Visions for Change: Crime and Justice in the 21st Century / Edition 3

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Overview

This book is essential to both university students and criminal justice practitioners as it addresses many of the critical issues in the field of criminal justice. For the former, it will help them learn how to develop sharper visions of change and, for the latter, how to be better prepared to deal with the implication of change.

New To This Edition
– Prison Privatization-Issues for the Twenty-First Century
–Women and the Law: An Agenda for Change in the Twenty-First Century
–The International Law Implications on the United States Death Penalty
–Victim Impact Testimony in Capital Cases

PLUS

  • All chapters have been updated and are right on target for the twenty-first century!
  • Envisioning change is an awesome task. In this revised edition with brand new chapters. and the latest in materials, human sensibilities are examined in one of their most daring forms—criminal justice.
  • At the end of the criminal justice continuum, we are faced with the insensibility of absolute freedom whereby some people claim the power to promote their own interests by all means possible.
  • The vision here is human liberty. This dialectical dilemma that will never go away compels us to consider the truth of who we are, how we are to live together, and the utility of the laws, courts, police, prisons, and the other criminal justice organs that we have amassed.
  • In this third edition of Visions for Change, experienced academicians face this very dilemma and offer their solutions by envisioning change and defending their vision intelligently.
  • The practice ofcriminal justice is the nation's foremost test of civility, the way we as Americans handle criminals.

Since criminal justice change is bound to continue, must be made more functional; more conducive justice and rationality.

Author Biography:

Roslyn Muraskin, Ph.D., is Professor of Criminal Justice at the C.W. Post Campus of Long Island University. She received her doctorate in criminal justice from the Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 1989. She holds a master's degree in political science from New York University and a bachelor of arts degree from Queens College. She is the Trustee for the northeast region of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (ACJS). Dr. Muraskin was the recipient of the Award for Excellence from the Minorities Section of the ACJS, honored for her work with AIDS education by the Long Island Association for AIDS Care, and was the recipient of the Fellow Award from the Northeastern Association of Criminal Justice Sciences. Her publications include It's a Crime: Women and Justice (third edition, Spring 2002), Morality and the Law, and is working on a major text in the field of corrections, all published by Prentice Hall. She is also the editor of The Justice Professional, a referenced journal published quarterly by Taylor and Francis. She is the author of many major papers and articles, and is often quoted in the media as an expert in women's issues and issues of criminal justice.

Albert R. Roberts, Ph.D., is Professor of Criminal Justice and Social Work at University College, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey. He is Chairperson of the Administration of Justice Department at Rutgers. He received his doctorate in social work form the University of Maryland, School of Social Work. His M.S. degree is in sociology and criminology from the graduate faculty of Long Island University, and his B.A. is from the C.W. Post Campus of Long Island University. Dr. Roberts is the lead editor on the 130chapter volume entitled Social Workers' Desk Reference (Oxford University Press, 2001) and the Crisis Intervention Handbook: Assessment, Treatment, and Research, second edition (Oxford University Press, 2000). He is also the Editor of two different book series with Springer Publishing Company. He is the founding co-editor of the Journal of Brief Therapy (with Dr. Gilbert J. Greene).He has numerous publications to his credit, including numerous peer-reviewed journals and book chapters.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130420305
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 7/28/2001
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 545
  • Product dimensions: 7.01 (w) x 9.25 (h) x 0.39 (d)

Read an Excerpt

Preface

It is an accepted fact in the field of criminal justice that courts should dispense justice. Today, advanced technology is transforming the world into a "global village," changing the dimensions of the crime scene as we have known it. This is the third edition of Visions for Change: Crime and Justice in the Twenty-First Century. It creates the vision of what is needed today in the twenty-first century as we look back on yesterday.

Most criminal justice books vary distinctly on at least four dimensions in their focus and the kind of detail included in each chapter. In this newest work, we review contemporary issues, the degree to which differing components of the criminal justice process are viewed, the most modern approach to examining the issues of today, and the specific types of crime control and rehabilitative strategies that are necessary.

