VMware vSphere and Virtual Infrastructure Security: Securing the Virtual Environment
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VMware vSphere and Virtual Infrastructure Security: Securing the Virtual Environment

by Edward Haletky
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0137158009

ISBN-13: 9780137158003

Pub. Date: 07/08/2009

Publisher: Prentice Hall

Complete Hands-On Help for Securing VMware vSphere and Virtual Infrastructure by Edward Haletky, Author of the Best Selling Book on VMware, VMware ESX Server in the Enterprise

As VMware has become increasingly ubiquitous in the enterprise, IT professionals have become increasingly concerned about securing it. Now, for the first time, leading VMware expert

Overview

Complete Hands-On Help for Securing VMware vSphere and Virtual Infrastructure by Edward Haletky, Author of the Best Selling Book on VMware, VMware ESX Server in the Enterprise

As VMware has become increasingly ubiquitous in the enterprise, IT professionals have become increasingly concerned about securing it. Now, for the first time, leading VMware expert Edward Haletky brings together comprehensive guidance for identifying and mitigating virtualization-related security threats on all VMware platforms, including the new cloud computing platform, vSphere.

This book reflects the same hands-on approach that made Haletky’s VMware ESX Server in the Enterprise so popular with working professionals. Haletky doesn’t just reveal where you might be vulnerable; he tells you exactly what to do and how to reconfigure your infrastructure to address the problem.

VMware vSphere and Virtual Infrastructure Security begins by reviewing basic server vulnerabilities and explaining how security differs on VMware virtual servers and related products. Next, Haletky drills deep into the key components of a VMware installation, identifying both real and theoretical exploits, and introducing effective countermeasures.

Coverage includes

• Viewing virtualization from the attacker’s perspective, and understanding the new security problems it can introduce

• Discovering which security threats the vmkernel does (and doesn’t) address

• Learning how VMsafe enables third-party security tools to access the vmkernel API

• Understanding the security implications of VMI, paravirtualization, and VMware Tools

• Securing virtualized storage: authentication, disk encryption, virtual storage networks, isolation, and more

• Protecting clustered virtual environments that use VMware High Availability, Dynamic Resource Scheduling, Fault Tolerance, vMotion, and Storage vMotion

• Securing the deployment and management of virtual machines across the network

• Mitigating risks associated with backup, performance management, and other day-to-day operations

• Using multiple security zones and other advanced virtual network techniques

• Securing Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI)

• Auditing virtual infrastructure, and conducting forensic investigations after a possible breach

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780137158003
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
07/08/2009
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
521
Product dimensions:
6.90(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

