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Table of Contents
PART I. OVERVIEW.
1. Looking to the Future of Criminal Justice, Roslyn Muraskin and Albert R. Roberts.
Crime Challenges in the Twenty-First Century. Terrorism. The Police. Law. Corrections. Technology. Gender, Diversity, and the Law.
PART II. CRIME CHALLENGES IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY.
2. Reaffirming Juvenile Justice: Strategies for the Future, Peter J. Benekos and Alida V. Merlo.
Abstract. Introduction. History of Juvenile Justice. Emergent Themes and Trends in Juvenile Justice. Promising Strategies for Youth Intervention. Issues for the Future Juvenile Justice System.
3. Gangs: Origin, Status, Community Responses, and Policy Implications, Kenneth J. Peak and Timothy Griffin.
Abstract. Introduction. Gang Origins, Composition, and Characteristics. Police Response. Strategies for the Future. Summary and Policy Implications.
4. The Situation of Crime Victims in the Early Decades of the Twenty-First Century, Andrew Karmen.
Abstract. Forecasting Future Developments. The Situation Victims Faced in the Late Twentieth Century. Anticipating the Situation of Victims in the Early Twenty-First Century by Projecting Existing Trends. The Perils of Crystal Ball Gazing.
5. Murder and Mayhem in the Media: Media Representation of Crime and Criminality, Robert A. Jerin and Charles B. Fields.
Abstract. Introduction. Crime Reporting and Public Perceptions. Crime Reporting and Official Crime Statistics.Conclusions.
6. The War on Drugs: Treatment, Research, and Substance Abuse Intervention in the Twenty-First Century, C. Aaron McNeece, Bruce Bullington, Elizabeth Mayfield Arnold, and David W. Springer.
Abstract. Introduction. Justice System Interventions with Drug Users. Current Practices in Drug Offender Intervention. Milieu Approaches. Paradigm Shift in Drug Policy. Medical Marijuana. Conclusions.
7. Identity Theft: An Overview of the Problem, Katherine Slosarik.
Abstract. An Overview of Identity Theft. Commission of a Crime. Safeguarding Identity. Conclusion.
8. Looking for a New Approach to an Old Problem: The Future of Obscenity and Pornography, Jay S. Albanese.
Abstract. New Concern for an Old Problem. Methods and Sources. What Is Pornography? The Pornography Industry. The Pornography-Harm Link. Sex Education and Citizen Action. Law and Law Enforcement. Explaining the Differences Between the 1970 and 1986 Commissions. The Rise of the Internet. Issues for the Future.
9. Criminal Justice in the New Millennium: The Crises of System and Science, David V. Baker and Richard P. Davin.
Abstract. Introduction. The Crisis in Justice Administration. The Crisis in the Discipline of Criminal Justice.
PART III. TERRORISM.
10. Terrorism in America, Gary R. Perlstein.
Terrorism in History. Contemporary Terrorism. Conclusion: Terrorism and Local Law Enforcement.
11. Profiling and Detention in the War on Terror: Human Rights Predicaments for the Criminal Justice Apparatus, Michael Welch.
Introduction. Profiling in the War on Terror. Special Registration Program. Misuse of Detention. Government Secrecy. The 2003 Inspector General's Report. Conclusion.
12. International and National Terrorism in the United States: New Challenges in the Twenty-First Century, Edith E. Flynn.
Introduction. The Nature of Terrorism. Typology of Terrorism. Historical Roots of Terrorism. The Changing Face of Terrorism. Vulnerabilities to Modern Terrorism. Major Changes in the Characteristics of Recent Terrorism. Key Definitions of Terrorism. Assessing the Current Terrorist Threat. Charting the Future of Terrorism. National Responses to the Terrorist Threat. Conclusions.
13. Terrorism—Nothing New: The Violent and the Violence, Toni DuPont-Morales.
Introduction. Initiation. Intention. Conversion. Boundaries. Reparation. Lessons Learned. Conclusion.
14. Public Safety and Private Sector Responses to Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction, Vincent E. Henry and Douglas H. King.
Introduction. Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Overview. Biological Agents. Terrorism and the Use of Nuclear Material. First Responder Safety—Time, Distance, and Shielding. The Private Sector's Role. Policies and Procedures, Protocols and Plans. Conclusion.
PART IV. THE POLICE.
15. Advanced Technology, Enhanced Funding and Specialized Police Domestic Violence Programs in the Twenty-First Century, Albert R. Roberts, Karel Kurst-Swanger, and Colleen O'Brien.
Introduction. Specialized Domestic Violence Units. The Role of Technology in a Coordinated Community Response. Community Wide Intervention Programs. Model Police Departments. The Response of the Courts to Domestic Violence. Conclusion.
16. Research and Policies on Domestic Violence Complaints: The Present to the Future, Albert R. Roberts, Vincent E. Henry, and Stephen L. Ruland.
Abstract. Introduction. Domestic Violence Statistics. Police Response to Domestic Violence in the Mid-1990s. A Model Domestic Violence Intervention Program. Summary and Conclusions.
17. The Influence of Community in Community Policing in the Twenty-First Century, Michael J. Palmiotto.
Abstract. Introduction. The Crime Problem. Policing in the Early Twenty-first Century. Civilian Oversight. Conclusions.
18. A Police View: Domestic Violence, Martin L. O'Connor.
Introduction. Historic Forces. The Social Landscape of the 1960's and 1970's. Legal Forces. Conclusion.
19. Current and Future Practices and Strategies for Managing Police Corruption and Integrity, Vincent E. Henry and Charles V. Campisi.
Competing Views of Police Corruption. The History of Corruption in the NYPD. Compstat and Corruption Control. Conclusion.
