Virtual Bio-Instrumentation : Biomedical, Clinical, and Healthcare Applications in LabVIEW / Edition 1

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Overview

Bringing the power of virtual instrumentation to the biomedical community.

  • Applications across diverse medical specialties
  • Detailed design guides for LabVIEW and BioBench applications
  • Hands-on problem-solving throughout the book
  • Laboratory, clinical, and healthcare applications
  • Numerous VI's with source code, plus several demos, are available on the book's web site

Virtual instrumentation allows medical researchers and practitioners to combine the traditional diagnostic tools with advanced technologies such as databases, Active X, and the Internet. In both laboratory and clinical environments, users can interact with a wealth of disparate systems, facilitating better, faster, and more informed decision making. Virtual Bio-Instrumentation: Biomedical, Clinical, and Healthcare Applications in LabVIEW is the first book of its kind to apply VI technology to the biomedical field.

  • Hands-on problems throughout the book demonstrate immediate practical uses
  • Examples cover a variety of medical specialties
  • Detailed design instructions give the inside view of LabVIEW and BioBench applications

Both students and practicing professionals will appreciate the practical applications offered for modeling fundamental physiology, advanced systems analysis, medical device development and testing, and even hospital management and clinical engineering scenarios.




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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130652164
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
  • Publication date: 12/18/2001
  • Series: National Instruments Virtual Instrumentation Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 603
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Jon B. Olansen began his career as a NASA flight controller, supporting 32 Space Shuttle missions. He obtained his Ph.D. as a National Instruments Fellow at Rice University, where he specialized in biomedical experimentation in electrophysiology and cardiovascular hemodynamics. He has since returned to NASA, representing the Astronaut Office in the design, development, and operation of human life sciences experiments destined for the International Space Station.


Eric Rosow has over 16 years of experience in biomedical engineering and life science applications of virtual instrumentation. He is Director of Biomedical Engineering at Hartford Hospital, where he introduced virtual instrumentation into the hospital environment. He is also a co-founder of Premise Development Corporation, a software company for the biomedical and healthcare industries, and has co-developed numerous virtual instrument solutions for leading healthcare institutions throughout the world.

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1: Introduction

General Goals of VBI Applications
Educational Objectives
Professional Objectives
Previous Knowledge Requirements
Organization of the Book
Book Conventions
What This Book Is
What This Book Is Not
Research and Clinical Applications
Medical Device Development and Test Applications
Healthcare and Informatics Applications
Advanced Applications
Contents of the CD-ROM

Virtual bio-instrumentation (VBI) is a phrase we coined to encompass the nearly unbounded potential for innovative utilization of virtual instrumentation in biomedicine, healthcare, and related industries. Thus, this book is designed as a reference tool for a wide variety of biomedical and healthcare professionals, from practitioners to clinical engineers, to administrators, to designers and manufacturers of medical devices, to students studying within the biomedical spectrum. The real-world examples described herein serve merely as representative samples of the types of applications possible with virtual instrumentation. Concepts include:

  • Reenactment of classical biomedical experiments for educational purposes,
  • Applications in clinical research,
  • Applications in clinical engineering and hospital management, and
  • Advanced applications such as mathematical modeling and Internet solutions.
The common thread through all of these applications is their computer-based nature, all of them being developed and conducted in a virtual instrumentation (VI) environment. This is accomplished using LabVIEW™ or BioBench™ software from National Instruments (Austin, TX) .

Representative applications are discussed in detail to assist professionals and students alike in their project development. These applications are intended to introduce readers to the benefits of virtual instrumentation in the various fields of biomedical experimentation, from measurement and data acquisition requirements to subsequent data analysis techniques. VBI projects included in the book fit one of the following categories. They

  • Demonstrate fundamental physiological properties,
  • Demonstrate advanced analysis capabilities that explore potential research topics,
  • Demonstrate clinical utilization of virtual instrumentation,
  • Demonstrate functions related to medical device development and tests, or
  • Demonstrate hospital management or clinical engineering concepts.

General Goals of VBI Applications

Because this book has been written for a broad audience, we have incorporated a variety of VBI applications. Let's review the diverse objectives of these applications in the following sections.

