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Uprising in East Germany 1953: The Cold War, the German Question and the First Major Upheavel Behind the Iron Curtain

Overview

The volume is the first documented account of this early Cold War crisis from both sides of the Iron Curtain. Based on the recent unprecedented access to the once-closed archives of several member states of the Warsaw Pact, this collection of primary-source documents presents one of the most notorious events of post-war European history.
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Overview

The volume is the first documented account of this early Cold War crisis from both sides of the Iron Curtain. Based on the recent unprecedented access to the once-closed archives of several member states of the Warsaw Pact, this collection of primary-source documents presents one of the most notorious events of post-war European history.
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Product Details

Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction and Acknowledgements
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Chronology of Events
Document No. 1 Soviet and East German Minutes of Conversations between Josef Stalin and SED Leaders in the GDR, 1 April and 7 April 1952 22
Document No. 2 CPSU CC Resolution Approving the Deployment of Border Guards along the Eastern Border of the GDR, 2 January 1953 43
Document No. 3 Memorandum of Discussion at the 13th Meeting of the National Security Council, 11 March 1953 44
Document No. 4 Draft Instructions for General Vasilii Chuikov and Vladimir Semyonov Regarding GDR Control of Borders, 18 March 1953 50
Document No. 5 Memorandum by Ivan Tugarinov, "On the Western Powers' Policy Regarding the German Question," 18 April 1953 52
Document No. 6 Memorandum on the German Question, from Georgii Pushkin and Mikhail Gribanov to Vyacheslav Molotov, 18 April 1953 67
Document No. 7 Soviet Foreign Ministry Memorandum, "Regarding Further Measures of the Soviet Government on the German Question," 28 April 1953 71
Document No. 8 Cable from N. Spencer Barnes to U.S. Department of State Reviewing Developments in the GDR since Stalin's Death, 30 April 1953 74
Document No. 9 Memorandum form Vladimir Semyonov to Vyacheslav Molotov Evaluating the Prospects for a Successful Resolution of the German Question, 2 May 1953 82
Document No. 10 Report on 4 May Disturbances at the Tobacco Depot in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 7 May 1953 86
Document No. 11 USSR Foreign Ministry Draft Memorandum, "On Further Soviet Government Measures Pertaining to the German Question," 8 May 1953 90
Document No. 12 Memorandum from the Soviet Ministry of Internal Affairs to Vladimir Semyonov, "On the Question of Preventing the Defection of Inhabitants from the GDR to West Germany," 15 May 1953 97
Document No. 13 Memorandum from General Vasilii Chuikov, Pavel Yudin, and Ivan Il'ichev to Georgii Malenkov Critically Assessing the Situation in the GDR, 18 May 1953 100
Document No. 14 CIA Report Evaluating Vladimir Semyonov's Appointment as Soviet High Commissioner for Germany, 29 May, 1953 110
Document No. 15 Cable from Ambassador Charles Bohlen to John Foster Dulles regarding the Transfer of Soviet Control in East Germany to Soviet High Commissioner Vladimir Semyonov, 29 May 1953 111
Document No. 16 Materials for a Meeting of the Organizational Secretariat of the CPCz CC, with Attached Report on Party Activities in Plzen in Connection with the Events of 1 June 1953, 31 July 1953 113
