Visions for Change: Crime and Justice in the Twenty-First Century

Overview

Exceptionally current and complete, this collection of readings examines -- in detail -- critical criminal justice policies and practices as evident in all criminal justice agencies throughout the United States. Linking the past, present, and future of criminal justice, the authors discuss important issues currently impacting the system, address the challenges that lie ahead in criminal justice in the 21st century, and outline their vision for how these issues will be handled in the next century. Covers a wide ...
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Overview

Exceptionally current and complete, this collection of readings examines -- in detail -- critical criminal justice policies and practices as evident in all criminal justice agencies throughout the United States. Linking the past, present, and future of criminal justice, the authors discuss important issues currently impacting the system, address the challenges that lie ahead in criminal justice in the 21st century, and outline their vision for how these issues will be handled in the next century. Covers a wide range of topics -- including gangs, international terrorism, crime victims, policing, constitutional law and the courts, correctional issues, technology, gender and race issues, etc. Discusses policy implications into the next century and examines the most promising and reform-oriented policies, programs, and technological advancements for the 21st century. For anyone interested in a state-of-the-art discussion of critical criminal justice policies and practices as evident in all criminal justice agencies throughout the United States.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
This solution-oriented college-level text examines policies and practices used by criminal justice agencies throughout the United States. Its premise is that it's not enough to lock people up, and that something must be done to prevent the likelihood that juveniles will commit crimes and then become repeat offenders. Sections cover crime challenges such as gangs, terrorism, and media coverage of "murder and mayhem"; policing; the courts; correctional issues; technology; and gender issues. No index. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132946049
  • Publisher: Macmillan Publishing Company, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 10/28/1995
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 384
  • Product dimensions: 7.04 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.69 (d)

Meet the Author

Roslyn Muraskin, Ph.D., is Professor of Criminal Justice at the C. W. Post Campus of Long Island University. She received her doctorate in criminal justice from the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. She holds a master's degree in political science from New York University and a bachelor of arts degree from Queens College. She serves as Trustee for the northeast region for the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (ACJS). Dr. Muraskin received the Award for Excellence from the Minorities Section of ACJS, has been honored for her work with AIDS education by the Long Island Association for AIDS Care, and received Woman of the Year, and the Fellow Award from the Northeastern Association of Criminal Justice Sciences.

She is a past president of the Northeastern Association of Criminal Justice Sciences, past vice-president of the Criminal Justice Educators of New York State. Professional organizations include the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, American Society of Criminology, where she is an active member of the Women's Division, American Society of Public Administration, American Academy of Political and Social Science and has served on the Fund for Modern Courts advisory board.

Dr. Muraskin is the editor of the refereed journal, A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society, published quarterly by Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, as well as the Editor of the Women's Series for Prentice Hall. To date the topics of these latter publications include "The Female Homicide Offender", "The Incarcerated Woman", and "Justice for All: Minorities and Women in Criminal Justice:" She is the author/editor of the work, Key Correctional Issues for Prentice Hall (2004); author/editor of It's a Crime: Women and Justice (3d ed., Prentice Hall, 2000); and Women and Justice: Development of International Policy for Gordon and Breach: Dr. Muraskin has a forthcoming article in the Encyclopedia of Criminology on "Abortion and the Rights to Privacy:" Her article "Ethics for Correctional Officers: Corrections/Punishment-Ethical Behavior of Correctional Officers" was published in Forum published by the Illinois Law Enforcement Forum, V 2 No 3, July 2002. Other works for the Women's Series of Prentice Hall include, The Incarcerated Woman: Rehabilitative Programming an Women's Prisons and With Justice for All: Minorities and Women in Criminal Justice; Morality and the Law (2001) for Prentice Hall, and she served as editor of The Justice Professional. Other publications include Women and Justice: International Policy Implications: A Comparative Study for Gordon and Breach as well as "Disparate Treatment in Jails: Development of a Measurement Instrument" for The Magazine of the American Jails Association. She is the author of many major papers, including "Accrediting Criminal Justice Programs," "The Role of Criminal Justice Education in the Twenty-First Century," "Women and the Death Penalty," "Correctional Philosophy/Changes in the Twenty-First Century" and other articles, and is often quoted in the media as an expert in women's issues and issues of criminal justice.