Educational Objectives

It is difficult to design laboratory exercises using complex scientific equipment and still have the student learn the concepts being demonstrated. Using LabVIEW to facilitate the data generation and collection changes the focus from learning how to use the equipment to learning the physiological concepts being presented in the lab. Because LabVIEW allows designing simple, easy-to-use interfaces, how v r, care must be taken not to make the virtual instruments (VIs) so simple to use that students may not see the details of the measurement process. Instructors must ensure that students do not leave the lab thinking that measuring physiologic phenomena means you click once on a button and the data magically appears. Many of the VIs included with this book are, in fact, somewhat advanced in that they automate many of the routine portions of data collection. They are intended not only for teaching the appropriate lab but also as a robust basis for building more advanced research projects. It is therefore incumbent on the reader to use the VIs, or potions thereof, appropriately and to ensure that they understand the efforts and issues involved in collecting such data.

Although experimental projects need not focus on basic science, it is an important approach to demonstrating these classical topics. The biological theories involved are interesting and informative. Combining that with experience in experiment development, live tissue dissection and preparation, and experimental control and data acquisition would only enhance the learning environment and the quality of education that the students obtain. The VBI exercises described herein thus allow students to learn the concepts of the phenomena first, and to learn the measurement system second.

Professional Objectives

LabVIEW is a powerful tool for students during their education. It also is a tool for use after graduation in the workplace, where LabVIEW can be applied to procedures specific to the graduate's job duties. The applications in this book introduce students and professionals alike to LabVIEW-based systems but do not teach them everything there is to know about LabVIEW programming. The LabVIEW programs, called virtual instruments, or VIs, that accompany this book demonstrate the potential uses of VBI throughout the healthcare industry. Our goal is to provide you with a general background in applying LabVIEW to address a broad spectrum of biomedical needs. This book can thus serve as a reference to guide the medical professional in development of VBI applications or as a resource detailing the potential enhancements VBI can convey to his or her workflow model through improved data collection, analysis, or management capabilities.

Previous Knowledge Requirements

The tutorials in this book were developed with a target education level equivalent to that required for a junior-level college course in biomedical engineering. Before utilizing or building upon the applications contained in this book, readers should understand the scientific and mathematical principles relevant to their field of study. In particular, the following list details some commonly considered prerequisites for this type of development work:
  • Differential and integral calculus
  • The concept of temperature
  • Spreadsheet analysis of data, charts, linear regression, and semi-log graphs
  • Newton's laws and vector forces
  • The ideal gas law
  • Concepts of current, voltage, and resistance
  • Measurement of current, voltage, and resistance with a digital multimeter

Organization of the Book

The following pages present information regarding general educational goals of the book, any unique laboratory or clinical design information, and layout and setup descriptions of a computer-based instrumentation workstation. The main body of the book consists of descriptions of established applications, including notes specifying how the application or experiment may be used and any lab setup, objectives, and background information that may be required.

Book Conventions

The following text conventions are used in this book:
Bold
Words in bold refer to LabVIEW menus, menu items, palettes, subpalettes, functions, and VI's. For example, File.

Italics
Words in italics are for emphasis.

Courier Words in Courier indicate drive names, libraries, directories, pathnames, . filenames, and sections of programming code.

<Shift> Angle brackets enclose names of keys.

What This Book Is

This book is a tool for engineers, scientists, practitioners, investigators, or instructors conducting biomedical or clinical research, developing or testing medical devices, or practicing clinical engineering or management functions. It is intended as a resource guide for developing computer-based applications using LabVIEW and other National Instruments products.

The content of this book is intended to be useful at a variety of educational levels including undergraduate engineering/preprofessional or graduate/ medical school students through practicing biomedical professionals. Numerous projects are described herein, with concepts ranging from basic neural electrophysiology to cardiovascular hemodynamics to Internet-based biomedical applications. Substantial effort has gone into ensuring that all of the projects are well documented with many applications included on the accompanying CD-ROM. These programs should serve as a learning tool upon which you can build your own virtual applications. Background material on the pertinent physiology and notes and tips on laboratory setup and programming techniques are also included in each description. Due to the modular nature of the LabVIEW software being used, many of the programs included with this book can be readily adapted to similar studies that other instructors or researchers may be more interested in pursuing.

What This Book Is Not

The applications described in this book are not intended to be out-of-the-box or plug-and-play type exercises. Some modifications will be necessary depending on your specific setup, curriculum, and pedagogical style. This book is not intended to dictate a specific pedagogy. Some pedagogical elements are inherent in the applications. But these elements are minimized because each instructor, each institution, and each program has specific needs and systems. For example, some of the units discussed herein were designed as a subset of the laboratory portion of a three-credit undergraduate biomedical engineering course. Students were instructed to study material in lecture and outside of the lab and classroom. If you are designing a standalone lab course, you will need to change the exercises presented.

