Ventilation for Control of the Work Environment / Edition 2

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Overview

The second edition of Ventilation Control of the Work Environment incorporates changes in the field of industrial hygiene since the first edition was published in 1982. Integrating feedback from students and professionals, the new edition includes problems sets for each chapter and updated information on the modeling of exhaust ventilation systems, and thus assures the continuation of the book's role as the primary industry textbook.
This revised text includes a large amount of material on HVAC systems, and has been updated to reflect the changes in the Ventilation Manual published by ACGIH. It uses both English and metric units, and each chapter concludes with a problem set.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"…clearly a definitive first class publication on industrial ventilation…if your goal is to expand your knowledge of ventilation this a great place to start." (Chemical Health and Safety, January-February 2005)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471095323
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 6/11/2004
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 424
  • Product dimensions: 6.38 (w) x 9.63 (h) x 1.03 (d)

Meet the Author

WILLIAM A. BURGESS is Associate Professor of Occupational Health Engineering, Emeritus, at the Harvard School of Public Health. He is the 1996 recipient of the Donald E. Cummings Memorial Award of the American Industrial Hygiene Association, and the author of Recognition of Health Hazards in Industry (Wiley).

MICHAEL J. ELLENBECKER is Professor of Industrial Hygiene in the Department of Work Environment at the University of Massachusetts Lowell and the Director of the Toxics Use Reduction Institute. A Certified Industrial Hygienist, Dr. Ellenbecker received his ScD in environmental health sciences from Harvard.

ROBERT D. TREITMAN, a graduate of Brown University and the Harvard School of Public Health, has done extensive research and consulting in industrial hygiene and indoor air pollution. He is currently Vice President and co-owner of Softpro, Inc., in Waltham, Massachusetts.

CONTRIBUTORS–Professor Michael Flynn, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, has contributed a chapter introducing the application of computational methods to the study of ventilation. Martin Horowitz, an industrial hygiene pr actitioner at Analog Devices, has presented an overview of the techniques for the identification and control of contaminant reentry.

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Table of Contents

List of Units.

Preface.

1 Ventilation for Control.

1.1 Control Options.

1.2 Ventilation for Control of Air Contaminants.

1.3 Ventilation Applications.

1.4 Case Studies.

1.5 Summary.

References.

2 Principles of Airflow.

2.1 Airflow.

2.2 Density.

2.3 Continuity Relation.

2.4 Pressure.

2.4.1 Pressure Units.

2.4.2 Types of Pressure.

2.5 Head.

2.6 Elevation.

2.7 Pressure Relationships.

2.7.1 Reynolds Number.

2.8 Losses.

2.8.1 Frictional Losses.

2.8.2 Shock Losses.

2.9 Losses in Fittings.

2.9.1 Expansions.

2.9.2 Contractions.

2.9.3 Elbows.

2.9.4 Branch Entries (Junctions).

2.10 Summary.

List of Symbols.

Problems.

3 Airflow Measurement Techniques.

3.1 Measurement of Velocity by Pitot–Static Tube.

3.1.1 Pressure Measurements.

3.1.2 Velocity Profile in a Duct.

3.1.3 Pitot–Static Traverse.

3.1.4 Application of the Pitot–Static Tube and Potential Errors.

3.2 Mechanical Devices.

3.2.1 Rotating Vane Anemometers.

3.2.2 Deflecting Vane Anemometers (Velometer).

3.2.3 Bridled Vane Anemometers.

3.3 Heated-Element Anemometers.

3.4 Other Devices.

3.4.1 Vortex Shedding Anemometers.

3.4.2 Orifice Meters.

3.4.3 Venturi Meters.

3.5 Hood Static Pressure Method.

3.6 Calibration of Instruments.

3.7 Observation of Airflow Patterns with Visible Tracers.

3.7.1 Tracer Design.

3.7.2 Application of Visible Tracers.

List of Symbols.

References.

Manufacturers of Airflow Measuring Instruments.

Manufacturers of Smoke Tubes.

Problems.

4 General Exhaust Ventilation.

4.1 Limitations of Application.

4.2 Equations for General Exhaust Ventilation.

4.3 Variations in Generation Rate.

4.4 Mixing.

4.5 Inlet / Outlet Locations.

4.6 Other Factors.

4.7 Comparison of General and Local Exhaust.

List of Symbols.

References.

Problems.

5 Hood Design.

5.1 Classification of Hood Types.

5.1.1 Enclosures.

5.1.2 Exterior Hoods.

5.1.3 Receiving Hoods.

5.1.4 Summary.

5.2 Design of Enclosing Hoods.

5.3 Design of Exterior Hoods.

5.3.1 Determination of Capture Velocity.

5.3.2 Determination of Hood Airflow.

5.3.3 Exterior Hood Shape and Location.

5.4 Design of Receiving Hoods.

5.4.1 Canopy Hoods for Heated Processes.

5.4.2 Hoods for Grinding Operations.

5.5 Evaluation of Hood Performance.

List of Symbols.

References.

Appendix: Exterior Hood Centerline Velocity Models.

Problems.

6 Hood Designs for Specific Applications.

6.1 Electroplating.

6.1.1 Hood Design.

6.1.2 Airflow.

6.2 Spray Painting.

6.2.1 Hood Design.

6.2.2 Airflow.

6.3 Processing and Transfer of Granular Material.

6.4 Welding, Soldering, and Brazing.

6.5 Chemical Processing.

6.5.1 Chemical Processing Operations.

6.6 Semiconductor Gas Cabinets.

6.6.1 Entry Loss.

6.6.2 Optimum Exhaust Rate.

6.7 Low-Volume / High-Velocity Systems for Portable Tools.

Example 6.1 Calculation of Exhaust Rate for Open-Surface Tanks.

