The Violence of Hate: Confronting Racism, Anti-Semitism, and Other Forms of Bigotry / Edition 3

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Editorial Reviews

Taking the position that support for racism and anti-Semitism originates in the tacit approval of mainstream society, Levin (sociology and criminology, Northeastern U.) offers a comparative study of hate and prejudice that focuses primarily on racism in American society and anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany. The societal roots of hate are examined in operative and theoretical terms. The way that tacit approval encourages of active bigots is examined and the societal benefits to dominant groups of racism and bigotry are described. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

Meet the Author

JACK LEVIN, Ph.D. is the Irving and Betty Brudnick Professor of Sociology and Criminology and co-director of the Brudnick Center on Conflict and Violence at Northeastern University, where he teaches courses in prejudice and violence. He has authored or co-authored 30 books and hundreds of articles in professional journals and columns in newspapers, such as The New York Times, Boston Globe, Dallas Morning News, Philadelphia Inquirer, Christian Science Monitor, Chicago Tribune, and USA Today. He appears frequently on national television programs, including 48 Hours, 20/20, Dateline NBC, The Today Show, Good Morning America, Oprah, Rivera Live, Larry King Live, and all network newscasts. Dr. Levin was honored by the Massachusetts Council for Advancement and Support of Education as its “Professor of the Year," and was the recipient of the American Sociological Association's 2009 Public Understanding of Sociology Award. He has spoken to a wide variety of community, academic, and professional groups, including the White House Conference on Hate Crimes, the Department of Justice, the Department of Education, and the International Association of Chiefs of Police.

JIM NOLAN is an associate professor in the Division of Sociology and Anthropology at West Virginia University where he teaches courses on the topic of deviance and hate crime. His research currently focuses on community policing, intergroup relations, and the measurement of hate crimes and other crimes that are reported to the police. Dr. Nolan’s professional career began as a police officer in Wilmington, Delaware. He is a 1992 graduate of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) National Academy. Just prior to joining the faculty at West Virginia University, Dr. Nolan worked for the FBI as a unit chief in the Crime Analysis, Research and Development Unit that provided management oversight for the National Hate Crime Data Collection Program. He was recently involved in a project sponsored by the Organization for Security & Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) to implement hate crime reporting throughout Europe. His recent publications have appeared in the American Behavioral Scientist, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, The Justice Professional, Policing & Society, Criminal Justice Studies, Homicide Studies, Journal of Criminal Justice, and The American Sociologist. Dr. Nolan earned a Ph.D. from Temple University. His graduate work focused on the study of group and social processes.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Chapter 1 Perspectives on Hate and Violence 1

Hate, Prejudice, and Discrimination 1

Transforming the Terms 1

Prejudice Versus Discrimination 2

The Role of the Individual 4

Hate as a Justification for Violence 5

Social Construction of Differences 6

When Stereotypes Turn Nasty 9

Is Hate on the Decline? 11

Underestimating Bigotry 13

The Difference Between Small and Insignificant 15

Hate Crimes Are Vastly Under-Reported 16

It Takes Only a Few Bad Apples 19

Threatening Situations Can Inspire Hate 19

A Continuing Racial Gap 23

The Obama Factor 26

Is the Significance of Hate on the Decline? 27

The Environmental View 28

The Hereditary View 33

The Situationist View of Hate and Violence 40

Conclusion 44

Chapter 2 Hate Crimes 45

Motive Matters 45

The Hate Crime Statistics Act 46

The FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting Program 47

NIBRS Hate Crime Data 47

Why Now? 51

Pros and Cons of Hate Crime Laws 51

Hate Crime Laws Today 53

Federal Civil Rights Statutes 56

New Federal Legislation (2009) 57

State Hate Crime Statutes 58

Hate Crime Laws and the U.S. Constitution 61

Policing Hate Crimes 63

Seeing Hate Crimes 66

Intension and Extension of the Term "Hate Crime" 67

Classification of Hate Crime Incidents 70

Why is this Distinction Important? 74

Hate Crimes in Europe 75

The Roma in Europe 76

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Violence 77

Conclusion 79

Chapter 3 A Typology of Hate 81

Hatemongers 81

The Role of Organized Hate 82

Hate from a Distance 83

Biblical Bigotry 83

The Militia Movement and White Supremacy 85

Expanding the Influence of Organized Hate 87

Dabblers 90

Getting a Thrill 90

Being Defensive 93

Getting Even 97

Sympathizers 99

Behind Closed Doors 100

An Eliminationist Anti-Semitism 100

Cultural Hate 101

Culture Transcends Generations 104

Spectators 105

The Failure to Act 105

Middleman Minorities 107

Middleman Minorities in the United States 108

The American Version of Spectatorship 109

Conclusion 112

Chapter 4 The Benefits of Bigotry 115

Protest by Proxy 122

Psychological Advantages 126

Enhancing and Protecting Self-Esteem 127

Reducing Uncertainty 132

Economic and Status Advantages 133

Getting the Dirty Work Done 133

Eliminating Opponents 136

Maintaining Political Power 144

Conclusion 145

Chapter 5 The Production of Rebels, Deviants, and Other Decent People 147

The Power of the Situation 147

When Normal People Do Abnormally Nasty Things 147

Fighting Spectatorship 149

Intergroup Contact 150

The Impact of Competition 150

Reducing Hostility Between Groups 151

Structuring Opportunities for Cooperation 153

Follow the Leader 156

Obeying Orders 157

The Role of Leadership 159

The Impact of Deviance 161

When Rebels Rebel 162

The Importance of Empathy Across Groups 163

Human Agency: The Ability to Create "Good" Situations 167

The Agentic Perspective 167

Collective Efficacy in Neighborhoods 170

Neighborhood Agency and Collective Efficacy 170

Conclusion 173

Appendix A Anti-Hate Websites 175

Appendix B Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act 177

References 189

Index 203

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