In this edition we present up-to-date materials bringing us into the new millennium. As an example, there is little doubt that drug users will continue to provide much of the fodder for our rapidly expanding correctional system, well into the new century. During the 1990s our nation easily surpassed Russia and South Africa in incarceration rates, making the United States the leader among industrialized nations in the imprisonment of its citizens. Gangs continue to pose a serious problem in the United States. It should not be assumed that juveniles join gangs solely because of poverty or the pursuit of wealth. Many studies now indicate that large numbers who join gangs are from the middle classes. Deterioration of the family and other social control institutions tend to cause gang activity. We examine theuse of obscene and pornographic materials. Here we learn that convicted serial killer Ted Bundy admitted to an addiction to pornography; television, movies, and thus the recording industries are being forced to provide warnings on their products; growing numbers of library books are being censored; while complaints are increasing over the use of young teens and children in advertisements, posing in a suggestive manner.

As we look at elements of community policing, in the first decade of the twenty-first century it has received creditability and has become an acceptable philosophy of policing. We revisit the death penalty by updating all the cases, finding that the sitting justices do not view this penalty as a violation of the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution. It is expected that by 2010 there will be changes in the composition of the Supreme Court, leaving little likelihood that there will be no changes in utilization of the death penalty until perhaps 2050.

In an up-to-date chapter regarding the Bill of Rights, challenges to the amendments are discussed. As an example, the cruel and unusual punishment clause of the Eighth Amendment has been used to attack inequities in sentencing. Embedded in our legal traditions is the notion that there must be proportionality between a crime and its punishment. However, after reviewing all the cases through the last part of the twentieth century, we find that there have been no really substantial changes in the interpretations of the amendments. In fact, in some areas unless there is a dramatic change in the composition of the Supreme Court and/or legislature during the twenty-first century, it is possible that many of the decisions noted in this chapter will stand or get more restrictive interpretations during the first decade of the new century.

In one chapter that talks of victim impact testimony in capital cases, we see the results of research examining the practices of trial courts. A comparative examination of the use of such testimony demonstrates two very different legal, social, and cultural environments. The critical issues that are shaping the twenty-first century are identified through a review of the current policies and issues. Debates continue to flourish with regard to the benefits of incarceration (more people being incarcerated than ever before) versus alternative sentencing.

Gender and race continue to be extralegal factors in determining the outcomes of cases. How concerned is the criminal justice system with questions of gender and race, and what impact does it have on the final adjudication of cases? Racism is very much alive and with us, along with existing concern regarding gender issues. There is a recognized need for a national commitment to end all violence against women.

A discussion of juvenile justice is presented in this newly revised text. The courts have drifted from their original rehabilitative ideal with its focus on prevention toward a much more formal and punitive orientation. The juvenile justice system of the twenty-first century will continue to confront new challenges to its mission of helping young people while preventing delinquency during the ensuing decades.

We look at prison privatization issues. With a dramatic increase in the level of incarceration, correctional administrations at all three levels of government are turning to private, for-profit corporations to manage the burgeoning number of inmates in privately operated correctional facilities. Although private contractors have been introduced into the operation of prisons, it is also noted that during this period, other formerly public service functions have been privatized. Can privatization of elements of the criminal justice system work?

While we review the ramifications of sentencing in this century, we look at community corrections programs which are not identified as treatment programs, which most people have difficulty in identifying as acceptable. There is the thought that if the focus on sentence enhancement and life-without-parole sentences target the number of relatively mild offenders captured by these statutes, the statutes may be revised such that they apply only to those who commit the most serious assault/weapons-linked felonies.

The fastest-growing HIV-infected group being incarcerated are women. Over the past few years tremendous strides have been made in providing treatment for incarcerated populations who are HIV positive, yet there is a glaring deficiency in postrelease treatment. Institutionalized persons are one of society's most ostracized groups. Much like leper colonies of the eighteenth century, today's correctional facilities segregate the disempowered, the poor, drug users, and those who are violent from the rest of society.

Looking at the problems of policing in the twenty-first century, we find that there will be an expansion of private security, higher educational requirements, and antidiscrimination policies applied to women entering the field of policing. Diversity education will be prevalent in the new millennium.

The time has come to reshape the criminal justice system and forgo the rhetoric of the past. The third edition of Visions for Change presents the most up-to-date materials for a full discussion of the problems envisioned in this century. The rhetoric alone will not change the system; new policies and plans of action are needed to renew today's visions for tomorrow.

It is vital to blend research with creativity to shape a vision for the future, a vision that moves us well beyond the status quo. In this third edition, much research, time, and thought have gone into this work in order to determine what today's criminal justice system will bring. As always, each chapter examines the most promising and reformed and oriented policies, programs, and technological advances for the new century. New chapters have been added that enhance this work and add to our knowledge of the criminal justice system.