Document No. 17 Radio Free Europe Report on the Strikes in Plzen during Early June 1953, 8 September 1953 128
Document No. 18 USSR Council of Ministers Order "On Measures to Improve the Health of the Political Situation in the GDR," 2 June 1953 133
Document No. 19 Otto Grotewohl's Notes of Meetings between East German and Soviet Leaders in Moscow, 2-4 June 1953 137
Document No. 20 SED CC Politburo Minutes Discussing Moscow's Directives for the New Course, 6 June 1953 139
Document No. 21 Cable from Samuel Reber to U.S. Department of State Outlining U.S. Perspectives on Four-Power Talks, 13 June 1953 142
Document No. 22 Transcript of Conversations between the Soviet Leadership and a Hungarian Workers' Party Delegation in Moscow, 13 and 16 June 1953 144
Document No. 23 Letter from Lavrentii Beria to Georgii Malenkov Reflecting on the Events of Spring 1953, 1 July 1953 155
Document No. 24 Transcript of the CPSU CC Plenum Meetings Regarding Beria's Views on the German Question in Spring 1953, 2-3 July 1953 (Excerpts) 158
Document No. 25 Situation Report from Vladimir Semyonov and Andrei Grechko to Vyacheslav Molotov and Nikolai Bulganin, 17 June 1953, 7:26 a.m. Moscow Time (5:26 a.m. CET) 181
Document No. 26 Situation Report from Vladimir Semyonov and Andrei Grechko to Vyacheslav Molotov and Nikolai Bulganin, 17 June 1953, 11:15 a.m. CET 183
Document No. 27 Cable from the Czechoslovak Mission in Berlin to Foreign Minister Vaclav David, 17 June 1953, received 1:45 p.m. CET 185
Document No. 28 Radio Telegram from Vladimir Semyonov Providing Situation Report to Vyacheslav Molotov and Nikolai Bulganin, 17 June 1953, as of 2:00 p.m. CET 186
Document No. 29 Situation Report from the Czechoslovak Mission in Berlin to Foreign Minister Vaclav David, 17 June 1953 188
Document No. 30 Situation Report from Andrei Grechko and A. Tarasov to Nikolai Bulganin, 17 June 1953, received 6:30 p.m. Moscow Time (4:30 p.m. CET) 190
Document No. 31 Situation Report from Andrei Grechko and A. Tarasov to Nikolai Bulganin, 17 June 1953, as of 5:30 p.m. CET 192
Document No. 32 Cable from Cecil Lyon to U.S. Department of State Relaying Minutes of the First Meeting of the Western Military Commandants in Berlin, 17 June 1953, 6:00 p.m. CET 194
Document No. 33 Situation Report from Andrei Grechko and A. Tarasov to Nikolai Bulganin, 17 June 1953, as of 11:00 p.m. Moscow Time (9:00 p.m. CET) 196
Document No. 34 Cable from Cecil Lyon to the State Department Reporting on Afternoon Meeting of the Western Commandants, 17 June 1953, 9:00 p.m. CET 198
Document No. 35 Telephonogram from Vladimir Semyonov and Marshal Vasilii Sokolovskii to Vyacheslav Molotov and Nikolai Bulganin Reporting on the Situation in East Berlin, 17 June 1953, as of 11:00 p.m. CET 200
Document No. 36 Pravda Correspondent P. Naumov to Dimitrii Shepilov, "Report on the Events in Berlin on 16 and 17 June 1953," 22 June 1953 202
Document No. 37 Situation Report from Marshal Vasilii Sokolovskii and Marshal Leonid Govorov to Nikolai Bulganin, 18 June 1953, 2:05 a.m. Moscow Time (12:05 a.m. CET) 208
Document No. 38 Psychological Strategy Board Memorandum from John M. Anspacher to George A. Morgan, 17 June 1953 210
Document No. 39 Cable from John Foster Dulles to HICOG Bonn on the Propaganda Value of the East Berlin Demonstrations, 17 June 1953, 7:02 p.m. EST (18 June 1953, 1:02 a.m. CET) 213
Document No. 40 Situation Report from Andrei Grechko and A. Tarasov to Nikolai Bulganin, 18 June 1953, as of 8:00 a.m. Moscow Time (6:00 a.m. CET) 214
