Upgrading and Repairing PCs / Edition 19
  • Upgrading and Repairing PCs / Edition 19
  • Upgrading and Repairing PCs / Edition 19

Upgrading and Repairing PCs / Edition 19

4.0 10
by Scott Mueller
     
 

ISBN-10: 0789739542

ISBN-13: 9780789739544

Pub. Date: 12/25/2009

Publisher: Que

“…a comprehensive resource for PC enthusiasts and professionals alike. Packed with the latest speeds and feeds, you’ll want to keep this book on-hand as an authoritative technology reference.”

–Chris Angelini, Managing Editor, Tom’s Hardware

For 20 years, Upgrading and Repairing PCs has been the

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Overview

“…a comprehensive resource for PC enthusiasts and professionals alike. Packed with the latest speeds and feeds, you’ll want to keep this book on-hand as an authoritative technology reference.”

–Chris Angelini, Managing Editor, Tom’s Hardware

For 20 years, Upgrading and Repairing PCs has been the industry’s #1 guide to PC hardware: the single source for reliable, step-by-step information on identifying and fixing problems, adding hardware, optimizing performance, and building new PCs from scratch. Now, this 19th Edition has been completely updated to focus on today’s technologies and today’s maintenance challenges!

From processors and motherboards, memory to storage, video to power, and networking to Internet connectivity, it’s all here: technical details, practical insights, and step-by-step solutions to difficult problems. Updates include new CPUs like the Intel Core i Series and AMD’s Phenom family...solid state drives (SSDs) and hard disk drives...motherboard form factors, chipsets, power supplies, DDR3 memory, Windows 7 readiness, and a whole lot more!

Your guide, Scott Mueller, has taught thousands in his legendary personal seminars and millions more through his books and videos. Nobody knows more about choosing, installing, troubleshooting, repairing, and maintaining PC hardware. Whether you’re a professional technician, a small business owner who doesn’t want to pay for service calls, or a home PC enthusiast, this is the one book you need!

NEW IN THIS EDITION

  • Intel’s and AMD’s hottest new processors, including the Intel Core i Series and AMD Phenom family

  • The latest PC system designs and form factors, including the new mini-ITX and DTX motherboard form factors

  • State-of-the-art graphics cards, GPUs, and chipsets from NVIDIA and ATI/AMD

  • Terabyte-class hard disks, solid state drives, and other data storage innovations

  • Revamped coverage of building PCs from scratch–from selecting and assembling hardware to BIOS Setup and troubleshooting

ON THE DVD

The DVD contains two hours of up-to-the minute, studio-quality how-to videos–all playable on either your DVD player or computer! You’ll find detailed presentations covering important PC components like processors, motherboards, chipsets, memory, hard disk drives, chassis, and power supplies, including tips that will help you select the best components when building or purchasing new systems as well as when upgrading or repairing existing ones. There is a complete step-by-step guide to building a new PC from scratch, including tips that will not only make the build process run smoothly, but will also help you build a system that has performance, durability, and will be easy to maintain, upgrade, and repair in the future. That’s not all: You’ll also find the complete 16th Edition of this book, plus extensive technical reference material, a comprehensive PC glossary, and much more!

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780789739544
Publisher:
Que
Publication date:
12/25/2009
Series:
Upgrading and Repairing Series
Edition description:
Paperback with DVD
Pages:
1156
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 2.60(d)

