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PART I. OVERVIEW.
Crime Challenges in the Twenty-First Century. Terrorism. The Police. Law. Corrections. Technology. Gender, Diversity, and the Law.
PART II. CRIME CHALLENGES IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY.
Abstract. Introduction. History of Juvenile Justice. Emergent Themes and Trends in Juvenile Justice. Promising Strategies for Youth Intervention. Issues for the Future Juvenile Justice System.
Abstract. Introduction. Gang Origins, Composition, and Characteristics. Police Response. Strategies for the Future. Summary and Policy Implications.
Abstract. Forecasting Future Developments. The Situation Victims Faced in the Late Twentieth Century. Anticipating the Situation of Victims in the Early Twenty-First Century by Projecting Existing Trends. The Perils of Crystal Ball Gazing.
Abstract. Introduction. Crime Reporting and Public Perceptions. Crime Reporting and Official Crime Statistics.Conclusions.
Abstract. Introduction. Justice System Interventions with Drug Users. Current Practices in Drug Offender Intervention. Milieu Approaches. Paradigm Shift in Drug Policy. Medical Marijuana. Conclusions.
Abstract. An Overview of Identity Theft. Commission of a Crime. Safeguarding Identity. Conclusion.
Abstract. New Concern for an Old Problem. Methods and Sources. What Is Pornography? The Pornography Industry. The Pornography-Harm Link. Sex Education and Citizen Action. Law and Law Enforcement. Explaining the Differences Between the 1970 and 1986 Commissions. The Rise of the Internet. Issues for the Future.
Abstract. Introduction. The Crisis in Justice Administration. The Crisis in the Discipline of Criminal Justice.
PART III. TERRORISM.
Terrorism in History. Contemporary Terrorism. Conclusion: Terrorism and Local Law Enforcement.
Introduction. Profiling in the War on Terror. Special Registration Program. Misuse of Detention. Government Secrecy. The 2003 Inspector General's Report. Conclusion.
Introduction. The Nature of Terrorism. Typology of Terrorism. Historical Roots of Terrorism. The Changing Face of Terrorism. Vulnerabilities to Modern Terrorism. Major Changes in the Characteristics of Recent Terrorism. Key Definitions of Terrorism. Assessing the Current Terrorist Threat. Charting the Future of Terrorism. National Responses to the Terrorist Threat. Conclusions.
Introduction. Initiation. Intention. Conversion. Boundaries. Reparation. Lessons Learned. Conclusion.
Introduction. Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Overview. Biological Agents. Terrorism and the Use of Nuclear Material. First Responder Safety—Time, Distance, and Shielding. The Private Sector's Role. Policies and Procedures, Protocols and Plans. Conclusion.
PART IV. THE POLICE.
Introduction. Specialized Domestic Violence Units. The Role of Technology in a Coordinated Community Response. Community Wide Intervention Programs. Model Police Departments. The Response of the Courts to Domestic Violence. Conclusion.
Abstract. Introduction. Domestic Violence Statistics. Police Response to Domestic Violence in the Mid-1990s. A Model Domestic Violence Intervention Program. Summary and Conclusions.
Abstract. Introduction. The Crime Problem. Policing in the Early Twenty-first Century. Civilian Oversight. Conclusions.
Introduction. Historic Forces. The Social Landscape of the 1960's and 1970's. Legal Forces. Conclusion.
Competing Views of Police Corruption. The History of Corruption in the NYPD. Compstat and Corruption Control. Conclusion.
Abstract. Introduction. Incidents of Malfeasance. The Learning Organization: Concepts and Applications. The “Ripple Effect.” Recommendations. Conclusions.
PART V. LAW.
Abstract. Introduction. The Post-Gregg Years: 1976-1983. The Post-Gregg Years: 1983-2002. The Post-Gregg Years: 2002-2003. The Supreme Court and the Prospects for Abolishing Capital Punishment. Conclusions.
Abstract. Introduction. The State of the Law as of the End of the Twentieth Century. New Issues for the Twenty-First Century. Criminal Justice Issues Not Related to the Bill of Rights. Conclusions.
Abstract. History of the Birth of Civil Liberties and the Constitutional Right to Freedom. America's Fear of Communism Permits Its Citizens' Loss of Liberty. The Red Scare and the Loss of Citizens' Civil Liberties. The Right to Free Speech vs. National Security. The U.S. Patriot Acts I and II. Conclusion.
PART VI. CORRECTIONS.
