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It is not uncommon to hear that poor school performance, welfare dependancy, youth unemployment, and criminal activity result more from shortcomings in the personal makeup of individuals than from societal forces beyond their control. Are American values declining as so many suggest? And are those values at the root of many social problems today?
Shaped by experience and public policies, people's values and social norms do change. What role can or should a democratic government play in shaping values? And how do these values conditon the efficacy of public policy?
In this book, six distinguished social scientists identify trends in America's values and their consequences, and consider public policy tools with which some of those values might be changed.
Daniel Yankelovich begins with a discussion of how American values have shifted in the last half-century, and argues that affluence is the driving force behind these changes in values. James Q. Wilson argues that destructive habits which can lead to social pathologies, like crime and drug use, are set early in life; he examines how public policy might intervene when children are young to promote better values. David Popenoe maintains that America has veered too far towards industrialist values, and explores the resulting decline of families and many attendant social ills. Nathan Glazer describes the history and present status of the dispute over multicultural education. Jane Mansbridge examines the process of building cooperation, consensus, and public spirit. And George Akerlof and Janet L. Yellen discuss the problem of gang criminality.
Inthe past, social scientists have often sidestepped questions about values as undefinable, unquantifiable, and somehow unscientific. The essays in this volume address these questions at last.
Henry J. Aaron, director of the Economic Studies program at Brookings, is the authorof numerous books, including most recently Serious and Unstable Condition: Financing America's Health Care (1991), and coeditor of Setting Domestic Priorities (1992). Thomas E. Mann is director of the Brookings Governmental Studies program, coeditor of Media Polls in American Politics (1992), and coauthor of the Renewing Congress series (1993). Timothy Taylor is managing editor of the Journal of Economic Perspectives at Stanford University.
|The Affluence Effect||5|
|Culture, Incentives, and the Underclass||6|
|Families, Values, and Family Values||7|
|Public Spirit and Private Interest||9|
|Crime and the Community||9|
|Values and Preferences, Norms, and Habituation||10|
|Defining the Problem and Fixing It||11|
|2||How Changes in the Economy Are Reshaping American Values||16|
|Truth and Relevance||24|
|Major Changes in Values||29|
|3||Culture, Incentives, and the Underclass||54|
|What Incentives Cannot Explain||57|
|What Is Culture?||63|
|4||The Family Condition of America: Cultural Change and Public Policy||81|
|Biosocial Bases of the Family||82|
|Cultural Change: Collectivism to Individualism||83|
|Advanced Societies Today: Cultural Trade-Offs||87|
|The Problem of America: Overindividualism||89|
|Restoring Civil Society in America||91|
|Nuclear Families: The Vital Factor||95|
|Rebuilding the Nest||101|
|The New Familism: A Hopeful Trend||105|
|5||Multiculturalism and Public Policy||113|
|The Central Challenge of Multiculturalism: Identity and Effectiveness||115|
|A New Word for an Old Problem||122|
|The New York Story||130|
|Can Truth Alone Guide Us?||133|
|Where Is Multiculturalism Headed?||138|
|6||Public Spirit in Political Systems||146|
|Solving Problems through Public Spirit||147|
|Private Spirit Can Lead to Political Breakdown||149|
|The Role of Public Spirit||150|
|Creating Public Spirit in Political Systems||153|
|Public Spirit in the United States: A Decline?||160|
|7||Gang Behavior, Law Enforcement, and Community Values||173|
|The Protagonists: Gangs, Community, Government||176|
|A Model of Gang Behavior||183|
|Community Norms and Crime Fighting Strategies||188|
|Long-Run Consequences of Changing Norms||191|
|Control over Territory||194|
|Long-Run Equilibrium and Extensions of the Model||204|