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

1 Development of the PC 5

Computer History: Before Personal Computers 5

Timeline 5

Electronic Computers 10

Modern Computers 10

From Tubes to Transistors 11

Integrated Circuits 13

History of the PC 14

Birth of the Personal Computer 14

The IBM Personal Computer 15

The PC Industry 30 Years Later 16

2 PC Components, Features, and System Design 19

What Is a PC? 19

Who Controls PC Software? 20

Who Controls PC Hardware? 23

White-Box Systems 26

System Types 26

System Components 28

3 Processor Types and Specifications 29

Microprocessor History 29

The First Microprocessor 29

PC Processor Evolution 32

16-Bit to 64-Bit Architecture Evolution 34

Processor Specifications 35

Data I/O Bus 42

Address Bus 42

Internal Registers (Internal Data Bus) 44

Processor Modes 44

Processor Benchmarks 49

Comparing Processor Performance 49

Cache Memory 53

Processor Features 60

System Management Mode (SMM) 60

Superscalar Execution 61

MMX Technology 62

Dynamic Execution 64

Dual Independent Bus Architecture 65

HT Technology 65

Multicore Technology 66

Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Support 68

Processor Manufacturing 69

Processor Re-Marking 74

PGA Chip Packaging 74

Single Edge Contact and Single Edge Processor Packaging 75

Processor Socket and Slot Types 75

Socket 478 78

Socket LGA775 79

Socket LGA1156 80

Socket LGA1366 81

Socket LGA1155 82

Socket LGA2011 83

Socket 939 and 940 83

Socket AM2/AM2+/AM3/AM3+ 84

Socket F (1207FX) 86

Socket FM1 86

Socket FM2 86

CPU Operating Voltages 87

Math Coprocessors (Floating-Point Units) 87

Processor Bugs and Steppings 88

Processor Code Names 88

P1 (086) Processors 89

P2 (286) Processors 90

P3 (386) Processors 91

P4 (486) Processors 92

P5 (586) Processors 93

AMD-K5 96

Intel P6 (686) Processors 96

Pentium Pro Processors 97

Pentium II Processors 97

Pentium III 99

Celeron 100

Intel Pentium 4 Processors 101

Pentium 4 Extreme Edition 104

Intel Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition 106

Intel Core Processors 108

Intel Core 2 Family 108

Intel (Nehalem) Core i Processors 110

AMD K6 Processors 114

NexGen Nx586 114

AMD-K6 Series 116

AMD K7 Processors 117

AMD Athlon 117

AMD Duron 118

AMD Athlon XP 118

Athlon MP 120

AMD K8 Processors 120

AMD Athlon 64 and 64 FX 120

AMD Sempron 124

AMD Athlon X2, 64 X2, and 64 FX 125

AMD K10 Processors (Phenom, Phenom II, Athlon II, Athlon X2, Sempron) 126

AMD “Bulldozer” and “Piledriver” FX Processors 128

AMD Fusion/HSA (Heterogeneous Systems Architecture) APUs 131

Processor Upgrades 132

Overclocking 133

Quartz Crystals 134

Modern PC Clocks 136

Overclocking Tips 138

Unlocking Cores 139

Bus Speeds and Multipliers 140

Processor Cooling 142

Heatsinks 143

Liquid Cooling 148

Thermally Advantaged Chassis 149

Processor Troubleshooting Techniques 151

4 Motherboards and Buses 155

Motherboard Form Factors 155

Obsolete Form Factors 156

ATX and Other Modern Form Factors 167

Processor Sockets/Slots 178

Chipsets 181

Chipset Evolution 181

Intel Chipsets 183

Intel Chipset Model Numbers 184

Intel Integrated Graphics Architecture 185

AMD Integrated Graphics Architecture 185

Traditional North/South Bridge Architecture 185

Hub Architecture 187

HyperTransport and Other Processor/Chipset Interconnects 188

Intel’s Early 386/486 Chipsets 190

Fifth-Generation (P5 Pentium Class) Chipsets 190

Sixth-Generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III Class) Chipsets 192