Abstract. Introduction. Living with HIV and AIDS. Living in Prison and Jail. AIDS in Correctional Facilities. Unique Problems. HIV/AIDS Medical Treatment. Theoretical Models. Policy Recommendations. Research Initiatives. Summary and Conclusion.
Abstract. Cycles in Orientation Toward the Sentencing of Criminal Offenders. Mediating Influences. Contemporary Practices. Habitual Offender Statutes. Sentence Enhancement. Restricted Housing. Determinate Sentences and Parole. Unintended Consequences. The Twenty-First Century.
Abstract. Commerce with Criminals: For-Profit Incarceration in American History. The Panopticon and Private Profit. Labor and Confinement: The Racial History of For-Profit Imprisonment in America. Contemporary Prison Privatization in America. Supply and Demand: Prison Overcrowding as Good Business. Current Scope of Prison Privatization. Themes in Today's Debate About Prison Privatization. Caveat Emptor: “Hidden Costs.” “Creaming,” “Skimming,” and “Cherry Picking.” “Free Market Competition” (Benefits) vs. Service-Provider Captivity (Risks). Contract and Monitoring Business. High Turnover. Legal Issues. Construction Costs of Prison Facilities. “Mass Imprisonment” and Prison Privatization. Conclusion: Moral, Racial, and Ethical Issues.
PART VII. TECHNOLOGY.
History of Forensic Science. Specialty Areas of Forensic Science. Admissibility and Use of Forensic Evidence in Court. Some Additional Forensic Organizations. Conclusion.
Introduction. Biometric Scanning. Illegal Activities Detection Technology. Smart Card. Electro-Shock Devices. Monitoring and Surveillance Technology. Video Teleconferencing. Issues Regarding the Use of Technology. Constitutional Issues. Recommendations. Summary.
Abstract. Introduction. Efforts to Create Safer Schools. Bivariate Relationships. Conclusion.
Abstract. Introduction. Workforce Issues for the Decade. Twenty-First Century Workforce Trends: Personnel Dilemmas for Criminal Justice Organizations and Workplaces. Barriers to Criminal Justice Organizational Change. Emerging Models of Criminal Justice Organizational Change. Conclusions.
PART VIII. GENDER, DIVERSITY AND THE LAW.
Abstract. Introduction. History. Sexual Harassment. The Need for a National Commitment to End Violence Against Women. Summary. Agenda for Change.
Abstract. Introduction. Methodology: Students' Perceptions of Women in U.S. Policing. Findings. Discussion. Implications. Conclusions. Acknowledgements.
A Theoretical Beginning. The Pathway to Civil Rights and Affirmative Action. The Administration of Law. Female Criminality. Extralegal Factors. Conclusion.
Abstract. Introduction. What is Diversity. Diversity in Law Enforcement. Diversity in the Court System. Diversity in Corrections. Diversity in Criminal Justice Education and Research. Recommendations for Achieving and Maintaining Diversity.
PART IX. CONCLUSIONS/SUMMING UP!
About the Authors and Contributors. About the Authors/Editors. Contributors.
It is an accepted fact that in the field of criminal justice, the courts dispense justice. The crime challenges that face us in the twenty-first century appear to be as serious as they were in previous centuries but probably more so because of the use of advanced technology that has turned our world into a "global village:" The dimensions of the crime scene have changed. It is vital to blend research with creativity to shape a vision for the future, a vision that moves of well beyond the status quo. This fourth edition of Visions for Change: Crime and Justice in the Twenty-First Century is a representation of all changes reflective in this new century.
This work has added many new chapters and has updated all other chapters. Each chapter in Visions for Change examines the most promising and reform-oriented policies, programs, and technological advances necessary for this new century. The text reads as a "who's who in criminal justice." We review contemporary issues, including that of terrorism that has touched us since September 11, 2001, as well as advanced uses of technology. The area of law has had to adapt to the changes in this "new world" we live in relative to reducing the rights of citizens to a certain extent. All issues, including gender and race, which continue to be a serious problem within the criminal justice system, are examined with the most up-to-date research available.
The development of juvenile justice laws has grown in the last 100 years; gangs seem to be an ever-growing population, not yet controlled; and the media continue to misrepresent the criminal justice system, forever giving us headlines that are meant to"terrorize" rather than necessarily represent the true picture. The problem of drugs continues to haunt us, and we look to alternatives in treatment. A new crime, that of identity theft, has evolved. An identity thief needs only one thing—a Social Security number; with it, the thief can decimate a victim's life and credit. Deterioration of the family and other social control institutions do not help as we examine the laws regarding obscenity and pornography. The current state of justice administration continues to pose very fundamental challenges as examined in this work.