At Long Island University, Dr. Muraskin served as Associate Dean of the College of Management as well as Director of the School of Public Service. As Associate Dean she was involved in promotion and tenure decisions, budget planning, oversaw program and curriculum development, etc. She was elected to Faculty Council and to the Committee for Promotion and Tenure, and still serves on the Honors Committee. Her current responsibilities include that of Executive Director of the Alumni Chapter for the College of Management as well as Director of the Long Island Women's Institute. She serves as the institutional representative for the American Association of University Women, as well as the institutional representative for the Justice Semester at American University. She served as Chair of the Department of Criminal Justice. Her grant activities include funding for the Center for Drug Education, New York State Legislative Grant and a grant from the New York State Department of Corrections.

Future projects include comparative studies of women and criminal justice; the Media and Criminal Justice: Truth or Fiction; and special editions of A Critical Journal of Crime Law and Society on topics such as victimology and race.

Albert R. Roberts, Ph.D., B.C.E.T.S., D.A.C.F.E., is Professor of Criminal Justice and Social Work (former Chairperson), and Director of Faculty and Curriculum Development, Administration of Justice and Interdisciplinary Criminal Justice Programs in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Livingston College Campus at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in Piscataway. He has been a tenured professor at Rutgers University since 1989. Dr. Roberts received an M.A. degree in Sociology from the Graduate Faculty of Long Island University in 1967, and a D.S.W. in 1978 (which became a Ph.D. in 1981) from the School of Social Work and Community Planning at the University of Maryland in Baltimore. Dr. Roberts is the founding Editor-in-Chief of the Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention journal (Oxford University Press). Dr. Roberts recently edited a special issue of the Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention journal on stress, crisis, and trauma intervention strategies in the aftermath of the September 11th terrorism attacks.

Dr. Roberts is the founding and current Editor of the 41-volume Springer Series on Social Work (1980 to present), and the 8 volume Springer Family Violence Series. He is the author, co-author, or editor of approximately 160 scholarly publications, including numerous peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and 25 books. His recent books and articles include: Handbook of Domestic Violence Intervention Strategies (2002), Oxford University Press; Social Workers' Desk Reference (includes 146 chapters and is co-edited by Gilbert J. Greene, Oxford University Press, 2002), Crisis Intervention Handbook: Assessment, Treatment and Research, 2nd edition (2000, Oxford University Press), Juvenile Justice Sourcebook (In Press, Oxford University Press, N.Y.), and Battered Women and Their Families: Intervention Strategies and Treatment Approaches, 2nd edition (1998, Springer Publishing Co.).

Dr. Roberts current projects include: Directing the 18-credit Certificate Program in Criminal Justice Policies and Practices at Livingston College of Rutgers University; training crisis intervention workers and clinical supervisors in crisis assessment and crisis intervention strategies; training police officers and administrators in domestic violence policies and crisis intervention. He is a lifetime member of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (ACJS), has been a member of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) since 1974, and has been listed in Who's Who in America since 1992. Professor Roberts is the faculty sponsor to Rutgers' Sigma Alpha Kappa chapter of the National Criminal Justice Honor Society (1991-present).

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Table of Contents

Preface
Ch. 1 Looking to the Future of Criminal Justice 1
Ch. 2 Gangs: Origin, Outlook and Policy Implications 7
Ch. 3 International Terrorism and the United States 19
Ch. 4 "Murder and Mayhem" in the Media: Public Perceptions (and Misperceptions) of Crime and Criminality 37
Ch. 5 The Situation of Crime Victims in the Year 2020 46
Ch. 6 Looking for a New Approach to an Old Problem: The Future of Obscenity and Pornography 60
Ch. 7 Police Response to Domestic Violence Complaints 74
Ch. 8 Legal Issues in Policing 96
Ch. 9 The Influence of "Community" in Community Policing in the Twenty-First Century 116
Ch. 10 The United States Supreme Court and the Future of Capital Punishment 129
Ch. 11 The Bill of Rights in the Twenty-First Century 157
Ch. 12 Probation: Heading in New Directions 172
Ch. 13 Prison Violence in America: Past, Present and Future 184
Ch. 14 Jail Overcrowding and Court-Ordered Reform: Critical Issues 199
Ch. 15 Correctional Health Care Now and into the Twenty-First Century 215
Ch. 16 Sentencing into the Twenty-First Century: Sentence Enhancement and Life without Parole 237
Ch. 17 Technology and Criminal Justice 255
Ch. 18 Organizational Change and Workforce Planning: Dilemmas for Criminal Justice in the Year 2000 272
Ch. 19 Prosecuting Environmental Crime in the Twenty-First Century 283
Ch. 20 Impact of Computer Based Technologies on Criminal Justice: Transition to the Twenty-First Century 299
Ch. 21 Women and the Law: What the Future Holds 318
Ch. 22 Justice for Incarcerated Women with HIV in the Twenty-First Century 326
Ch. 23 Women as Police Supervisors in the Twenty-First Century: A Decade of Promotional Practices by Gender in Three Major Police Agencies 340
Conclusion 355
About the Authors 357
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Preface