Seventh/Eighth-Generation (Pentium 4/D, Core2, and Core i) Chipsets 195

Intel 915 Family 202

Intel 925X Family 203

Intel 945 Express Family 203

Intel 955X and 975X Family 204

Intel 96x Series 204

Intel 3x and 4x Series Chipsets 205

Intel 5x Series Chipsets 208

Intel 6x Series Chipsets 211

Intel 7x Series Chipsets 213

Third-Party Chipsets for Intel Processors 215

SiS Chipsets 215

ULi Electronics Chipsets 215

ATI Chipsets 216

VIA Chipsets 216

NVIDIA Chipsets for Intel Processors 216

Chipsets for AMD Processors 217

AMD Athlon Chipsets 217

AMD Athlon 64 Chipsets 218

AMD 8000 (8151) Chipset 219

AMD (Formerly ATI) Chipsets for Athlon 64, Sempron, Phenom 220

Third-Party Chipsets for AMD Processors 226

VIA Chipsets 226

SiS Chipsets 227

NVIDIA Chipsets 227

Super I/O Chips 228

Motherboard Connectors 228

System Bus Types, Functions, and Features 239

The Processor Bus (FSB) 245

Types of I/O Buses 245

The ISA Bus 245

The Micro Channel Bus 246

The EISA Bus 246

Local Buses (VESA, PCI, PCI Express, AGP) 246

System Resources 254

Interrupts 254

DMA Channels 259

I/O Port Addresses 259

Motherboard Selection Criteria (Knowing What to Look For) 260

Chipset Documentation 262

5 BIOS 263

BIOS Basics 263

Motherboard ROM BIOS 267

ROM Hardware 267

ROM Shadowing 269

ROM Chip Types 269

ROM BIOS Manufacturers 273

BIOS Hardware/Software 274

Upgrading the BIOS 274

Where to Get Your BIOS Update 275

Determining Your BIOS Version 275

Checking the BIOS Date 275

Backing Up Your BIOS 276

Backing Up Your BIOS Setup (CMOS RAM) Settings 276

Upgrading a Flash BIOS 277

Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses 285

Preboot Environment 287

Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) 289

UEFI and BIOS Limitations 290

UEFI Support 291

BIOS Setup 292

Running or Accessing the BIOS Setup Program 292

BIOS Setup Menus 292

Maintenance Menu 293

Main Menu 294

Advanced Menus 295

Security Menu 311

Power Menu 312

Boot Menu (Boot Sequence, Order) 314

Exit Menu 315

Additional BIOS Setup Features 316

PnP BIOS 317

PnP Device IDs 318

ACPI 318

BIOS/MBR Error Messages 319

BIOS Boot Error Messages 320

MBR Boot Error Messages 322

6 Memory 325

Memory Basics 325

ROM 327

DRAM 327

Cache Memory: SRAM 329

Memory Standards 331

Speed and Performance 332

Fast Page Mode DRAM 335

Extended Data Out RAM 336

SDRAM 337

DDR SDRAM 338

DDR2 SDRAM 340

DDR3 SDRAM 342

DDR4 SDRAM 344

RDRAM 345

Memory Modules 346

Registered Modules 351

SDR DIMM Details 352

DDR DIMM Details 353

DDR2 DIMM Details 353

DDR3 DIMM Details 353

Determining a Memory Module’s Size and Features 354

Memory Banks 356

Memory Module Speed 357

Parity and ECC 357

Parity Checking 359

How Parity Checking Works 359

ECC 360

RAM Upgrades 361

Upgrade Options and Strategies 362

Purchasing Memory 364

Replacing Modules with Higher-Capacity Versions 366

Installing Memory Modules 366

Troubleshooting Memory 368

Memory Defect Isolation Procedures 372

The System Logical Memory Layout 374

7 The ATA/IDE Interface 377

An Overview of the IDE Interface 377

Precursors to IDE 377

IDE Origins 378

Origins of ATA 379

ATA Standards 380

ATA-1 (ATA Interface for Disk Drives) 382

ATA-2 (ATA Interface with Extensions-2) 382

ATA-3 (ATA Interface-3) 383

ATA/ATAPI-4 (ATA with Packet Interface Extension-4) 383

ATA/ATAPI-5 (ATA with Packet Interface-5) 384

ATA/ATAPI-6 (ATA with Packet Interface-6) 385

ATA/ATAPI-7 (ATA with Packet Interface-7) 386

ATA/ATAPI-8 386

PATA 387

PATA I/O Connector 387

PATA I/O Cable 390

Longer or Rounded Cables 392

PATA Signals 392

PATA Dual-Drive Configurations 393

PATA PIO Transfer Modes 396

PATA DMA Transfer Modes 396

SATA 398

SATA Standards and Performance 398

SATA Express 399

SATA Cables and Connectors 401

eSATA 404

SATA Configuration 407

Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI) 408

Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) 409

SATA Transfer Modes 409