Document No. 41 Situation Report from Andrei Grechko and A. Tarasov to Nikolai Bulganin, 18 June 1953, as of 1:00 p.m. Moscow Time (11:00 a.m. CET) 216
Document No. 42 Telephonogram from Vladimir Semyonov and Vasilii Sokolovskii to Vyacheslav Molotov Reporting on the Situation in East Berlin, 18 June 1953, as of 2:00 p.m. CET 217
Document No. 43 Situation Report from Andrei Grechko and A. Tarasov to Nikolai Bulganin, 18 June 1953, as of 6:00 p.m. Moscow Time (4:00 p.m. CET) 219
Document No. 44 Telegram from Cecil Lyon to U.S. Department of State Reporting on Developments in Berlin, 18 June 1953, 7:00 p.m. CET 220
Document No. 45 CIA Current Intelligence Review Analyzing the "Communist 'New Look'" and "Recent Unrest in Eastern Europe," 18 June 1953 222
Document No. 46 Minutes of Discussion at the 150th Meeting of the National Security Council on 18 June 1953, 19 June 1953 225
Document No. 47 Report from KGB Resident in Berlin Col. Ivan Fadeikin to Marshal Vasilii Sokolovskii, 19 June 1953 232
Document No. 48 Telephonogram from Vladimir Semyonov and Marshal Vasilii Sokolovskii to Vyacheslav Molotov and Nikolai Bulganin Reporting on the Situation in East Berlin, 19 June 1953, 3:35 p.m. CET 236
Document No. 49 CPCz Information Bulletin on Czechoslovak Reaction to the Events in East Germany, 19 June 1953 237
Document No. 50 Order from the Polish Minister of State Security, to Regional Branches Outlining Steps to be Taken to Limit Spillover of Events in East Germany, 19 June 1953 241
Document No. 51 CIA Current Intelligence Digest, "Comment on Berlin Rioting," 19 June 1953 243
Document No. 52 Situation Report from Andrei Grechko and A. Tarasov to Nikolai Bulganin, 20 June 1953, as of 10:00 a.m. Moscow Time (8:00 a.m. CET) 244
Document No. 53 Special Report No. 2 of the WUBP in Wroclaw (Poland), Regarding Spillover from Events in Berlin, 20 June 1953 245
Document No. 54 Memorandum from Karl Schirdewan to First Secretaries of the District Leadership of the SED, 21 June 1953 247
Document No. 55 Diary Entry from U.S. HICOG James B. Conant on the Effects of East Zone Troubles on Soviet Policy, 21 June 1953 248
Document No. 56 CIA Current Intelligence Bulletin on Comments by Charles Bohlen and the Deployment of Soviet Troops, 21 June 1953 249
Document No. 57 CPSU CC Memorandum to the SED CC, Enclosure to Minutes No. 40 from the SED Politburo Session of 21 June 1953, 23 June 1953 251
Document No. 58 Minute from Selwyn Lloyd to Winston Churchill, Reflecting British Perspectives on the Berlin Uprising, 22 June 1953 252
Document No. 59 Special Report No. 4 of the WUBP in Wroclaw (Poland), Noting the Spread of Rumors about East Germany, 23 June 1953 255
Document No. 60 Report from Vasilii Sokolovskii, Vladimir Semyonov, and Pavel Yudin "On the Events of 17-19 June 1953 in Berlin and the GDR and Certain Conclusions from These Events," 24 June 1953 257
Document No. 61 CIA Intelligence Memorandum, "Indications of [Soviet] Intentions in Europe," c. 24 June 1953 286
Document No. 62 CIA Information Report, "Continuing Resistance among Workers," 25 June 1953 288
Document No. 63 Memorandum from Secretary of the Moscow Committee N. Mikhailov to Nikita Khrushchev, 26 June 1953 289
Document No. 64 Report from Lt.-Gen. F. Fedenko to Lt.-Gen. N. D. Pavlovskii Summarizing Data on the Number of Participants in the East German Uprising, 27 June 1953 291
Document No. 65 Protocol #1 of a Meeting of the Vyshinskii Commission to Draft a Proposal Pertaining to the GDR, 2 July 1953 293
