Use Cases: Requirements in Context [NOOK Book]

Overview

This book describes how to gather and define software requirements using a process based on use cases. It shows systems analysts and designers how use cases can provide solutions to the most challenging requirements issues, resulting in effective, quality systems that meet the needs of users.

Use Cases, Second Edition: Requirements in Context describes a three-step method for establishing requirements—an iterative process that produces increasingly refined requirements. Drawing ...

See more details below
Use Cases: Requirements in Context

Available on NOOK devices and apps  
  • NOOK Devices
  • NOOK HD/HD+ Tablet
  • NOOK
  • NOOK Color
  • NOOK Tablet
  • Tablet/Phone
  • NOOK for Windows 8 Tablet
  • NOOK for iOS
  • NOOK for Android
  • NOOK Kids for iPad
  • PC/Mac
  • NOOK for Windows 8
  • NOOK for PC
  • NOOK for Mac
  • NOOK Study

Want a NOOK? Explore Now

NOOK Book (eBook)
$25.49
BN.com price
(Save 42%)$43.99 List Price

Overview

This book describes how to gather and define software requirements using a process based on use cases. It shows systems analysts and designers how use cases can provide solutions to the most challenging requirements issues, resulting in effective, quality systems that meet the needs of users.

Use Cases, Second Edition: Requirements in Context describes a three-step method for establishing requirements—an iterative process that produces increasingly refined requirements. Drawing on their extensive, real-world experience, the authors offer a wealth of advice on use-case driven lifecycles, planning for change, and keeping on track. In addition, they include numerous detailed examples to illustrate practical applications.

This second edition incorporates the many advancements in use case methodology that have occurred over the past few years. Specifically, this new edition features major changes to the methodology's iterations, and the section on management reflects the faster-paced, more "chaordic" software lifecycles prominent today. In addition, the authors have included a new chapter on use case traceability issues and have revised the appendixes to show more clearly how use cases evolve.

The book opens with a brief introduction to use cases and the Unified Modeling Language (UML). It explains how use cases reduce the incidence of duplicate and inconsistent requirements, and how they facilitate the documentation process and communication among stakeholders.

The book shows you how to:

  • Describe the context of relationships and interactions between actors and applications using use case diagrams and scenarios
  • Specify functional and nonfunctional requirements
  • Create the candidate use case list
  • Break out detailed use cases and add detail to use case diagrams
  • Add triggers, preconditions, basic course of events, and exceptions to use cases
  • Manage the iterative/incremental use case driven project lifecycle
  • Trace back to use cases, nonfunctionals, and business rules
  • Avoid classic mistakes and pitfalls

The book also highlights numerous currently available tools, including use case name filters, the context matrix, user interface requirements, and the authors' own "hierarchy killer."

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Describes how to gather and define software requirements using a process based on use cases. First examines difficulties of requirements gathering and introduces both use cases and UML. Presents detailed ongoing examples and a four-step method for establishing requirements, with practical advice provided on planning, scheduling, estimating, and common mistakes. Other tools examined include the stakeholder interview, team organization, and quality assurance. Kulak is president and CEO of an Internet business and technology consulting firm; Guiney works with a company that provides management consulting and system integration services. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780133085150
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 4/13/2012
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 2
  • Sales rank: 614,906
  • File size: 17 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Daryl Kulak is the president and CEO of Water-Logic Software (water-logic.com), an Internet business and technology consulting firm based in Columbus, Ohio. He is a graduate of the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT) in Edmonton, Alberta. During much of his seventeen-year career managing software development projects in the United States and Canada, Daryl has focused on use cases, iterative/incremental development, and component design. Eamonn Guiney is a consultant at NewtonPartners (newtonpartners.com), a company that provides management consulting and system integration services to the money management industry. He is based in Sacramento, California. Eamonn creates business systems using a variety of tools, particularly object-oriented methodologies and use cases.

0321154983AB04012003

Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Use Cases: Requirements in Context came about, as most books probably do, as the result of a complaint. We felt that there weren't any good books that addressed use cases for requirements gathering. It seemed that a lot of people agreed that use cases were a perfectly good tool to solve the requirements problem, but no one had put down on paper any detailed process to help people understand how to use them this way. In fact, even as we write today, in late 1999, there is no book of this sort that we know of.

Requirements gathering has been a problem on almost every project we've been involved with. The fuzzy nature of requirements makes working with them slippery and unintuitive for most software analysts. Use cases are the first tool we've seen that addresses the specification and communication concerns usually associated with requirements gathering.

Although use cases in themselves are quite intuitive, the process around them is often done poorly. The questions that people have--How many iterations do I do? How fine-grained should a use case be?--are not answered or even addressed in most texts. This is probably because they are hard questions and the answers can vary greatly from one situation to another. However, they are important questions, and we decided to describe our own best practices as a first volley in what we hope will become a spirited industry dialog on how to generate requirements that will address user needs.