It is an accepted fact that in the field of criminal justice, the courts dispense justice. The crime challenges that face us in the twenty-first century appear to be as serious as they were in previous centuries but probably more so because of the use of advanced technology that has turned our world into a "global village:" The dimensions of the crime scene have changed. It is vital to blend research with creativity to shape a vision for the future, a vision that moves of well beyond the status quo. This fourth edition of Visions for Change: Crime and Justice in the Twenty-First Century is a representation of all changes reflective in this new century.

This work has added many new chapters and has updated all other chapters. Each chapter in Visions for Change examines the most promising and reform-oriented policies, programs, and technological advances necessary for this new century. The text reads as a "who's who in criminal justice." We review contemporary issues, including that of terrorism that has touched us since September 11, 2001, as well as advanced uses of technology. The area of law has had to adapt to the changes in this "new world" we live in relative to reducing the rights of citizens to a certain extent. All issues, including gender and race, which continue to be a serious problem within the criminal justice system, are examined with the most up-to-date research available.

The development of juvenile justice laws has grown in the last 100 years; gangs seem to be an ever-growing population, not yet controlled; and the media continue to misrepresent the criminal justice system, forever giving us headlines that are meant to"terrorize" rather than necessarily represent the true picture. The problem of drugs continues to haunt us, and we look to alternatives in treatment. A new crime, that of identity theft, has evolved. An identity thief needs only one thing—a Social Security number; with it, the thief can decimate a victim's life and credit. Deterioration of the family and other social control institutions do not help as we examine the laws regarding obscenity and pornography. The current state of justice administration continues to pose very fundamental challenges as examined in this work.

Terrorism, a word that once was unthinkable in this country, is very much on the minds of all Americans. The war on terror in the wake of what occurred on September 11, 2001, on what was to be a regular working day for nearly 3,000 people, has assumed a new timbre not only in the homeland but around the world. The types of anti-terrorism legislation that has been and will be adopted in nations around the world are similar to those that were once thought to be useful in repressive states, including the criminalization of peaceful demonstrations, security with a new focus on asylum seekers, and the detainment of individuals without a trial, reminiscent of the days when we "incarcerated" Japanese Americans in concentration-like camps at the start of World War II. What of corporate security, and how are we dealing with this type of activity? It's all new to us, yet we must be prepared to act quickly.

Law enforcement still faces problems today. We recognize that community policing as envisioned may not be the solution that we once thought. We still deal with problems of domestic violence as well as current practices toward the managing of corruption in our own police departments. There is a cry for organizational changes; the use of excessive force is noted in many a police department.

The death penalty is still with although the former governor of Illinois declared the death penalty to be null and void finding that nearly 100 persons on death row were innocent of their crimes or were not as "guilty" as believed. The prediction is that by 2050, there will no longer be in place the death penalty because Americans and the courts themselves will find that through the proper use of technology, not all inmates believed to be guilty will actually be found guilty. As the only Western civilization that executes it citizens, the United States will find itself once again declaring the death penalty void.

Our civil liberties have been attacked since the start of this new century, and all cases since our last edition have been added, indicating the challenges to our Bill of Rights. Additionally, the passage of the U.S. Patriot Act has impacted our civil rights through denying rights originally guaranteed by our founding fathers. We compare the cyclical effect of the loss of civil liberties with a comparison of the U.S. experience of the red scare of the 1950s and McCarthyism.