1 WHAT IS A SECURITY THREAT? 1

The 10,000 Foot View without Virtualization 2

The 10,000 Foot View with Virtualization 4

Applying Virtualization Security 5

Definitions 10

Threat 11

Vulnerability 11

Fault 11

The Beginning of the Journey 12

2 HOLISTIC VIEW FROM THE BOTTOM UP 15

Attack Goals 16

Anatomy of an Attack 17

Footprinting Stage 17

Scanning Stage 17

Enumeration Stage 19

Penetration Stage 21

Types of Attacks 23

Buffer Overflows 23

Heap Overflows 31

Web-Based Attacks 33

Layer 2 Attacks 41

Layer 3 Nonrouter Attacks 46

DNS Attacks 47

Layer 3 Routing Attacks 49

Man in the Middle Attack (MiTM) 51

Conclusion 57

3 UNDERSTANDING VMWARE VSPHERE AND VIRTUAL INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY 59

Hypervisor Models 59

Hypervisor Security 60

Secure the Hardware 61

Secure the Management Appliance 62

Secure the Hypervisor 63

Secure the Management Interfaces 81

Secure the Virtual Machine 89

Conclusion 89

4 STORAGE AND SECURITY 91

Storage Connections within the Virtual Environment 92

Storage Area Networks (SAN) 93

Network Attached Storage (NAS) 95

Internet SCSI (iSCSI) Servers 96

Virtual Storage Appliances 96

Storage Usage within the Virtual Environment 97

VM Datastore 98

Ancillary File Store 98

Backup Store 99

Tape Devices 100

Storage Security 102

Data in Motion 103

Data at Rest 104

Storage Security Issues 104

VCB Proxy Server 104

SCSI reservations 106

Fibre Channel SAN (Regular or NPIV) 108

iSCSI 110

NFS 111

CIFS for Backups 112

Shared File Access over Secure Shell (SSH) or Secure Copy Use 113

FTP/R-Command Usage 115

Extents 115

Conclusion 116

5 CLUSTERING AND SECURITY 117

Types of Clusters 117

Standard Shared Storage 118

RAID Blade 122

VMware Cluster 123

Virtual Machine Clusters 125

Security Concerns 125

Heartbeats 127

Isolation 133

VMware Cluster Protocols 140

VMware Hot Migration Failures 141

Virtual Machine Clusters 142

Management 143

Conclusion 145

6 DEPLOYMENT AND MANAGEMENT 147

Management and Deployment Data Flow 148

VIC to VC (Including Plug-Ins) 148

VIC to Host 152

VC webAccess 153

ESX(i) webAccess 154

VI SDK to VC 154

VI SDK to Host 156

RCLI to Host 156

RCLI to VC 156

SSH to Host 156

Console Access 157

Lab Manager 157

Site Manager 157

LifeCycle Manager 158

AppSpeed 158

CapacityIQ 158

VMware Update Manager 158

Management and Deployment Authentication 158

Difference Between Authorization and Authentication 159

Mitigating Split-Brain Authorization and Authentication 162

Security of Management and Deployment Network 184

Using SSL 184

Using IPsec 189

Using Tunnels 189

Using Deployment Servers 190

Security Issues during Management and Deployment 191

VIC Plug-ins 192

VMs on the Wrong Network 193

VMs or Networks Created Without Authorization 194

VMs on the Wrong Storage 195

VMs Assigned to Improper Resource Pools 196

Premature Propagation of VMs from Quality Assurance to Production 196

Physical to Virtual (P2V) Crossing Security Zones 196

Conclusion 198

7 OPERATIONS AND SECURITY 199

Monitoring Operations 199

Host Monitoring 200

Host Configuration Monitoring 202

Performance Monitoring 203

Virtual Machine Administrator Operations 204

Using the Wrong Interface to Access VMs 204

Using the Built-in VNC to Access the Console 205

Virtual Machine Has Crashed 211

Backup Administrator Operations 211

Service Console Backups 212

Network Backups 213

Direct Storage Access Backups 213

Virtual Infrastructure Administrator Operations 214

Using Tools Across Security Zones 214

Running Commands Across All Hosts 215

Management Roles and Permissions Set Incorrectly 216

Conclusion 217

8 VIRTUAL MACHINES AND SECURITY 219

The Virtual Machine 219

Secure the Virtual Hardware 220

Secure the Guest OS and Application 239

Secure the Hypervisor Interaction Layer 241

Virtual Machine Administration 252

Virtual Machine Creation 253

Virtual Machine Modification 253

Virtual Machine Deletion 254

Conclusion 254

9 VIRTUAL NETWORKING SECURITY 255

Virtual Networking Basics 256

Basic Connections 256

802.1q or VLAN Tagging 268

Security Zones 271

Standard Zones 273

Best Practices 277

Virtualization Host with Single or Dual pNIC 278

Three pNICs 280

Four pNICs 284

Five pNICs 289

Six pNICs 295

Eight pNICs 302

Ten pNICs 304

pNIC Combination Conclusion 304

Cases 305

DMZ on a Private vSwitch 305

Use of Virtual Firewall to Protect the Virtualization Management Network 307

VMware as a Service 307

Tools 310

Intrusion Detection and Prevention 310

Auditing Interfaces 311

Conclusion 314

10 VIRTUAL DESKTOP SECURITY 315

What Is VDI? 315

Components 316

VDI Products 317

VDM 318

VDM’s Place in the Network 318

The VDM Connection Server 319

The VDM Client 319

The VDM Web Access Client 320

The VDM Agent for Virtual Desktops 321

Security Implications 322

VMware View 324

Linked Clones: What Are They and How Do They Change Security? 324

Storage Overcommit 326

Overview of Linked Clones 326

Protecting the VC 328

Offline Desktops 329

SSL in a VDM or View Environment 333

Secure VDI Implementation 338

Secure the Virtual Desktop 341

Conclusion 342

11 SECURITY AND VMWARE ESX 343

VMware ESXi Hardening Recipe 345

VMware ESX Hardening Recipe 349

Step 1: Root Password 355

Step 2: Shadow Password 355

Step 3: IPtables Firewall 355

Step 4: Lockdown by Source IP 357

Step 5: Run Security Assessments 360

Step 6: Apply Hardening per Assessments 367

Step 7: Additional Auditing Tools 388

Conclusion 394

12 DIGITAL FORENSICS AND DATA RECOVERY 397

Data Recovery 398

Data Recovery–Host Unavailable 399

Data Recovery–Corrupt LUN 400

Data Recovery–Re-create LUN 406

Data Recovery–Re-create Disk 407

Digital Forensics 408

Digital Forensics–Acquisition 408

Digital Forensics–Analysis 422

Digital Forensics–Who Did What, When, Where, and How? 426

Conclusion 428

CONCLUSION: JUST THE BEGINNING: THE FUTURE OF VIRTUALIZATION SECURITY 431

A PATCHES TO BASTILLE TOOL 435

B SECURITY HARDENING SCRIPT 441

C ASSESSMENT SCRIPT OUTPUT 465

CIS-CAT Output 465

Bastille-Linux Output 470

DISA STIG Output 475

Tripwire ConfigCheck Output 496

D SUGGESTED READING AND USEFUL LINKS 499

Books 499

Whitepapers 500

Products 501

Useful Links 502

GLOSSARY 503

INDEX 507

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