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Vacuum Technology: Practice for Scientific Instruments / Edition 1
     

Vacuum Technology: Practice for Scientific Instruments / Edition 1

by Nagamitsu Yoshimura
 

ISBN-10: 3540744320

ISBN-13: 9783540744320

Pub. Date: 12/07/2007

Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Nanotechnology has reached a level where almost every new development and even every new product uses features of nanoscopic properties of materials. As a consequence, an enormous amount of scientific instruments is used in order to synthesize and analyze new structures and materials. Due to the surface sensitivity of such materials, many of these instruments

Overview

Nanotechnology has reached a level where almost every new development and even every new product uses features of nanoscopic properties of materials. As a consequence, an enormous amount of scientific instruments is used in order to synthesize and analyze new structures and materials. Due to the surface sensitivity of such materials, many of these instruments require ultrahigh vacuum that has to be provided under extreme conditions like very high voltages.

In this book, Yoshimura provides a review of the UHV related development during the last decades. His very broad experience in the design enables him to present us this detailed reference. After a general description how to design UHV systems, he covers all important issue in detail, like pumps, outgasing, Gauges, and Electrodes for high voltages.

Thus, this book serves as reference for everybody using UVH in his scientific equipment

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9783540744320
Publisher:
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date:
12/07/2007
Edition description:
2008
Pages:
353
Product dimensions:
6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

Designing of Evacuation Systems     1
Selection of Pumping Speed     2
Pumping-down Characteristics     2
Steady-State Evacuation     3
Roughing System     3
Backstreaming of RP Oil Vapor     4
Backstreaming of DP Oil Vapor     6
Overload in High-Vacuum Evacuation Systems     8
DP In-Series System     14
Ultrahigh Vacuum Electron Microscopes     27
Know-how Technology in Designing UHV Evacuation Systems     31
References     32
Vacuum Pumps     35
Mechanical Pumps     35
Diffusion Pumps     38
Turbomolecular Pumps     41
Dry Vacuum Pumps     45
Cryopumps     51
Vapor Pressures for Gases     55
Sputter Ion Pumps     56
Noble Pumps for Inert Gases     60
Getter Pumps     68
Titanium-Sublimation Pumps     68
Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) Pumps     69
Methods for Measuring Pumping Speeds     70
Orifice Method     70
Three-Gauge Method (Pipe Method)     71
Three-Point Pressure Method (3PP Method)     72
References     76
Simulation of Pressures in High-Vacuum Systems     85
Conventional Calculation of System Pressures     85
3A Vacuum Circuits     87
Basic Concept of Vacuum Circuits     87
Designing of Vacuum Circuits     89
Simulation of Pressures     91
Resistor-Network Simulation Method     91
Matrix Calculation of Pressures     94
3B Molecular-Flow Conductance     108
Conductance     108
Transmission Probability     109
3C Gas-Flow Patterns     117
References     119
Outgassing     123
Process of Outgassing     123
Diffusion     124
Recombination-limited Outgassing     134
Data of Outgassing     136
Stainless Steel     136
Electro-polishing and Vacuum Firing     137
Aluminum Alloy, Copper and Titanium     147
Permeation Through Elastomer Seals     148
Evaporation     156
Methods for Measuring Outgassing Rates     157
Differential Pressure-rise Method [4-41]     159
Variable Conductance Method [4-43]     161
Conductance Modulation Method [4-44]      164
Two-Point Pressure Method and One-Point Pressure Method [4-45]     167
References     168
Phenomena Induced by Electron Irradiation     175
5A Electron/Photon Stimulated Desorption (ESD/PSD)     176
5B Polymerization of Hydrocarbon Molecules     182
Transport of Hydrocarbon Molecules in High Vacuum     182
Transport of Hydrocarbon Molecules in Ultrahigh Vacuum     185
Materials to be Polymerized by Electron Beam Irradiation     192
5C Darkening in Secondary Electron Images in SEM     195
5D Etching of Carbonaceous Specimens     198
References     199
Vacuum Gauges     205
Mechanical Gauges     207
Capacitance Manometer     207
Thermal Conductivity Gauges     209
Pirani Gauge     209
Viscosity Gauges     211
Spinning Rotor Gauge     211
Crystal Oscillation Gauge     214
Ionization Gauges     217
Penning Gauge     217
Sputter Ion Pump as a Pressure Indicator     220
Bayard-Alpert Ionization Gauge     221
Extractor Gauge     228
Hot-Cathode Magnetron Ionization Gauge     231
Cold-Cathode Ionization Gauge for UHV     232
Magnetic Sector [6-24]     234
Quadrupole Mass-Filter [6-24]     236
Mass Spectra Cracking Patterns     238
Outgassing from Ionization Gauges with Incandescent Filaments     239
Gas Species Emitted from Ionization Gauges with Incandescent Filaments     244
New Gauges for Measuring Extreme High Vacuum     247
References     257
Microdischarges in High Vacuum     265
7A Microdischarges over Insulator Surfaces     266
Factors     266
Charging of Dielectric Surfaces     266
Gas Molecules on Insulator Surfaces     275
Triple Junction     278
Surface Flashover in SF[subscript 6] Gas     280
Review     281
7B Microdischarges between High-Voltage Electrodes     282
Anode-Initiation Mechanism     282
Ion-Exchange Process and Total-Voltage Effect     286
Projection (Whisker) on Cathode     291
Gas Molecules on Electrode Surfaces     291
Ar-Glow Conditioning     292
High-Voltage Conditioning (HVC)     293
Conditioning Effect     294
Review     296
References     296
Emitters for Fine Electron Probes     301
Keywords     301
8A W FE Emitter     304
Characteristics     304
Remolding     306
Emission Noise     312
Build-up Treatment     317
FE-Initiated Vacuum Arc     318
Morphological Changes of Tip     320
FE-Related Technology     321
Review     324
8B ZrO/W Emitter     325
Characteristics     325
Surface Geometry     326
Properties     329
8C LaB[subscript 6] Emitter     332
Characteristics     332
Mounting Methods     333
Material Loss     338
Properties     340
Review     340
8D Other FE Emitters     341
References     341
Index     345

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