Corrections still is a continuing problem in this country. According to the Bureau of Justice Studies, the U.S.'s prison population grew in 2002 despite a decline in crime rates. The cost to the federal government and states is estimated at $40 billion a year. As of December 31, 2002 (latest figures available as of this writing), 2,033,331 prisoners-were held in Federal or State prisons or in local jails—the total increased 3.7% from year-end 2001 (Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 22, 2003: p. 1). Approximately 1 of every 143 U.S. residents was found in federal, state, or local custody at the end of the year 2002 (Associated Press 2003: A37). The cost of housing, feeding, and caring for a prison inmate is about $20,000 a year, or $40 billion nationwide according to the 2002 figures. Construction of new prison facilities are about $100,000 a cell. Bells and alarms should be ringing with this cost of incarcerating the "guilty." Is privatization of prisons an answer? This, too, is discussed.

The use of technology is prevalent in our criminal justice system of the twenty-first century. Prisons can be run with the advanced use of technology, technology is evident in all criminal justice organizations, and a problem never envisioned is that of school safety and the use of metal detectors in school buildings and video cameras on school grounds. Children are killing children as well as teachers.

It would be great to believe that equality exists for all, including women and minorities, but that is not yet the case. We cannot at this juncture of time state that equality is present. Using the words of Richard Rorty, philosopher (as quoted by Catherine MacKinnon), a woman "is not yet the name of the way of being human." Diversity is a word but is not practiced. Discrimination exists, and there appears to be no end in sight. It is evident that males are still in power in the field of policing. Women who have had a proactive role since the start of the twentieth century are still in many instances relegated to second class status. Diversity is so very important in this "new world" of ours, yet, we continue to struggle with it. The issues facing our criminal justice system in the decades to come in the twenty-first century will continue to challenge our institutional effectiveness. Meaningful reform must be implemented if we are not to fall apart.

It is vital to blend research with creativity to shape a vision for the future, a vision that moves us well beyond the status quo. When the first edition of this work was published, it was expected that positive change would take place. We never anticipated acts of terrorism on our own home front, but we should have. Each chapter examines the most promising and reform-oriented policies, programs, and technological advances necessary for this century. Every chapter has been updated with new chapters covering every aspect of the criminal justice system that has so much relevance. The rhetoric alone will not change the system; new polices and plans of action are needed to renew today's visions for tomorrow.

Tremendous thanks to Frank Mortimer for having the "vision" to publish a fourth edition of this vital text and to Sarah Holle, editor, who is always there, who listens, and has been a guide in this awesome project. It is a pleasure to work with all the people at Prentice-Hall. To all of our contributors, thank you for your dedication, patience, and meeting all the deadlines to make this book a work of love.

To our families, thank you for "sharing" us with Prentice-Hall.

Roslyn Muraskin, Ph.D.
Professor of Criminal Justice
C.W Post Campus–Long Island University

Read More Show Less

Introduction

It is an accepted fact that in the field of criminal justice, the courts dispense justice. The crime challenges that face us in the twenty-first century appear to be as serious as they were in previous centuries but probably more so because of the use of advanced technology that has turned our world into a "global village:" The dimensions of the crime scene have changed. It is vital to blend research with creativity to shape a vision for the future, a vision that moves of well beyond the status quo. This fourth edition of Visions for Change: Crime and Justice in the Twenty-First Century is a representation of all changes reflective in this new century.

This work has added many new chapters and has updated all other chapters. Each chapter in Visions for Change examines the most promising and reform-oriented policies, programs, and technological advances necessary for this new century. The text reads as a "who's who in criminal justice." We review contemporary issues, including that of terrorism that has touched us since September 11, 2001, as well as advanced uses of technology. The area of law has had to adapt to the changes in this "new world" we live in relative to reducing the rights of citizens to a certain extent. All issues, including gender and race, which continue to be a serious problem within the criminal justice system, are examined with the most up-to-date research available.

The development of juvenile justice laws has grown in the last 100 years; gangs seem to be an ever-growing population, not yet controlled; and the media continue to misrepresent the criminal justice system, forever giving us headlines that are meant to "terrorize"rather than necessarily represent the true picture. The problem of drugs continues to haunt us, and we look to alternatives in treatment. A new crime, that of identity theft, has evolved. An identity thief needs only one thing--a Social Security number; with it, the thief can decimate a victim's life and credit. Deterioration of the family and other social control institutions do not help as we examine the laws regarding obscenity and pornography. The current state of justice administration continues to pose very fundamental challenges as examined in this work.

