

Data Encoding on the DVD Disc 558

Recordable DVD Standards 559

Multiformat Rewritable DVD Drives 566

BD 567

HD-DVD 569

Optical Disc Formats 570

CD Formats 570

DVD Formats and Standards 578

Optical Disc File Systems 582

Ripping/Copying Discs 587

“For Music Use Only” CD-R/RW Discs 588

CD Copy Protection 588

CD Digital Rights Management 589

DVD and Blu-ray Copy Protection 589

Optical Drive Performance Specifications 593

CD Data Transfer Rate 593

CD Drive Speed 593

DVD Drive Speed 595

Access Time 598

Buffer/Cache 598

Direct Memory Access and Ultra-DMA 598

Interface 598

Loading Mechanism 599

Other Drive Features 600

How to Reliably Record Optical Discs 600

Booting from a Floppy Disk with Optical Drive Support 601

Bootable Optical Discs—El Torito 601

LightScribe and LabelFlash 602

Troubleshooting Optical Drives 602

Caring for Optical Media 606

Updating the Firmware in an Optical Drive 607

12 Video Hardware 609

Display Adapters and Monitors 609

Video Display Adapters 610

Video Adapter Types 610

Integrated Video/Motherboard Chipsets 611

CPUs with Integrated Video 616

Video Adapter Components 617

Identifying the Video and System Chipsets 619

Video RAM 620

The DAC 624

Video Display Interfaces 624

The System Interface 624

The Display Interface 626

TV Display Interfaces 641

3D Graphics Accelerators 642

How 3D Accelerators Work 642

APIs 645

Dual-GPU Scene Rendering 648

Monitors 650

Display Specifications 650

LCD Technology 661

LED Backlit Technology 663

CRT Display Technology 663

Plasma Display Technology 665

LCD and DLP Projectors 666

Using Multiple Monitors 667

Dualview 667

Homogeneous Adapters 668

Heterogeneous Adapters 668

Choosing the Best Display Hardware for a Particular Task 668

Video Troubleshooting and Maintenance 669

Troubleshooting Video Cards and Drivers 670

Video Drivers 672

Maintaining Monitors 672

Testing Monitors 673

Adjusting Monitors 674

Bad Pixels 675

Troubleshooting Monitors 676

Repairing Monitors 677

13 Audio Hardware 679

Audio Hardware Concepts and Terms 680

The Nature of Sound 680

Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Hardware 680

Sampling 681

Early PC Sound Cards 682

Limitations of Sound Blaster Pro Compatibility 682

Microsoft Windows and Audio Support 682

DirectX and Audio Support Hardware 683

Core Audio APIs for Windows 683

3D Gaming Audio Standards 684

Legacy Audio Support Through Virtualization 685

Audio Hardware Features 686

Basic Connectors 686

Audio Signal Processing Methods 688

Advanced Audio Features 688

Volume Control 690

MIDI Support Features 691

Data Compression 692

Sound Drivers 693

Sound Cards for Sound Producers 693

Motherboard Chipsets with Integrated Audio 694

Intel “Azalia” HD Audio 694

Troubleshooting PC Audio Problems 694

Sound Card and Onboard Audio Problems 695

Speakers 698

Speaker Selection Criteria 698

Theater and Surround Sound Considerations 699

Microphones 700

14 External I/O Interfaces 703

Introduction to Input/Output Ports 703

Serial Versus Parallel 703

Universal Serial Bus (USB) 704

IEEE 1394 (FireWire or i.LINK) 718

Comparing USB and IEEE 1394 (FireWire) 722

Thunderbolt Technology 728

Low-Speed External Connections 729

Serial Ports 730

Parallel Ports 734

15 Input Devices  739

Keyboards 739

Enhanced 101-Key Keyboard 739

103/104-Key Windows Keyboard 740

Keyboard Technology 742

Keyswitch Design 742

The Keyboard Interface 747

Typematic Functions 749

Keyboard Scan Codes 749

International Keyboard Layouts 750

Keyboard/Mouse Interface Connectors 751

USB Keyboards 753

Keyboards with Special Features 754

Keyboard Troubleshooting and Repair 754

Cleaning a Keyboard 755

Keyboard Recommendations 756

Pointing Devices 757

Mouse Sensitivity 758

Ball-Type Mice 758

Optical Mice 759

Pointing Device Interface Types 760

Scroll Wheels 762

Mouse Troubleshooting 764

Cleaning Your Mouse 765

Alternative Pointing Devices 765

Touchscreen Technology 770

Wireless Input Devices 771

Power Management Features of Wireless Input Devices 772

Troubleshooting Wireless Input Devices 773

16 Internet Connectivity 775

Internet Connectivity Trends 775

Broadband Internet Access Types 775

Cable TV 776

Digital Subscriber Line 779

Wireless Broadband 783

Cellular Broadband 3G and 4G Services 783

Satellite Broadband 784

ISDN 787

Leased Lines 788

Comparing High-Speed Internet Access 789

Dial-Up Modems 790

56Kbps Modems 791

Internet Connection Security 794

Having a Backup Plan in Case of Service Interruptions 795

Sharing Your Internet Connection 795

Routers for Internet Sharing 796

Modem/Router Status LEDs 797