Tremendous thanks to Kim Davies, Prentice Hall editor, a dedicated and very hardworking person who has lent her support, advice, guidance, and patience. Thanks also to Cheryl Adams, an editorial assistant who is always there when needed. Thanks, of course, go to all our contributors for their work in bringing forth the most up-to-date text possible. And to our families, a special thanks for their endurance.

Finally, a special thanks to the reviewers of this book: Dr. Michael Hallett, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL; Dr. Ann Geisendorfer, Hudson Valley Community College, Troy, NY; and Michael J. Palmiotto, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS.

Roslyn Muraskin, Ph.D.
C. W. Post Campus–Long Island University

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Table of Contents

Preface
Ch. 1 Looking to the Future of Criminal Justice 1
Ch. 2 Gangs: Origin, Outlook and Policy Implications 7
Ch. 3 International Terrorism and the United States 19
Ch. 4 "Murder and Mayhem" in the Media: Public Perceptions (and Misperceptions) of Crime and Criminality 37
Ch. 5 The Situation of Crime Victims in the Year 2020 46
Ch. 6 Looking for a New Approach to an Old Problem: The Future of Obscenity and Pornography 60
Ch. 7 Police Response to Domestic Violence Complaints 74
Ch. 8 Legal Issues in Policing 96
Ch. 9 The Influence of "Community" in Community Policing in the Twenty-First Century 116
Ch. 10 The United States Supreme Court and the Future of Capital Punishment 129
Ch. 11 The Bill of Rights in the Twenty-First Century 157
Ch. 12 Probation: Heading in New Directions 172
Ch. 13 Prison Violence in America: Past, Present and Future 184
Ch. 14 Jail Overcrowding and Court-Ordered Reform: Critical Issues 199
Ch. 15 Correctional Health Care Now and into the Twenty-First Century 215
Ch. 16 Sentencing into the Twenty-First Century: Sentence Enhancement and Life without Parole 237
Ch. 17 Technology and Criminal Justice 255
Ch. 18 Organizational Change and Workforce Planning: Dilemmas for Criminal Justice in the Year 2000 272
Ch. 19 Prosecuting Environmental Crime in the Twenty-First Century 283
Ch. 20 Impact of Computer Based Technologies on Criminal Justice: Transition to the Twenty-First Century 299
Ch. 21 Women and the Law: What the Future Holds 318
Ch. 22 Justice for Incarcerated Women with HIV in the Twenty-First Century 326
Ch. 23 Women as Police Supervisors in the Twenty-First Century: A Decade of Promotional Practices by Gender in Three Major Police Agencies 340
Conclusion 355
About the Authors 357
Read More Show Less

Preface

It is an accepted fact in the field of criminal justice that courts should dispense justice. Today, advanced technology is transforming the world into a "global village," changing the dimensions of the crime scene as we have known it. This is the third edition of Visions for Change: Crime and Justice in the Twenty-First Century. It creates the vision of what is needed today in the twenty-first century as we look back on yesterday.

Most criminal justice books vary distinctly on at least four dimensions in their focus and the kind of detail included in each chapter. In this newest work, we review contemporary issues, the degree to which differing components of the criminal justice process are viewed, the most modern approach to examining the issues of today, and the specific types of crime control and rehabilitative strategies that are necessary.

In this edition we present up-to-date materials bringing us into the new millennium. As an example, there is little doubt that drug users will continue to provide much of the fodder for our rapidly expanding correctional system, well into the new century. During the 1990s our nation easily surpassed Russia and South Africa in incarceration rates, making the United States the leader among industrialized nations in the imprisonment of its citizens. Gangs continue to pose a serious problem in the United States. It should not be assumed that juveniles join gangs solely because of poverty or the pursuit of wealth. Many studies now indicate that large numbers who join gangs are from the middle classes. Deterioration of the family and other social control institutions tend to cause gang activity. We examine the useof obscene and pornographic materials. Here we learn that convicted serial killer Ted Bundy admitted to an addiction to pornography; television, movies, and thus the recording industries are being forced to provide warnings on their products; growing numbers of library books are being censored; while complaints are increasing over the use of young teens and children in advertisements, posing in a suggestive manner.

