Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate: A New Perspective on an Interactive System / Edition 1

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Overview

A state-of-the-art overview of the influence of terrestrial vegetation and soils within the Earth system. The text deals especially with interactions between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere via the hydrological cycle and their interlinkage with anthropogenic activities. Measurements gathered in integrated field experiments in the Sahel, the Amazon, North America and South-east Asia confirm the importance of these interactions. Observations are complemented by modelling studies, including regional models that simulate flows and transport in river catchments, coupled land-cover and regional climate systems, and Earth-system and global circulation models. Water, nutrient and sediment fluxes in river basins are also discussed and are shown to be highly impacted and regulated by humans through land use, pollution and river engineering. Finally, the book discusses environmental vulnerability and methodologies for assessing the risks associated with regional and global climatic and environmental variability and change.

The results reported in this book are based on the research work of many individual scientists and teams around the world associated with the objectives of the IGBP-BAHC and WCRP-GEWEX international research programmes.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783540424000
  • Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
  • Publication date: 6/14/2004
  • Series: Global Change - The IGBP Series (closed)
  • Edition description: 2004
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 589
  • Product dimensions: 7.89 (w) x 10.66 (h) x 1.38 (d)

Table of Contents

Pt. A Does land surface matter in climate and weather? 5
A.1 Introduction 7
A.2 The climate near the ground 9
A.3 The regional climate 21
A.4 The global climate 33
A.5 The Sahelian climate 59
A.6 The Amazonian climate 79
A.7 The Boreal climate 93
A.8 The Asian monsoon climate 115
A.9 Summary, conclusion and perspective 129
Pt. B How measurable is the earth system? 155
B.1 Introduction 157
B.2 The energy balance closure problem 159
B.3 Radiation measurements in integrated terrestrial experiments 167
B.4 Surface turbulent fluxes 173
B.5 Accuracy and utility of aircraft flux measurements 183
B.6 Boundary layer budgeting 189
B.7 Vegetation structure, dynamics and physiology 199
B.8 Remote sensing and land-surface experiments 207
B.9 The water balance concept - how useful is it as a guiding principle for the design of land-atmosphere field experiments? 213
B.10 Use of field experiments in improving the land-surface description in atmospheric models : calibration, aggregation and scaling 221
B.11 Further insight from large-scale observational studies of land/atmosphere interactions 229
Pt. C The value of land-surface data consolidation 245
C.1 Motivation for data consolidation 247
C.2 Existing degrees of consolidation 255
C.3 Achieving full data consolidation 267
C.4 Terrestrial data assimilation 273
C.5 Conclusions 289
Pt. D The integrity of river and drainage basin systems : challenges from environmental change 297
D.1 Introduction 299
D.2 Responses of hydrological processes to environmental change at small catchment scales 301
D.3 River basin responses to global change and anthropogenic impacts 339
D.4 Responses of continental aquatic systems at the global scale : new paradigms, new methods 375
D.5 Case study 1 : integrated analysis of a humid tropical region - the Amazon Basin 415
D.6 Case study 2 : integrated ecohydrological analysis of a temperate developed region : the Elbe River Basin in Central Europe 429
D.7 Case study 3 : modelling the impacts of land use and climate change on hydrological responses in the mixed underdeveloped/developed Mgeni catchment, South Africa 441
D.8 Conclusions : scaling relative responses of terrestrial aquatic systems to global changes 455
Pt. E How to evaluate vulnerability in changing environmental conditions? 481
E.1 Introduction 483
E.2 Predictability and uncertainty 485
E.3 Contrast between predictive and vulnerability approaches 491
E.4 The scenario approach 497
E.5 The vulnerability approach 499
E.6 Case studies 515
E.7 Conclusions 537
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