Also, the VIs included with this book carry no warranty expressed or implied. As with the book itself, the software is meant to be a starting point for the user developing her or his own applications.

Research and Clinical Applications

Part II discusses specific biomedical laboratory and research applications using virtual instrumentation. A particular emphasis is placed on biopotentials and cardiopulmonary dynamics as representative samples of biomedical research work that can be aided and accomplished through the use of VBI. Part III provides real-world clinical applications ranging from virtual instrumentation systems that measure lung diffusing capacity and oxygen consumption to cardiac output measurement systems to machine-vision systems that can measure wounds and quantify the rates at which they heal.

Medical Device Development and Test Applications

Part IV discusses how virtual instrumentation is used to test and validate medical devices. Examples provided in Chapter 7 range from test and measurement systems used in the manufacturing environment to those used in the clinical environment. Chapter 8 has been devoted specifically to discussing the testing and validation processes required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) . Particular attention will be placed on general validation principles that the FDA considers to be applicable to the validation of medical device software or the validation of software used to design, develop, or manufacture medical devices. Practical examples of LabVIEW-based automation tools that assist developers with the challenge of creating large, complex, and mission-critical applications will also be demonstrated. For this chapter, we have drawn upon the expertise of established LabVIEW professionals engaged in the fields of regulatory process development and quality management....
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Table of Contents

I: Preliminaries
1: Introduction
2: Basic Concepts
II: Research Applications
3: Biopotentials
4: CardioPulmonary Dynamics
III: Clinical Applications
5: CardioPulmonary Applications
6: Biomedical Machine Vision Applications
IV: Medical Device Development and Test Applications
7: Device Testing
8: LabVIEW in a Regulated Environment
V: Medical Informatics and Information Management Systems
9: Medical Informatics
10: Executive Dashboards
VI: Advanced Topics
11: Mathematical Modeling of Physiologic Systems
12: Virtual Bio-Instrumentation, LabVIEW, and the Internet
13: Future Potential
Appendices
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Preface

Preface

Graphical Programming and Virtual Instrumentation: Applying Revolutionary Techniques to Advance the Healthcare Industry

Over the last decade, the graphical programming revolution has empowered engineers to develop customized systems the same way the spreadsheet has empowered business managers to analyze financial data. This software technology has resulted in another type of revolution—the virtual instrumentation revolution, which is rapidly changing the instrumentation industry by driving down costs without sacrificing quality.

Virtual instrumentation can be defined as

A layer of software and/or hardware added to a general-purpose computer in such a fashion that users can interact with the computer as though it were their own custom-designed traditional electronic instrument.

The major benefits of virtual instrumentation include increased performance and reduced costs. Because the user controls the technology through software, the flexibility of virtual instrumentation is unmatched by traditional instrumentation. The modular, hierarchical programming environment of virtual instrumentation is inherently reusable and reconfigurable.

Virtual instrumentation applications have encompassed nearly every industry, including the telecommunications, automotive, semiconductor, and biomedical industries. In the fields of healthcare and biomedical engineering, virtual instrumentation has empowered developers and end-users to conceive of, develop, and implement a wide variety of research-based biomedical applications and executive information tools. These applications fall into several categories, including clinical research, equipment testing and quality assurance, data management, and performance improvement.

This book opens the boundless potential of virtual instrumentation (VI) into the wide variety of disciplines that exist within the biomedical domain. The power of virtual bio-instrumentation (VBI) is demonstrated not only through the interfacing of VI with traditional medical instruments and devices but also by effectively leveraging other technologies, including the Internet, machine vision, ActiveX components, and integrated database applications. We use specific examples within this book to highlight VBI applications in the laboratory and clinical environment, connectivity to patient information systems, computerized maintenance and management systems (CMMS), and business intelligence and decision support applications. Each VBI application consists of detailed descriptions and, in many cases, interactive demonstrations of how virtual instrument solutions have been conceived and developed to meet specific end-user requirements within the biomedical and healthcare arena. Collectively, these applications support better, faster, and data-driven decisions, thereby enhancing clinical outcomes and reducing costs to the participating healthcare institutions.