ATA Features 410

ATA Commands 410

ATA Security Mode 411

Host Protected Area 412

ATAPI 413

ATA Drive Capacity Limitations 413

Prefixes for Decimal and Binary Multiples 414

BIOS Limitations 415

CHS Versus LBA 416

CHS/LBA and LBA/CHS Conversions 417

BIOS Commands Versus ATA Commands 418

CHS Limitations (the 528MB Barrier) 419

CHS Translation (Breaking the 528MB Barrier) 421

The 2.1GB and 4.2GB Barriers 423

LBA-Assist Translation 425

The 8.4GB Barrier 427

The 137GB Barrier and Beyond 429

Operating System and Other Software Limitations 430

GPT and the 2.2TB Barrier 432

PATA/SATA RAID 434

Software RAID 436

8 Magnetic Storage Principles 439

Magnetic Storage 439

History of Magnetic Storage 439

How Magnetic Fields Are Used to Store Data 440

Read/Write Head Designs 443

Ferrite 444

Metal-In-Gap 444

Thin-Film 444

Magneto-Resistive Heads 445

Giant Magneto-Resistive Heads 446

Head Sliders 448

Data-Encoding Schemes 450

Frequency Modulation Encoding 451

Modified FM Encoding 451

Run Length Limited Encoding 452

Encoding Scheme Comparisons 453

Partial-Response, Maximum-Likelihood Decoders 455

Capacity Measurements 455

Areal Density 456

Perpendicular Magnetic Recording 458

9 Hard Disk Storage 461

Definition of a Hard Disk 461

Hard Drive Advancements 462

Form Factors 463

5 1/4-Inch Drive 464

3 1/2-Inch Drive 465

2 1/2-Inch Drive 465

1.8-Inch Drive 466

1-Inch Drives 466

HDD Operation 466

The Ultimate HDD Analogy 469

Tracks and Sectors 470

ECC 472

Disk Formatting 477

Basic HDD Components 482

Hard Disk Platters (Disks) 483

Recording Media 484

Read/Write Heads 485

Head Actuator Mechanisms 487

Air Filters 494

Hard Disk Temperature Acclimation 495

Spindle Motors 495

Logic Boards 496

Cables and Connectors 497

Configuration Items 497

Hard Disk Features 498

Capacity 498

Performance 500

Reliability 504

10 Flash and Removable Storage 507

Alternative Storage Devices 507

Flash Memory Devices 507

CompactFlash 509

SmartMedia 509

MultiMediaCard 510

SecureDigital 510

Sony Memory Stick 510

ATA Flash PC Card 511

xD-Picture Card 511

SSD (Solid-State Drive) 511

USB Flash Drives 516

Comparing Flash Memory Devices 517

SD Cards Speed Class and UHS Speed Class Markings 519

File Systems Used by Flash Memory 520

Flash Card Readers 520

Card Readers 520

ReadyBoost Support 521

Cloud-Based Storage 522

Floppy Disk Drives 523

Tape Drives 523

11 Optical Storage 525

Optical Technology 525

CD-Based Optical Technology 526

CDs: A Brief History 526

CD Construction and Technology 527

Mass-Producing CDs 527

Writable CDs 539

MultiRead Specifications 545

MultiPlay and MultiAudio 547

DVD 547

DVD History 548

DVD Construction and Technology 549

DVD Tracks and Sectors 550

Handling DVD Errors 554

DVD Capacity (Sides and Layers) 555

Data Encoding on the DVD Disc 558

Recordable DVD Standards 559

Multiformat Rewritable DVD Drives 566

BD 567

HD-DVD 569

Optical Disc Formats 570

CD Formats 570

DVD Formats and Standards 578

Optical Disc File Systems 582

Ripping/Copying Discs 587

“For Music Use Only” CD-R/RW Discs 588

CD Copy Protection 588

CD Digital Rights Management 589

DVD and Blu-ray Copy Protection 589

Optical Drive Performance Specifications 593

CD Data Transfer Rate 593

CD Drive Speed 593

DVD Drive Speed 595

Access Time 598

Buffer/Cache 598

Direct Memory Access and Ultra-DMA 598

Interface 598

Loading Mechanism 599

Other Drive Features 600

How to Reliably Record Optical Discs 600

Booting from a Floppy Disk with Optical Drive Support 601

Bootable Optical Discs—El Torito 601

LightScribe and LabelFlash 602

Troubleshooting Optical Drives 602

Caring for Optical Media 606

Updating the Firmware in an Optical Drive 607

12 Video Hardware 609

Display Adapters and Monitors 609

Video Display Adapters 610

Video Adapter Types 610

Integrated Video/Motherboard Chipsets 611

CPUs with Integrated Video 616

Video Adapter Components 617

Identifying the Video and System Chipsets 619