As we look at elements of community policing, in the first decade of the twenty-first century it has received creditability and has become an acceptable philosophy of policing. We revisit the death penalty by updating all the cases, finding that the sitting justices do not view this penalty as a violation of the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution. It is expected that by 2010 there will be changes in the composition of the Supreme Court, leaving little likelihood that there will be no changes in utilization of the death penalty until perhaps 2050.

In an up-to-date chapter regarding the Bill of Rights, challenges to the amendments are discussed. As an example, the cruel and unusual punishment clause of the Eighth Amendment has been used to attack inequities in sentencing. Embedded in our legal traditions is the notion that there must be proportionality between a crime and its punishment. However, after reviewing all the cases through the last part of the twentieth century, we find that there have been no really substantial changes in the interpretations of the amendments. In fact, in some areas unless there is a dramatic change in the composition of the Supreme Court and/or legislature during the twenty-first century, it is possible that many of the decisions noted in this chapter will stand or get more restrictive interpretations during the first decade of the new century.

In one chapter that talks of victim impact testimony in capital cases, we see the results of research examining the practices of trial courts. A comparative examination of the use of such testimony demonstrates two very different legal, social, and cultural environments. The critical issues that are shaping the twenty-first century are identified through a review of the current policies and issues. Debates continue to flourish with regard to the benefits of incarceration (more people being incarcerated than ever before) versus alternative sentencing.

Gender and race continue to be extralegal factors in determining the outcomes of cases. How concerned is the criminal justice system with questions of gender and race, and what impact does it have on the final adjudication of cases? Racism is very much alive and with us, along with existing concern regarding gender issues. There is a recognized need for a national commitment to end all violence against women.

A discussion of juvenile justice is presented in this newly revised text. The courts have drifted from their original rehabilitative ideal with its focus on prevention toward a much more formal and punitive orientation. The juvenile justice system of the twenty-first century will continue to confront new challenges to its mission of helping young people while preventing delinquency during the ensuing decades.

We look at prison privatization issues. With a dramatic increase in the level of incarceration, correctional administrations at all three levels of government are turning to private, for-profit corporations to manage the burgeoning number of inmates in privately operated correctional facilities. Although private contractors have been introduced into the operation of prisons, it is also noted that during this period, other formerly public service functions have been privatized. Can privatization of elements of the criminal justice system work?

While we review the ramifications of sentencing in this century, we look at community corrections programs which are not identified as treatment programs, which most people have difficulty in identifying as acceptable. There is the thought that if the focus on sentence enhancement and life-without-parole sentences target the number of relatively mild offenders captured by these statutes, the statutes may be revised such that they apply only to those who commit the most serious assault/weapons-linked felonies.

The fastest-growing HIV-infected group being incarcerated are women. Over the past few years tremendous strides have been made in providing treatment for incarcerated populations who are HIV positive, yet there is a glaring deficiency in postrelease treatment. Institutionalized persons are one of society's most ostracized groups. Much like leper colonies of the eighteenth century, today's correctional facilities segregate the disempowered, the poor, drug users, and those who are violent from the rest of society.

Looking at the problems of policing in the twenty-first century, we find that there will be an expansion of private security, higher educational requirements, and antidiscrimination policies applied to women entering the field of policing. Diversity education will be prevalent in the new millennium.

The time has come to reshape the criminal justice system and forgo the rhetoric of the past. The third edition of Visions for Change presents the most up-to-date materials for a full discussion of the problems envisioned in this century. The rhetoric alone will not change the system; new policies and plans of action are needed to renew today's visions for tomorrow.

It is vital to blend research with creativity to shape a vision for the future, a vision that moves us well beyond the status quo. In this third edition, much research, time, and thought have gone into this work in order to determine what today's criminal justice system will bring. As always, each chapter examines the most promising and reformed and oriented policies, programs, and technological advances for the new century. New chapters have been added that enhance this work and add to our knowledge of the criminal justice system.

Tremendous thanks to Kim Davies, Prentice Hall editor, a dedicated and very hardworking person who has lent her support, advice, guidance, and patience. Thanks also to Cheryl Adams, an editorial assistant who is always there when needed. Thanks, of course, go to all our contributors for their work in bringing forth the most up-to-date text possible. And to our families, a special thanks for their endurance.

Finally, a special thanks to the reviewers of this book: Dr. Michael Hallett, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL; Dr. Ann Geisendorfer, Hudson Valley Community College, Troy, NY; and Michael J. Palmiotto, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS.

Roslyn Muraskin, Ph.D.
C. W. Post Campus–Long Island University

Read More Show Less

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