Example 6.2 Design of a Low-Volume / High-Velocity Exhaust System.

List of Symbols.

References.

7 Chemical Laboratory Ventilation.

7.1 Design of Chemical Laboratory Hoods.

7.1.1 Vertical Sliding Sash Hoods.

7.1.2 Horizontal Sliding Sash Hoods.

7.1.3 Auxiliary Air Supply Hoods.

7.2 Face Velocity for Laboratory Hoods.

7.3 Special Laboratory Hoods.

7.4 Laboratory Exhaust System Features.

7.4.1 System Configuration.

7.4.2 Construction.

7.5 Factors Influencing Hood Performance.

7.5.1 Layout of Laboratory.

7.5.2 Work Practices.

7.6 Energy Conservation.

7.6.1 Reduce Operating Time.

7.6.2 Limit Airflow.

7.6.3 Design for Diversity.

7.6.4 Heat Recovery.

7.6.5 Ductless Laboratory Hoods.

7.7 Performance of Laboratory Hoods.

7.8 General Laboratory Ventilation.

References.

Problems.

8 Design of Single-Hood Systems.

8.1 Design Approach.

8.2 Design of a Simple One-Hood System (Banbury Mixer Hood).

8.3 Design of a Slot Hood System for a Degreasing Tank.

8.3.1 Loss Elements in a Complex Hood.

8.3.2 Degreaser Hood Design Using Velocity Pressure Calculation Sheet (Example 8.2).

8.4 Pressure Plot for Single-Hood System.

List of Symbols.

Example 8.1 Banbury Mixer System Designed by the Velocity Pressure Method.

Example 8.2 Degreaser System Designed by the Velocity Pressure Method.

References.

Appendix: Metric Version of Example 8.1.

Problems.

9 Design of Multiple-Hood Systems.

9.1 Applications of Multiple-Hood Systems.

9.2 Balanced Design Approach.

9.3 Static Pressure Balance Method.

9.3.1 Foundry Cleaning Room System (Example 9.1).

9.3.2 Electroplating Shop (Example 9.2).

9.4 Blast Gate Balance Method.

9.5 Other Computational Methods.

List of Symbols.

Example 9.1 Foundry Cleaning Room Designed by Static Pressure Balance Method.

Example 9.2 Electroplating Shop System Designed by Static Pressure Balance Method.

References.

Additional Reading.

Appendix: Metric Version of Example 9.1.

10 Fans and Blowers.

10.1 Types of Air Movers.

10.1.1 Axial Flow Fans.

10.1.2 Centrifugal Fans.

10.1.3 Air Ejectors.

10.2 Fan Curves.

10.2.1 Static Pressure Curve.

10.2.2 Power Curve.

10.2.3 Mechanical Efficiency Curve.

10.2.4 Fan Laws.

10.2.5 Relationship between Fan Curves and Fan Tables.

10.3 Using Fans in Ventilation Systems.

10.3.1 General Exhaust Ventilation Systems.

10.3.2 Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems.

10.4 Fan Selection Procedure.

List of Symbols.

References.

Problems.

11 Air-Cleaning Devices.

11.1 Categories of Air-Cleaning Devices.

11.1.1 Particle Removers.

11.1.2 Gas and Vapor Removers.

11.2 Matching the Air-Cleaning Device to the Contaminant.

11.2.1 Introduction.

11.2.2 Device Selection.

11.3 Integrating the Air Cleaner and the Ventilation System.

11.3.1 Gravity Settling Devices.

11.3.2 Centrifugal Collectors.

11.3.3 Filters.

11.3.4 Electrostatic Precipitators.

11.3.5 Scrubbers.

11.3.6 Gas and Vapor Removers.

List of Symbols.

References.

Problems.

12 Replacement-Air Systems.

12.1 Types of Replacement-Air Units.

12.2 Need for Replacement Air.

12.3 Quantity of Replacement Air.

12.4 Delivery of Replacement Air.

12.4.1 Replacement-Air System 1 (RAS-1), Melting Furnaces.

12.4.2 Replacement-Air System 2 (RAS-2), Floor Casting.

12.4.3 Replacement-Air System 3 (RAS-3), Sand Handling.

12.4.4 Replacement-Air System 4 (RAS-4), Shakeout.

12.5 Replacement Air for Heating.

12.6 Energy Conservation and Replacement Air.

12.7 Summary.

References.

13 Quantification of Hood Performance.

13.1 Hood Airflow Measurements.

13.2 Hood Capture Efficiency.

13.2.1 Influence of Cross-Drafts on Hood Performance.

13.2.2 Relationship between Airflow Patterns and Capture Efficiency.

13.2.3 Shortcomings of the Centerline Velocity Approach.

13.3 Use of Capture Efficiency in Hood Design.

List of Symbols.

References.

14 Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Ventilation System Design.

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Methods.

14.2.1 Grid-Based Methods.

14.2.2 Grid-Free Methods.

14.3 Applications.

14.3.1 Historical Perspectives.

14.3.2 Current Progress.

14.4 Issues on the Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics.

14.5 Commercial Codes: Public-Domain Information.

References.

Appendix.

15 Reentry.

15.1 Airflow around Buildings.

15.2 Measurement of Reentry.

15.3 Calculation of Exhaust Dilution.

15.4 Scale Model Measurement.

15.5 Design to Prevent Reentry.

15.5.1 Stack Height Determination.

15.5.2 Good Engineering Practices for Stack Design.

List of Symbols.

References.

Problems.

Index.

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