Use Cases: Requirements in Context is a practical book for the everyday practitioner. As consultants in the information technology industry, we employ use cases to specify business systems as part of ourdaily lives. We think we understand the issues facing people when they deliver software using tools such as the Unified Modeling Language and use cases. Our main intent is not to describe use case notation, although we do address that. Instead, we show a requirements process that addresses requirements gathering in a way that produces quality results.

While writing, we considered the factors that cause problems in requirements gathering, and we developed a use case method for delivering a requirements-oriented set of deliverables. The methodology breaks down the activity of producing requirements into a series of steps, and it answers the questions that usually come up when people employ use cases. This book relates directly to the real work of delivering a specification, managing that effort with a team, and getting the most bang for your buck.

The sample use cases and use case diagrams that appear throughout the book are also presented in Appendixes B and C. These appendixes demonstrate the development of the use cases and other requirements analysis artifacts through each phase of their development. Appendix B documents a business system for real estate, and Appendix C documents a business system for the garment industry.

We hope you enjoy this book. It was a labor of love for us. This is a process that works well for us. If it works for you, too, that's great. If it doesn't, perhaps you can adapt some of the tools, ideas, or suggestions to your own way of addressing the requirements problem.



0201657678P04062001
Read More Show Less

Table of Contents



Preface.


Preface to the First Edition.


1. The Trouble with Requirements.


First and Least of All.


What Is a Requirement?


Functional Requirements.


Nonfunctional Requirements.


Requirements Gathering, Definition, and Specification.


The Challenges of Requirements Gathering.


Finding Out What the Users Need.


Documenting Users' Needs.


Avoiding Premature Design Assumptions.


Resolving Conflicting Requirements.


Eliminating Redundant Requirements.


Reducing Overwhelming Volume.


Ensuring Requirements Traceability.


Issues with the Standard Approaches.


User Interviews.


Joint Requirements Planning Sessions.


Contract-Style Requirements Lists.


Prototypes.


Those Troublesome Requirements.



2. Moving to Use Cases.


It's All About Interactions.


The Unified Modeling Language.


Nine Diagrams.


Extending the UML with Stereotyping.


Introducing Use Cases, Use Case Diagrams, and Scenarios.


The Goals of Use Cases.


How Use Case Diagrams Show Relationships.


The Use Case Template.


Paths and Scenarios.


Use Cases Apply Here.


Use Cases for Inquiry-Only Systems.


Use Cases for Requests for Proposals.


Use Cases for Software Package Evaluation.


Use Cases for Non-Object-Oriented Systems.


Applying Use Cases to the Requirements Problem.



3. A Use-Case-Driven Approach to Requirements Gathering.


Requirements Specification Tools.


Principles for Requirements Success.


Three Steps for Gathering Requirements.


The Role of the Mission, Vision, Values.


The Role of the Statement of Work.


The Role of the Risk Analysis.


The Role of the Prototype.


The Roles of Use Cases.


Use Cases Are Effective Communication Vehicles.


Use Cases Can Be Used for Functional and Nonfunctional Requirements.


Use Cases Help Ensure Requirements Traceability.


Use Cases Discourage Premature Design.


The Role of the Business Rules Catalog.


Managing Success.



4. The Facade Iteration.


Objectives.


Users.


Project Team.


Industry Experts.


IT Management Group.


User Management Personnel.


Owners of the Data.


Steps in the Facade Iteration.


Create the Mission, Vision, Values.


Identify and Review Existing Documentation and Intellectual Capital.


Get the Executive Sponsor's Unique Viewpoint.


Review the Business Process Definitions.


Identify the Users, Customers, and Related Groups.


Interview the Stakeholders.


Create a Stakeholders List.


Find the Actors.


Create the Use Case Survey (A List of Facade Use Cases).


Collect and Document Nonfunctional Requirements.


Start the Business Rules Catalog.


Create a Risk Analysis.


Create a Statement of Work.


Begin Experimenting with User Interface Metaphors.


Begin User Interface Storyboards.


Get Informal Approval from the Executive Sponsor.


Tools.


The Use Case Diagram.


The Hierarchy Killer.


Use Case Name Filters.


Actor Filter.


Verb Filter.


Noun Filters.


Packages as Placeholders for Functionality.


Facade Filter.


Peer Review.


User Review.


Deliverables.


Roles.


Context.


Summary.



5. The Filled Iteration.


Objectives.


Steps.


Break Out Detailed Use Cases.


Create Filled Use Cases.


Add Business Rules.


Test the Filled Use Cases.


Put Some Things Off.


Tools.


The Stakeholder Interview.


IPA Filter.


White Space Analysis Filter.


Abstraction Filter.


Testing Use Cases with Scenarios.


Review.


Additional Use Cases.


Deliverables.


Roles.


Context.


Summary.



6. Focused Iteration.


Objectives.


What Are Focused Use Cases?


Steps.


Merge Duplicate Processes.


Bring Focus to Each Use Case.


Manage Scope Changes During This Iteration.


Manage Risks and Assumptions.


Review.


Tools.


Surplus Functionality Filter.


Narrow the Focus of the System.


Identify Surplus Functionality Inside the Use Case.


Vocabulary Filter.


Deliverables.


Roles.


Context.


Summary.