Document No. 66 Memorandum from Vladimir Semyonov and Pavel Yudin to Vyacheslav Molotov Regarding Inter-Zonal Movements in Berlin, 4 July 1953 295
Document No. 67 Otto Grotewohl's Handwritten Notes of a SED CC Politburo Meeting, 8 July 1953 297
Document No. 68 Report from Maj.-Gen. Sergei Dengin to Vladimir Semyonov, "On the Situation in the Soviet Sector of Berlin," 8 July 1953 299
Document No. 69 Memorandum from Georgii Pushkin to Andrei Vyshinskii Regarding Proposals Made by Semyonov, Sokolovskii and Yudin,9 July 1953 (Excerpt) 303
Document No. 70 Note from Sergei Kruglov to Georgii Malenkov, with Attached Communication from Pyotr Fedotov and Ivan Fadeikin Regarding the SED CC Politburo, 9 July 1953 309
Document No. 71 CIA Information Report, "Berlin Situation as of 5:00 p.m., 9 July 1953," 10 July 1953 314
Document No. 72 Memorandum from Sergei Kruglov to Georgii Malenkov Summarizing an East German Investigation into the Alleged Western Role in the Provocations of 17 June 15 July 1953 315
Document No. 73 Summary of Discussion at the 151st Meeting of the National Security Council, 25 June 1953 329
Document No. 74 NSC 158, "United States Objectives and Actions to Exploit the Unrest in the Satellite States," 29 June 1953 332
Document No. 75 Czechoslovak Communist Party Information Bulletin, 1 July 1953 335
Document No. 76 Memorandum of Informal Psychological Strategy Board Meeting, 1 July 1953 337
Document No. 77 Memorandum of Informal Psychological Strategy Board Meeting, 8 July 1953 339
Document No. 78 Report of the Chief of the WUBP in Olsztyn (Poland) for June 1953, 9 July 1953 (Excerpts) 341
Document No. 79 Memorandum of Telephone Conversation between John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles, 10 July 1953 344
Document No. 80 CIA Special Supplement to the Current Intelligence Weekly, 10 July 1953 345
Document No. 81 CIA Information Report, "Plans for Renewal of Strikes in East Germany," 13 July 1953 351
Document No. 82 Letter from President Eisenhower to Field Marshal Montgomery of Alamein, 14 July 1953 353
Document No. 83 Intelligence Advisory Committee, Special Estimate (SE-47), "Probable Effect of Recent Developments in Eastern Germany on Soviet Policy with Respect to Germany," 21 July 1953 355
Document No. 84 Letter from James Conant to John Foster Dulles, 28 July 1953 359
Document No. 85 Draft Resolution of the CPSU CC, c. 31 July 1953 361
Document No. 86 CIA Information Report, "Unrest over Food Packages," 7 August 1953 363
Document No. 87 Conclusions from Reports of the SED District Leaderships, 8 August 1953 364
Document No. 88 Cable from James Conant to John Foster Dulles, 8 August 1953 365
Document No. 89 Memorandum from John A. Bross to Allen Dulles Regarding Food Depots along Zonal Boundaries, 11 August 1953 366
Document No. 90 Memorandum from Leonid Brezhnev to Nikita Khrushchev, 20 August 1953 368
Document No. 91 Report of the Polish Diplomatic Mission in Berlin for the Period 21 June - 31 August 1953 (Excerpts), c. September 1953 371
Document No. 92 CIA Information Report, "Aftermath of the Riots," 10 September 1953 374
Document No. 93 HICOG Report on the U.S. Food Aid Program for East Germany, 17 September 1953 376
Document No. 94 CIA Information Report, "Estimated Damage as a Result of the June 16/17 Mass Demonstrations," 16 October 1953 390
Document No. 95 NSC Report No. 174, "United States Policy Toward the Soviet Satellites in Eastern Europe," 11 December 1953 392
Epilogue 415
Main Actors 423
Bibliography 427
Index 441
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