Terrorism, a word that once was unthinkable in this country, is very much on the minds of all Americans. The war on terror in the wake of what occurred on September 11, 2001, on what was to be a regular working day for nearly 3,000 people, has assumed a new timbre not only in the homeland but around the world. The types of anti-terrorism legislation that has been and will be adopted in nations around the world are similar to those that were once thought to be useful in repressive states, including the criminalization of peaceful demonstrations, security with a new focus on asylum seekers, and the detainment of individuals without a trial, reminiscent of the days when we "incarcerated" Japanese Americans in concentration-like camps at the start of World War II. What of corporate security, and how are we dealing with this type of activity? It's all new to us, yet we must be prepared to act quickly.
Law enforcement still faces problems today. We recognize that community policing as envisioned may not be the solution that we once thought. We still deal with problems of domestic violence as well as current practices toward the managing of corruption in our own police departments. There is a cry for organizational changes; the use of excessive force is noted in many a police department.
The death penalty is still with although the former governor of Illinois declared the death penalty to be null and void finding that nearly 100 persons on death row were innocent of their crimes or were not as "guilty" as believed. The prediction is that by 2050, there will no longer be in place the death penalty because Americans and the courts themselves will find that through the proper use of technology, not all inmates believed to be guilty will actually be found guilty. As the only Western civilization that executes it citizens, the United States will find itself once again declaring the death penalty void.
Our civil liberties have been attacked since the start of this new century, and all cases since our last edition have been added, indicating the challenges to our Bill of Rights. Additionally, the passage of the U.S. Patriot Act has impacted our civil rights through denying rights originally guaranteed by our founding fathers. We compare the cyclical effect of the loss of civil liberties with a comparison of the U.S. experience of the red scare of the 1950s and McCarthyism.
Corrections still is a continuing problem in this country. According to the Bureau of Justice Studies, the U.S.'s prison population grew in 2002 despite a decline in crime rates. The cost to the federal government and states is estimated at $40 billion a year. As of December 31, 2002 (latest figures available as of this writing), 2,033,331 prisoners-were held in Federal or State prisons or in local jails—the total increased 3.7% from year-end 2001 (Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 22, 2003: p. 1). Approximately 1 of every 143 U.S. residents was found in federal, state, or local custody at the end of the year 2002 (Associated Press 2003: A37). The cost of housing, feeding, and caring for a prison inmate is about $20,000 a year, or $40 billion nationwide according to the 2002 figures. Construction of new prison facilities are about $100,000 a cell. Bells and alarms should be ringing with this cost of incarcerating the "guilty." Is privatization of prisons an answer? This, too, is discussed.
The use of technology is prevalent in our criminal justice system of the twenty-first century. Prisons can be run with the advanced use of technology, technology is evident in all criminal justice organizations, and a problem never envisioned is that of school safety and the use of metal detectors in school buildings and video cameras on school grounds. Children are killing children as well as teachers.
It would be great to believe that equality exists for all, including women and minorities, but that is not yet the case. We cannot at this juncture of time state that equality is present. Using the words of Richard Rorty, philosopher (as quoted by Catherine MacKinnon), a woman "is not yet the name of the way of being human." Diversity is a word but is not practiced. Discrimination exists, and there appears to be no end in sight. It is evident that males are still in power in the field of policing. Women who have had a proactive role since the start of the twentieth century are still in many instances relegated to second class status. Diversity is so very important in this "new world" of ours, yet, we continue to struggle with it. The issues facing our criminal justice system in the decades to come in the twenty-first century will continue to challenge our institutional effectiveness. Meaningful reform must be implemented if we are not to fall apart.
It is vital to blend research with creativity to shape a vision for the future, a vision that moves us well beyond the status quo. When the first edition of this work was published, it was expected that positive change would take place. We never anticipated acts of terrorism on our own home front, but we should have. Each chapter examines the most promising and reform-oriented policies, programs, and technological advances necessary for this century. Every chapter has been updated with new chapters covering every aspect of the criminal justice system that has so much relevance. The rhetoric alone will not change the system; new polices and plans of action are needed to renew today's visions for tomorrow.
Tremendous thanks to Frank Mortimer for having the "vision" to publish a fourth edition of this vital text and to Sarah Holle, editor, who is always there, who listens, and has been a guide in this awesome project. It is a pleasure to work with all the people at Prentice-Hall. To all of our contributors, thank you for your dedication, patience, and meeting all the deadlines to make this book a work of love.
To our families, thank you for "sharing" us with Prentice-Hall.