17 Local Area Networking 799

Defining a Network 799

Types of Networks 800

Requirements for a Network 801

Client/Server Versus Peer Networks 801

Client/Server Networks 802

Peer-to-Peer Networks 803

Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks 804

Network Architecture Overview 804

Wired Ethernet 806

Wireless Ethernet 807

Bluetooth 813

Hardware Elements of Your Network 814

NICs for Wired Ethernet Networks 814

Network Cables for Wired Ethernet 816

Wired Network Topologies 824

Switches for Ethernet Networks 827

Wireless Ethernet Hardware 831

Network Protocols 836

IP and TCP/IP 836

IPX and NetBEUI 837

Other Home Networking Solutions 838

HomePNA 838

Power Line Networking 839

Putting Your Network Together 840

Network Adapters 840

Cables and Connections Between Computers 842

Switch/Access Point 842

18 Power Supplies 845

The Power Supply 845

Primary Function and Operation 845

Voltage Rails 846

The Power Good Signal 848

Power Supply Form Factors 849

Modern Form Factors 852

Power Switches 866

ATX and Newer 866

PC/XT/AT and LPX Power Switches 868

Motherboard Power Connectors 870

AT/LPX Power Supply Connectors 870

ATX and ATX12V Motherboard Power Connectors 872

Backward and Forward Compatibility 885

Dell Proprietary (Nonstandard) ATX Design 887

Additional Power Connectors 887

Peripheral Power Connectors 887

Floppy Power Connectors 888

Serial ATA Power Connectors 889

PCI Express Auxiliary Graphics Power Connectors 890

Power Supply Specifications 893

Power Supply Loading 893

Power Supply Ratings 895

Other Power Supply Specifications 896

Power Factor Correction 898

SLI-Ready and CrossFireX Certifications 900

Safety Certifications 900

Power-Use Calculations 901

Power Savings 903

80 Plus 903


Advanced Power Management 904

Advanced Configuration and Power Interface 905

Power Cycling 908

Power Supply Troubleshooting 911

Overloaded Power Supplies 912

Inadequate Cooling 913

Using Digital Multimeters 913

Specialized Test Equipment 916

Power Supply Recommendations 918

Modular Cables 919

Sources for Replacement Power Supplies 919

Power-Protection Systems 919

Surge Suppressors (Protectors) 921

Network and Phone Line Surge Protectors 922

Line Conditioners 922

Backup Power 922

Real-Time Clock/Nonvolatile RAM (CMOS RAM) Batteries 925

Modern CMOS Batteries 925

Obsolete or Unique CMOS Batteries 927

CMOS Battery Troubleshooting 928

19 Building or Upgrading Systems 929

System Components 929

Before You Start: How to Decide What to Build 931

Case and Power Supply 933

Processor 934

Motherboard 935

Memory 936

I/O Ports 937

Hard Disk/Solid-State Drives 938

Removable Storage 939

Input Devices 939

Video Card and Display 940

Audio Hardware 940

Accessories 941

Hardware and Software Resources 942

System Assembly and Disassembly 942

Assembly Preparation 943

Installing the CPU and Heatsink 946

Installing Memory Modules 952

Mounting the New Motherboard in the Case 953

Preparing a Modular Power Supply 958

Connecting the Power Supply 958

Connecting I/O and Other Cables to the Motherboard 961

Installing the Drives 962

Installing a Video Card 967

Installing Additional Expansion Cards 969

Replacing the Cover and Connecting External Cables 969

System Startup 969

Installing the OS 971

Troubleshooting New Installations 972

20 PC Diagnostics, Testing, and Maintenance 975

PC Diagnostics 975

Diagnostics Software 975

The POST 976

Peripheral Diagnostics 989

Operating System Diagnostics 989

Commercial Diagnostics Software 990

Free/User Supported Diagnostics 991

The Boot Process 991

The Hardware Boot Process: Operating System Independent 992

The DOS Boot Process 996

The Windows 9x/Me Boot Process 997

Windows 2000/XP Startup 997

Windows Vista/7 Startup 998

Windows 8 Startup 998

PC Maintenance Tools 999

Hand Tools 1000

Safety 1003

Test Equipment 1004

Special Tools for the Enthusiast 1009

Preventive Maintenance 1011

Active Preventive Maintenance Procedures 1011

Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures 1016

Troubleshooting Tips and Techniques 1021

Repair or Replace? 1021

Basic Troubleshooting Steps 1021

Troubleshooting by Replacing Parts 1022

Troubleshooting by the Bootstrap Approach 1023

Problems During the POST 1024

Problems Running Software 1024

Problems with Adapter Cards 1025

Top Troubleshooting Problems 1025

9780789750006, ToC, 2/18/2013

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Customer Reviews

Average Rating 4
( 18 )
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Sort by: Showing all of 18 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted February 24, 2000