Video RAM 620

The DAC 624

Video Display Interfaces 624

The System Interface 624

The Display Interface 626

TV Display Interfaces 641

3D Graphics Accelerators 642

How 3D Accelerators Work 642

APIs 645

Dual-GPU Scene Rendering 648

Monitors 650

Display Specifications 650

LCD Technology 661

LED Backlit Technology 663

CRT Display Technology 663

Plasma Display Technology 665

LCD and DLP Projectors 666

Using Multiple Monitors 667

Dualview 667

Homogeneous Adapters 668

Heterogeneous Adapters 668

Choosing the Best Display Hardware for a Particular Task 668

Video Troubleshooting and Maintenance 669

Troubleshooting Video Cards and Drivers 670

Video Drivers 672

Maintaining Monitors 672

Testing Monitors 673

Adjusting Monitors 674

Bad Pixels 675

Troubleshooting Monitors 676

Repairing Monitors 677

13 Audio Hardware 679

Audio Hardware Concepts and Terms 680

The Nature of Sound 680

Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Hardware 680

Sampling 681

Early PC Sound Cards 682

Limitations of Sound Blaster Pro Compatibility 682

Microsoft Windows and Audio Support 682

DirectX and Audio Support Hardware 683

Core Audio APIs for Windows 683

3D Gaming Audio Standards 684

Legacy Audio Support Through Virtualization 685

Audio Hardware Features 686

Basic Connectors 686

Audio Signal Processing Methods 688

Advanced Audio Features 688

Volume Control 690

MIDI Support Features 691

Data Compression 692

Sound Drivers 693

Sound Cards for Sound Producers 693

Motherboard Chipsets with Integrated Audio 694

Intel “Azalia” HD Audio 694

Troubleshooting PC Audio Problems 694

Sound Card and Onboard Audio Problems 695

Speakers 698

Speaker Selection Criteria 698

Theater and Surround Sound Considerations 699

Microphones 700

14 External I/O Interfaces 703

Introduction to Input/Output Ports 703

Serial Versus Parallel 703

Universal Serial Bus (USB) 704

IEEE 1394 (FireWire or i.LINK) 718

Comparing USB and IEEE 1394 (FireWire) 722

Thunderbolt Technology 728

Low-Speed External Connections 729

Serial Ports 730

Parallel Ports 734

15 Input Devices  739

Keyboards 739

Enhanced 101-Key Keyboard 739

103/104-Key Windows Keyboard 740

Keyboard Technology 742

Keyswitch Design 742

The Keyboard Interface 747

Typematic Functions 749

Keyboard Scan Codes 749

International Keyboard Layouts 750

Keyboard/Mouse Interface Connectors 751

USB Keyboards 753

Keyboards with Special Features 754

Keyboard Troubleshooting and Repair 754

Cleaning a Keyboard 755

Keyboard Recommendations 756

Pointing Devices 757

Mouse Sensitivity 758

Ball-Type Mice 758

Optical Mice 759

Pointing Device Interface Types 760

Scroll Wheels 762

Mouse Troubleshooting 764

Cleaning Your Mouse 765

Alternative Pointing Devices 765

Touchscreen Technology 770

Wireless Input Devices 771

Power Management Features of Wireless Input Devices 772

Troubleshooting Wireless Input Devices 773

16 Internet Connectivity 775

Internet Connectivity Trends 775

Broadband Internet Access Types 775

Cable TV 776

Digital Subscriber Line 779

Wireless Broadband 783

Cellular Broadband 3G and 4G Services 783

Satellite Broadband 784

ISDN 787

Leased Lines 788

Comparing High-Speed Internet Access 789

Dial-Up Modems 790

56Kbps Modems 791

Internet Connection Security 794

Having a Backup Plan in Case of Service Interruptions 795

Sharing Your Internet Connection 795

Routers for Internet Sharing 796

Modem/Router Status LEDs 797

17 Local Area Networking 799

Defining a Network 799

Types of Networks 800

Requirements for a Network 801

Client/Server Versus Peer Networks 801

Client/Server Networks 802

Peer-to-Peer Networks 803

Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks 804

Network Architecture Overview 804

Wired Ethernet 806

Wireless Ethernet 807

Bluetooth 813

Hardware Elements of Your Network 814

NICs for Wired Ethernet Networks 814

Network Cables for Wired Ethernet 816

Wired Network Topologies 824