7. Managing Requirements and People.


Introduction.


Waterfall Lifecycle Management.


Nell and the Coffee Shop.


Disadvantages of Waterfall.


Alternatives to Waterfall.


Rapid Application Development (RAD).


Spiral.


Staged Delivery.


Holistic Iterative/Incremental (HI/I).


Introducing the Holistic Iterative/Incremental Use-Case-Driven Project Lifecycle.


The Meaning of Iterative.


The Meaning of Incremental.


The Meaning of Holistic.


The Meaning of Adaptivity.


Complex Adaptive Systems.


Process.


Principles of the Holistic Iterative/Incremental Software Lifecycle.


Manage Requirements Not Tasks.


The Important Goals Are the Business Goals--Dates and Budgets.


Think Like a Businessperson--What Have You Done for Me Lately?


Divide and Conquer.


Cut the Job into Programs and Projects.


Tie Everything Back to the Business.


Create Demonstrable Deliverables.


Learn the Art of "Good Enough" Quality.


The Pieces Will Be Smaller Than You Think.


Expect Negotiation, Not Specification.


Forget about Baselines and Sign-offs.


Estimate by Doing.


Calculate Return-on-Investment in a New Way Using Portfolios.



8. Requirements Traceability.


Tracing Back to Use Cases.


Analysis Model Traceability.


Design Model Traceability.


CRC Card Session Traceability.


Test Model Traceability.


User Interface Design Traceability.


Application Architecture Traceability.


Project Management Traceability.


Documentation and Training Traceability.


Product Marketing Traceability.


Security Traceability.


Release Planning.


Tracing Back to Nonfunctionals.


Tracing Back to Business Rules.


Structural Facts.


Action-Restricting and Action-Triggering Rules.


Calculations and Inferences.



9. Classic Mistakes.


Mistakes, Pitfalls, and Bruised Knees.


Classic Mistakes: Make Them and Move On.



10. The Case for Use Cases.


Why Did Use Cases Win?


Use Cases Are Sensible to Businesspeople.


Use Cases Are Traceable.


Use Cases Are an Excellent Scoping Tool.


Use Cases Don't Use a Special Language.


Use Cases Allow Us to Tell Stories.


The Alternatives Are Awful.


Use Cases Beyond Software.


Service Use Cases.


Business Use Cases.


Summary.



Appendix A. Real Estate Management System.


Overview.


The Use Cases.


The Actors.


Technical Requirements and Business Rules.


Scope Decisions.


List of Use Cases.


Refining the Requirements.


Investment Returns Calculation.


Tightening Requirements.



Appendix B. Integrated Systems.


Overview.


Background.


Problem Description.


Solution Analysis.



Appendix C. Instant Messaging Encryption.


Overview.


The Use Cases.



Appendix D. Order a Product from a Catalog.


Bibliography.


Index.

Read More Show Less

Preface

Use Cases: Requirements in Context came about, as most books probably do, as the result of a complaint. We felt that there weren't any good books that addressed use cases for requirements gathering. It seemed that a lot of people agreed that use cases were a perfectly good tool to solve the requirements problem, but no one had put down on paper any detailed process to help people understand how to use them this way. In fact, even as we write today, in late 1999, there is no book of this sort that we know of.

Requirements gathering has been a problem on almost every project we've been involved with. The fuzzy nature of requirements makes working with them slippery and unintuitive for most software analysts. Use cases are the first tool we've seen that addresses the specification and communication concerns usually associated with requirements gathering.

Although use cases in themselves are quite intuitive, the process around them is often done poorly. The questions that people have—How many iterations do I do? How fine-grained should a use case be?—are not answered or even addressed in most texts. This is probably because they are hard questions and the answers can vary greatly from one situation to another. However, they are important questions, and we decided to describe our own best practices as a first volley in what we hope will become a spirited industry dialog on how to generate requirements that will address user needs.

Use Cases: Requirements in Context is a practical book for the everyday practitioner. As consultants in the information technology industry, we employ use cases to specify businesssystems as part of our daily lives. We think we understand the issues facing people when they deliver software using tools such as the Unified Modeling Language and use cases. Our main intent is not to describe use case notation, although we do address that. Instead, we show a requirements process that addresses requirements gathering in a way that produces quality results.

While writing, we considered the factors that cause problems in requirements gathering, and we developed a use case method for delivering a requirements-oriented set of deliverables. The methodology breaks down the activity of producing requirements into a series of steps, and it answers the questions that usually come up when people employ use cases. This book relates directly to the real work of delivering a specification, managing that effort with a team, and getting the most bang for your buck.

The sample use cases and use case diagrams that appear throughout the book are also presented in Appendixes B and C. These appendixes demonstrate the development of the use cases and other requirements analysis artifacts through each phase of their development. Appendix B documents a business system for real estate, and Appendix C documents a business system for the garment industry.

We hope you enjoy this book. It was a labor of love for us. This is a process that works well for us. If it works for you, too, that's great. If it doesn't, perhaps you can adapt some of the tools, ideas, or suggestions to your own way of addressing the requirements problem.



Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)