    I first looked in this book for a serial-port pin-diagram to settle an argument at a hardware troubleshooting seminar. While browsing through I was so impressed by the quality of it's content that I immediately paid the $59.95 purchase price & comitted myself to reading it 'cover-to-cover.' I am now about 200-300 pages into the book and am even more impressed than I was at first. This book is a MUST HAVE for any good tech-support area (I recommend keeping 3-5 copies on-hand as you will end up with techs fighting for them when a call-in pops ANY hard question).

    2 out of 2 people found this review helpful.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted December 27, 2001

    Very Informative!

    I highly recommend this book to all the newbies in the industry. Well written and easy to follow!

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted March 23, 2014

    This book is great besides the fact that a lot Fjhljdhawssfbjf

    This boook is great since i have the print version it came with a how to DVD with two hours for runtime it has helped me alot with understandibg not only how to repair and upgrade a pc it has helped me understand a pc more thoroughly and pc history. Thanks Scott Mueller for making a book that completely covers e erything in one book.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted March 5, 2010

    I Also Recommend:

    Scott Mueller did it again a great book for computer people that want to learn about the newest technology and to UpGrade & Repair their computers.

    Five out of Five Stars

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Posted February 22, 2010

    more from this reviewer

    Become an EXPERT with PCs thanks to Scott Mueller!

    Upgrading And Repairing PCs by Scott Mueller is THE reference manual for PCs. This new edition of the book covers the latest technology, while still providing plenty of knowledge regarding the older technology as well. Scott writes in a way that is precise and easy to understand, which is incredibly helpful to everyone from beginners to those with an advanced level of knowledge regarding PCs. I highly recommend this book, as well as any books by Scott Mueller, in your quest for knowledge of PCs!

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted February 21, 2010

    I Also Recommend:

    Everything you ever wanted to know about computer hardware!

    A LOT of information in one place. Could be overwhelming to the casual reader but a real find for someone what wants indepth information on computer hardware in one place. The DVD-ROM is a clear, easy to absorb, chunk of information which I recommend as a "view first" before jumping into the book. I wish I had read the book before I bought my last computer, I'll probably build my next one.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Posted February 21, 2010

    Great Reference Manual

    This book is definitely for people who are technicians or understand the technology gibberish. If you are someone who is just learning computers this is NOT the book for as it is simply too in-depth. This book is a must-have for any technician's reference library.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Posted February 20, 2010

    I Also Recommend:

    An industry standard

    Have worked in all areas of I/T for the past 20 years this book is used more than any other for detailed, cogent. and extremely accurate information on the guts of PC's and laptops.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted September 2, 2003

    Scott 'HELP'

    He is the best when it comes to 'computer technology explained so I can understand.'

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted August 27, 2001

    Excellent Study Guide

    This is a great book in preparing for A+ Certification. I read it and took the sample questions on the CD, for two weeks straight. I passed both portions of the exam first time out.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted April 8, 2000

    A must-have for an PC enthusiast

    This book is great for the intermediate to advanced user in PC upgrades or repair. This guy really knows what he is talking about. I espicially enjoyed the software on the CD.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted March 7, 2000

    Informative but not definitive

    The author appears to position this book as THE definitive guide to PC upgrade and repair. If so, this proactive assertion does an injustice to the reader. 1) I believe this book (and the 10th edition) contains a fair number of 'sins of omission and comission' (e.g., revisionist/inaccurrate computer history, incomplete understanding of x86 internals). 2) Although books of this size (1500+ pages) are rarely error-free, poetic license can be graced upon honest mistakes/typos. Opinionated diatribe warrants no such respect. It seems that at times, the author will serve opinions as bold facts. The author's take on overclocking (multiplier-lock/unlocking) is an example of this. 3) Fortunately, if you have a good grasp of x86 (PC), most of the 'hiccups' in this book will be trivial. 4) Overall, a good guide -especially to the beginner- but not THE definitive text on the subject of PC upgrade and repair. 5) This review is 100% personal opinion on the text in question. :)

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 14, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted February 4, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted January 8, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted May 31, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted January 15, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted May 19, 2009

    No text was provided for this review.

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