Switches for Ethernet Networks 827

Wireless Ethernet Hardware 831

Network Protocols 836

IP and TCP/IP 836

IPX and NetBEUI 837

Other Home Networking Solutions 838

HomePNA 838

Power Line Networking 839

Putting Your Network Together 840

Network Adapters 840

Cables and Connections Between Computers 842

Switch/Access Point 842

18 Power Supplies 845

The Power Supply 845

Primary Function and Operation 845

Voltage Rails 846

The Power Good Signal 848

Power Supply Form Factors 849

Modern Form Factors 852

Power Switches 866

ATX and Newer 866

PC/XT/AT and LPX Power Switches 868

Motherboard Power Connectors 870

AT/LPX Power Supply Connectors 870

ATX and ATX12V Motherboard Power Connectors 872

Backward and Forward Compatibility 885

Dell Proprietary (Nonstandard) ATX Design 887

Additional Power Connectors 887

Peripheral Power Connectors 887

Floppy Power Connectors 888

Serial ATA Power Connectors 889

PCI Express Auxiliary Graphics Power Connectors 890

Power Supply Specifications 893

Power Supply Loading 893

Power Supply Ratings 895

Other Power Supply Specifications 896

Power Factor Correction 898

SLI-Ready and CrossFireX Certifications 900

Safety Certifications 900

Power-Use Calculations 901

Power Savings 903

80 Plus 903

ENERGY STAR 904

Advanced Power Management 904

Advanced Configuration and Power Interface 905

Power Cycling 908

Power Supply Troubleshooting 911

Overloaded Power Supplies 912

Inadequate Cooling 913

Using Digital Multimeters 913

Specialized Test Equipment 916

Power Supply Recommendations 918

Modular Cables 919

Sources for Replacement Power Supplies 919

Power-Protection Systems 919

Surge Suppressors (Protectors) 921

Network and Phone Line Surge Protectors 922

Line Conditioners 922

Backup Power 922

Real-Time Clock/Nonvolatile RAM (CMOS RAM) Batteries 925

Modern CMOS Batteries 925

Obsolete or Unique CMOS Batteries 927

CMOS Battery Troubleshooting 928

19 Building or Upgrading Systems 929

System Components 929

Before You Start: How to Decide What to Build 931

Case and Power Supply 933

Processor 934

Motherboard 935

Memory 936

I/O Ports 937

Hard Disk/Solid-State Drives 938

Removable Storage 939

Input Devices 939

Video Card and Display 940

Audio Hardware 940

Accessories 941

Hardware and Software Resources 942

System Assembly and Disassembly 942

Assembly Preparation 943

Installing the CPU and Heatsink 946

Installing Memory Modules 952

Mounting the New Motherboard in the Case 953

Preparing a Modular Power Supply 958

Connecting the Power Supply 958

Connecting I/O and Other Cables to the Motherboard 961

Installing the Drives 962

Installing a Video Card 967

Installing Additional Expansion Cards 969

Replacing the Cover and Connecting External Cables 969

System Startup 969

Installing the OS 971

Troubleshooting New Installations 972

20 PC Diagnostics, Testing, and Maintenance 975

PC Diagnostics 975

Diagnostics Software 975

The POST 976

Peripheral Diagnostics 989

Operating System Diagnostics 989

Commercial Diagnostics Software 990

Free/User Supported Diagnostics 991

The Boot Process 991

The Hardware Boot Process: Operating System Independent 992

The DOS Boot Process 996

The Windows 9x/Me Boot Process 997

Windows 2000/XP Startup 997

Windows Vista/7 Startup 998

Windows 8 Startup 998

PC Maintenance Tools 999

Hand Tools 1000

Safety 1003

Test Equipment 1004

Special Tools for the Enthusiast 1009

Preventive Maintenance 1011

Active Preventive Maintenance Procedures 1011

Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures 1016

Troubleshooting Tips and Techniques 1021

Repair or Replace? 1021

Basic Troubleshooting Steps 1021

Troubleshooting by Replacing Parts 1022

Troubleshooting by the Bootstrap Approach 1023

Problems During the POST 1024

Problems Running Software 1024

Problems with Adapter Cards 1025

Top Troubleshooting Problems 1025

9780789750006, ToC, 2/18/2013

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