20. Police Organizational Change: Strategies for Effective Police Management in the Twenty-first Century, Donna Hale and Todd Bricker.
Abstract. Introduction. Incidents of Malfeasance. The Learning Organization: Concepts and Applications. The “Ripple Effect.” Recommendations. Conclusions.
PART V. LAW.
21. The United States Supreme Court and the Death Penalty: The Path to Abolition, Ken C. Haas.
Abstract. Introduction. The Post-Gregg Years: 1976-1983. The Post-Gregg Years: 1983-2002. The Post-Gregg Years: 2002-2003. The Supreme Court and the Prospects for Abolishing Capital Punishment. Conclusions.
22. The Bill of Rights in the Twenty-First Century, Alexander B. Smith, Harriet Pollack, and Matthew Muraskin.
Abstract. Introduction. The State of the Law as of the End of the Twentieth Century. New Issues for the Twenty-First Century. Criminal Justice Issues Not Related to the Bill of Rights. Conclusions.
23. A Critical Review of Civil Liberties and Their Impact on Citizens' Constitutional Rights: The U.S. Patriot Act vs. the Red Scare, Ramona Brockett and Jessica Duty.
Abstract. History of the Birth of Civil Liberties and the Constitutional Right to Freedom. America's Fear of Communism Permits Its Citizens' Loss of Liberty. The Red Scare and the Loss of Citizens' Civil Liberties. The Right to Free Speech vs. National Security. The U.S. Patriot Acts I and II. Conclusion.
PART VI. CORRECTIONS.
24. HIV/AIDS and Correctional Populations in the Twenty-First Century: The Corrections Demonstration Project, Mark Lanier and Roberto Hugh Potter.
Abstract. Introduction. Living with HIV and AIDS. Living in Prison and Jail. AIDS in Correctional Facilities. Unique Problems. HIV/AIDS Medical Treatment. Theoretical Models. Policy Recommendations. Research Initiatives. Summary and Conclusion.
25. Sentencing in the Twenty-First Century: Sentence Enhancement and Life Without Parole, Etta F. Morgan and Robert Sigler.
Abstract. Cycles in Orientation Toward the Sentencing of Criminal Offenders. Mediating Influences. Contemporary Practices. Habitual Offender Statutes. Sentence Enhancement. Restricted Housing. Determinate Sentences and Parole. Unintended Consequences. The Twenty-First Century.
26. An Introduction to Prison Privatization: Issues for the Twenty-First Century, Michael Hallett.
Abstract. Commerce with Criminals: For-Profit Incarceration in American History. The Panopticon and Private Profit. Labor and Confinement: The Racial History of For-Profit Imprisonment in America. Contemporary Prison Privatization in America. Supply and Demand: Prison Overcrowding as Good Business. Current Scope of Prison Privatization. Themes in Today's Debate About Prison Privatization. Caveat Emptor: “Hidden Costs.” “Creaming,” “Skimming,” and “Cherry Picking.” “Free Market Competition” (Benefits) vs. Service-Provider Captivity (Risks). Contract and Monitoring Business. High Turnover. Legal Issues. Construction Costs of Prison Facilities. “Mass Imprisonment” and Prison Privatization. Conclusion: Moral, Racial, and Ethical Issues.
PART VII. TECHNOLOGY.
27. Criminal Justice and Forensic Science: Partners in Solving Crime, Etta F. Morgan.
History of Forensic Science. Specialty Areas of Forensic Science. Admissibility and Use of Forensic Evidence in Court. Some Additional Forensic Organizations. Conclusion.
28. Technoprison: Technology and Prisons, Janice Joseph.
Introduction. Biometric Scanning. Illegal Activities Detection Technology. Smart Card. Electro-Shock Devices. Monitoring and Surveillance Technology. Video Teleconferencing. Issues Regarding the Use of Technology. Constitutional Issues. Recommendations. Summary.
29. School Safety and the Use of Security Technology, Lawrence F. Travis, III and Julie Kiernan Coon.
Abstract. Introduction. Efforts to Create Safer Schools. Bivariate Relationships. Conclusion.
30. The Technoeconomic Revolution: Reengineering Criminal Justice Organizations and Workplaces, Rosemary Gido.
Abstract. Introduction. Workforce Issues for the Decade. Twenty-First Century Workforce Trends: Personnel Dilemmas for Criminal Justice Organizations and Workplaces. Barriers to Criminal Justice Organizational Change. Emerging Models of Criminal Justice Organizational Change. Conclusions.
PART VIII. GENDER, DIVERSITY AND THE LAW.
31. Women and the Law: An Agenda for Change, Roslyn Muraskin and Martin L. O'Connor.
Abstract. Introduction. History. Sexual Harassment. The Need for a National Commitment to End Violence Against Women. Summary. Agenda for Change.
32. The New Millennium: Women in Policing in the Twenty-First Century, Donna C. Hale and Mark Lanier.
Abstract. Introduction. Methodology: Students' Perceptions of Women in U.S. Policing. Findings. Discussion. Implications. Conclusions. Acknowledgements.
33. The Administration of Justice Based on Gender and Race, Etta F. Morgan.
A Theoretical Beginning. The Pathway to Civil Rights and Affirmative Action. The Administration of Law. Female Criminality. Extralegal Factors. Conclusion.
34. Criminal Justice Personnel in the Twenty-First Century: The Importance of Diversity, Becky Tatum.
Abstract. Introduction. What is Diversity. Diversity in Law Enforcement. Diversity in the Court System. Diversity in Corrections. Diversity in Criminal Justice Education and Research. Recommendations for Achieving and Maintaining Diversity.
PART IX. CONCLUSIONS/SUMMING UP!
35. The Future is Now: Summing Up, Roslyn Muraskin.
About the Authors and Contributors. About the Authors/Editors. Contributors.
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