As practicing biomedical engineers and virtual instrumentation "evangelists," we wrote this book to inform and, hopefully, inspire you about the ever-expanding capabilities of virtual instrumentation systems within the biomedical and healthcare fields. Many traditional books on bio-instrumentation concentrate on theoretical principles--this book focuses entirely on real-world applications. We refer to these applications as virtual bio-instrumentation, or VBI. Throughout each section and chapter, you'll discover many practical biomedical applications that have been created with LabVIEW. Each example will provide detailed explanations of its design, implementation processes, and utility. We particularly emphasize methods for measurement, analysis, presentation, and distribution of biomedical and health system information. Throughout this book, we have striven to identify common challenges associated with the measurement, analysis, and presentation of information; and we provide you with practical solutions and proven problem-solving techniques from experienced scientists, engineers, clinicians, and healthcare administrators.

Regardless of your application or your experience with LabVIEW, it is our sincere wish that, through this book and the virtual instrument (VI) examples contained on the accompanying CD-ROMs, you will gain insight and appreciation for the many ways in which virtual instrumentation can be applied to the biomedical and healthcare industry.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Preface

Graphical Programming and Virtual Instrumentation: Applying Revolutionary Techniques to Advance the Healthcare Industry

Over the last decade, the graphical programming revolution has empowered engineers to develop customized systems the same way the spreadsheet has empowered business managers to analyze financial data. This software technology has resulted in another type of revolution—the virtual instrumentation revolution, which is rapidly changing the instrumentation industry by driving down costs without sacrificing quality.

Virtual instrumentation can be defined as

A layer of software and/or hardware added to a general-purpose computer in such a fashion that users can interact with the computer as though it were their own custom-designed traditional electronic instrument.

The major benefits of virtual instrumentation include increased performance and reduced costs. Because the user controls the technology through software, the flexibility of virtual instrumentation is unmatched by traditional instrumentation. The modular, hierarchical programming environment of virtual instrumentation is inherently reusable and reconfigurable.

Virtual instrumentation applications have encompassed nearly every industry, including the telecommunications, automotive, semiconductor, and biomedical industries. In the fields of healthcare and biomedical engineering, virtual instrumentation has empowered developers and end-users to conceive of, develop, and implement a wide variety of research-based biomedical applications and executive information tools. These applications fall into several categories,including clinical research, equipment testing and quality assurance, data management, and performance improvement.

This book opens the boundless potential of virtual instrumentation (VI) into the wide variety of disciplines that exist within the biomedical domain. The power of virtual bio-instrumentation (VBI) is demonstrated not only through the interfacing of VI with traditional medical instruments and devices but also by effectively leveraging other technologies, including the Internet, machine vision, ActiveX components, and integrated database applications. We use specific examples within this book to highlight VBI applications in the laboratory and clinical environment, connectivity to patient information systems, computerized maintenance and management systems (CMMS), and business intelligence and decision support applications. Each VBI application consists of detailed descriptions and, in many cases, interactive demonstrations of how virtual instrument solutions have been conceived and developed to meet specific end-user requirements within the biomedical and healthcare arena. Collectively, these applications support better, faster, and data-driven decisions, thereby enhancing clinical outcomes and reducing costs to the participating healthcare institutions.

As practicing biomedical engineers and virtual instrumentation "evangelists," we wrote this book to inform and, hopefully, inspire you about the ever-expanding capabilities of virtual instrumentation systems within the biomedical and healthcare fields. Many traditional books on bio-instrumentation concentrate on theoretical principles--this book focuses entirely on real-world applications. We refer to these applications as virtual bio-instrumentation, or VBI. Throughout each section and chapter, you'll discover many practical biomedical applications that have been created with LabVIEW. Each example will provide detailed explanations of its design, implementation processes, and utility. We particularly emphasize methods for measurement, analysis, presentation, and distribution of biomedical and health system information. Throughout this book, we have striven to identify common challenges associated with the measurement, analysis, and presentation of information; and we provide you with practical solutions and proven problem-solving techniques from experienced scientists, engineers, clinicians, and healthcare administrators.

Regardless of your application or your experience with LabVIEW, it is our sincere wish that, through this book and the virtual instrument (VI) examples contained on the accompanying CD-ROMs, you will gain insight and appreciation for the many ways in which virtual instrumentation can be applied to the biomedical and healthcare industry.

Read More Show Less

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