The US Intelligence Community / Edition 6

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The role of intelligence in US government operations has changed dramatically and is now more critical than ever to domestic security and foreign policy. This authoritative and highly researched book provides a detailed overview of America’s vast intelligence empire—its organizations, its operations (from spies on the ground to satellites thousands of miles in space), and its management structure. Relying on a multitude of sources, including hundreds of official documents, author Jeffrey T. Richelson provides an up-to-date picture that will allow students to understand the full scope of the US intelligence community’s organizations and activities and give valuable support to policymakers and military operations. Fully revised throughout, the sixth edition of this definitive text includes new material on intelligence organization, foreign and domestic intelligence collection and analysis, covert action, and cooperation with foreign intelligence services.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“This work by Richelson should be viewed as the ‘Rosetta Stone’ for understanding the intelligence community…Richelson’s approach is genius, specific, and straight to the point. The US Intelligence Community will prove to be very valuable for people less informed about the intelligence community, as it will be to experts who are already familiar with previous editions.”
International Journal on World Peace

“This is an indispensable guide to a subject that has often been shielded by secrets and lies. Richelson brings order and clarity to the astounding complexity of US intelligence. Thoroughly researched and carefully documented, this volume is the best place to begin exploring the intelligence community as it exists today.”
Steven Aftergood, Federation of American Scientists

“For years now, Jeff Richelson’s The US Intelligence Community has been the go-to book for experts and laymen alike who want to know the latest about espionage organization and tradecraft in the United States. Now with his sixth edition of this classic work, he reaches new heights of excellence in research and presentation. No one has ferreted out the details of this subject better than Dr. Richelson.”
Loch K. Johnson, Regents Professor, University of Georgia; Senior Editor, Intelligence & National Security

Praise for Previous Editions:

“The authoritative survey of the American cloak-and-dagger establishment.”
Washington Post Book World

“Fast as the CIA changes, Jeff Richelson is there with excellent sources and a solid grasp of the official terrain. The US Intelligence Community will be vital for any reader who wants to understand the evolution of American intelligence in the post-Cold War world.”
John Prados, author of The Soviet Estimate and Presidents’ Secret War

“Jeffrey Richelson’s new edition is still the best, most comprehensive overview of US intelligence. Required reading for anyone interested in what goes on behind America’s cloaks and daggers.”
David Wise, author of Nightmover: How Aldrich Ames Sold the CIA to the KGB for $4.6 Million

“The authoritative bible on the modern American intelligence establishment.”
Bob Woodward, author of Veil: The Secret Wars of the CIA, 1981-1987

Richelson is a senior fellow with the National Security Archive. Here he provides an updated edition of his detailed, comprehensive survey of America's intelligence empire<-->its collection and analysis organizations, their activities, and the management structure that oversees those activities. Given this purpose, he does not evaluate the community's effectiveness or comment on its wisdom or morality, though he does address some issues and challenges of the coming century. The data comes from interviews, official documents, and various print sources. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780813345116
  • Publisher: Westview Press
  • Publication date: 7/26/2011
  • Edition description: Sixth Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 624
  • Sales rank: 347,483
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Jeffrey T. Richelson received his PhD in political science from the University of Rochester and has taught at The University of Texas at Austin and American University, Washington, DC. A senior fellow at the National Security Archive in Washington, DC, Richelson has authored numerous works on intelligence, including A Century of Spies, The Wizards of Langley, and Spying on the Bomb.