Terrorism, a word that once was unthinkable in this country, is very much on the minds of all Americans. The war on terror in the wake of what occurred on September 11, 2001, on what was to be a regular working day for nearly 3,000 people, has assumed a new timbre not only in the homeland but around the world. The types of anti-terrorism legislation that has been and will be adopted in nations around the world are similar to those that were once thought to be useful in repressive states, including the criminalization of peaceful demonstrations, security with a new focus on asylum seekers, and the detainment of individuals without a trial, reminiscent of the days when we "incarcerated" Japanese Americans in concentration-like camps at the start of World War II. What of corporate security, and how are we dealing with this type of activity? It's all new to us, yet we must be prepared to act quickly.

Law enforcement still faces problems today. We recognize that community policing as envisioned may not be the solution that we once thought. We still deal with problems of domestic violence as well as current practices toward the managing of corruption in our own police departments. There is a cry for organizational changes; the use of excessive force is noted in many a police department.

The death penalty is still with although the former governor of Illinois declared the death penalty to be null and void finding that nearly 100 persons on death row were innocent of their crimes or were not as "guilty" as believed. The prediction is that by 2050, there will no longer be in place the death penalty because Americans and the courts themselves will find that through the proper use of technology, not all inmates believed to be guilty will actually be found guilty. As the only Western civilization that executes it citizens, the United States will find itself once again declaring the death penalty void.

Our civil liberties have been attacked since the start of this new century, and all cases since our last edition have been added, indicating the challenges to our Bill of Rights. Additionally, the passage of the U.S. Patriot Act has impacted our civil rights through denying rights originally guaranteed by our founding fathers. We compare the cyclical effect of the loss of civil liberties with a comparison of the U.S. experience of the red scare of the 1950s and McCarthyism.

Corrections still is a continuing problem in this country. According to the Bureau of Justice Studies, the U.S.'s prison population grew in 2002 despite a decline in crime rates. The cost to the federal government and states is estimated at $40 billion a year. As of December 31, 2002 (latest figures available as of this writing), 2,033,331 prisoners-were held in Federal or State prisons or in local jails--the total increased 3.7% from year-end 2001 (Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 22, 2003: p. 1). Approximately 1 of every 143 U.S. residents was found in federal, state, or local custody at the end of the year 2002 (Associated Press 2003: A37). The cost of housing, feeding, and caring for a prison inmate is about $20,000 a year, or $40 billion nationwide according to the 2002 figures. Construction of new prison facilities are about $100,000 a cell. Bells and alarms should be ringing with this cost of incarcerating the "guilty." Is privatization of prisons an answer? This, too, is discussed.

The use of technology is prevalent in our criminal justice system of the twenty-first century. Prisons can be run with the advanced use of technology, technology is evident in all criminal justice organizations, and a problem never envisioned is that of school safety and the use of metal detectors in school buildings and video cameras on school grounds. Children are killing children as well as teachers.

It would be great to believe that equality exists for all, including women and minorities, but that is not yet the case. We cannot at this juncture of time state that equality is present. Using the words of Richard Rorty, philosopher (as quoted by Catherine MacKinnon), a woman "is not yet the name of the way of being human." Diversity is a word but is not practiced. Discrimination exists, and there appears to be no end in sight. It is evident that males are still in power in the field of policing. Women who have had a proactive role since the start of the twentieth century are still in many instances relegated to second class status. Diversity is so very important in this "new world" of ours, yet, we continue to struggle with it. The issues facing our criminal justice system in the decades to come in the twenty-first century will continue to challenge our institutional effectiveness. Meaningful reform must be implemented if we are not to fall apart.

It is vital to blend research with creativity to shape a vision for the future, a vision that moves us well beyond the status quo. When the first edition of this work was published, it was expected that positive change would take place. We never anticipated acts of terrorism on our own home front, but we should have. Each chapter examines the most promising and reform-oriented policies, programs, and technological advances necessary for this century. Every chapter has been updated with new chapters covering every aspect of the criminal justice system that has so much relevance. The rhetoric alone will not change the system; new polices and plans of action are needed to renew today's visions for tomorrow.

Tremendous thanks to Frank Mortimer for having the "vision" to publish a fourth edition of this vital text and to Sarah Holle, editor, who is always there, who listens, and has been a guide in this awesome project. It is a pleasure to work with all the people at Prentice-Hall. To all of our contributors, thank you for your dedication, patience, and meeting all the deadlines to make this book a work of love.

To our families, thank you for "sharing" us with Prentice-Hall.

Roslyn Muraskin, Ph.D.
Professor of Criminal Justice
C.W Post Campus–Long Island University

Read More Show Less

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