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Table of Contents

List of Tables, Figures, and Photos xi

Preface xv

1 Intelligence 1

Intelligence 2

The Intelligence Cycle 4

Types of Intelligence 5

Targets 7

The Utility of Intelligence 9

The Intelligence Community 13

Notes 14

2 National Intelligence Organizations 17

Central Intelligence Agency 17

National Security Agency 30

National Reconnaissance Office 36

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency 42

Notes 47

3 Defense Department Intelligence: The Defense Intelligence Agency 57

History and Current Charter 57

Organizational Overview 61

Defense Counterintelligence and HUMINT Center 62

Directorate for MASINT and Technical Collection 67

Directorate for Analysis 68

Directorate for Intelligence, J2 72

National Media Exploitation Center 73

Defense Intelligence Operations Coordination Center 73

Notes 74

4 Military Service Intelligence Organizations 79

Army Intelligence Organizations 80

Navy Intelligence Organizations 85

Air Force Intelligence Organizations 89

Marine Corps Intelligence Organizations 100

Coast Guard Intelligence Organizations 102

Notes 104

5 Unified Command Intelligence Organizations 110

Africa Command 113

Central Command 114

European Command 115

Joint Forces Command 118

Northern Command 119

Pacific Command 122

Southern Command 123

U.S. Special Operations Command 124

U.S. Strategic Command 129

Transportation Command 130

Notes 132

6 Civilian Intelligence Organizations 138

Department of State Intelligence 138

Department of Energy Intelligence 141

Department of Homeland Security Intelligence 145

Department of Treasury Intelligence 148

Federal Bureau of Investigation 150

Drug Enforcement Administration Intelligence 156

Notes 159

7 Imagery Collection, Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination 169

Collection 171

Processing and Exploitation 187

Dissemination 191

Notes 194

8 Signals Intelligence 203

Space Collection 208

Airborne Collection 215

Ground Stations 222

Embassy and Consular Intercept Sites 224

Surface Ships 226

Underseas Collection 227

Notes 229

9 Measurement and Signature Intelligence 240

Space Collection 241

Airborne Collection 247

Ground Collection 251

Seaborne Collection 257

Undersea Collection 259

Notes 262

10 Space Surveillance 270

Dedicated SSN Sensors 273

Collateral SSN Sensors 277

Contributing SSN Sensors 279

Additional Space Surveillance Capabilities 282

Notes 284

11 Human Intelligence 292

Officers and Diplomats 294

Agents and Assets 297

Defectors and Émigrés 303

Detainees and POWs 307

Travelers 312

Notes 314

12 Open Sources, Technical Surveillance and Emplaced Sensors, and Document and Materiel Exploitation 321

Open Sources 322

Technical Surveillance and Emplaced Sensors 330

Document Exploiration 334

Materiel Exploitation 336

Notes 340

13 Cooperation with Foreign Services 347

Five Eyes 348

Australia 352

Canada 353

Germany 356

Israel 357

Joint Terrorism Intelligence Centers 361

Jordan 361

Mexico 362

Pakistan 363

United Kingdom 363

The United Nations and International Atomic Energy Agency 365

Notes 366

14 Analysis 373

Analysts 373

Analytical Techniques 374

Categories of Intelligence Products 375

Current Intelligence 376

Warning Intelligence 382

Estimates 383

Reports and Studies 386

Periodicals 389

Leadership Profiles 390

Reference Documents and Databases 393

Domestic Intelligence Analysis 397

Notes 400

15 Counterintelligence 409

Targets 410

Collection 413

Evaluation of Defectors 417

Research and Analysis 420

Disruption and Neutralization 423

Notes 425

16 Covert Action 431

Afghanistan 434

GST 436

Iran 438

Pakistan 439

Serbia 441

Somalia 441

Yemen 443

Notes 444

17 Managing National Intelligence 463

The President and the National Security Council 464

The Director of National Intelligence 468

National Intelligence Board 470

Joint Intelligence Community Council 470

Intelligence Community Executive Committee 472

Program Manager Group 472

National Intelligence Program 472

National Intelligence Council 473

National Counterterrorism Center 476

National Counterproliferation Center 478

National Counterintelligence Policy Board 480

National Counterintelligence Executive 480

National Counterintelligence Coordination-Center 480

Intelligence Community Directives 481

DNI Committees 482

Notes 487

18 Managing Defense Intelligence 493

The USD (I) 493

Defense Intelligence Executive Board (DIEB) 495

Military Intelligence Program 495

Military Intelligence Board 497

Defense Counterintelligence Board 500

Directives, Instructions, and DTMs 500

Notes 501

19 Managing Intelligence Collection, Covert Action, and Information Access 504

Managing Satellite Imaging 504

Managing SIGINT 506

Managing Sensitive Reconnaissance Missions 513

Managing MASINT 514

Managing HUMINT 516

Manging Covert Action 522

Managing Information Access 524

Notes 531

20 U.S. Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century 538

What Is the Intelligence Community? 539

Changing Targets and Technologies 541

Outside the Intelligence Community 543

Final Thoughts 546

Notes 547

Acronyms 549

Index 563

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