Voices of Wisdom: A Multicultural Philosophy Reader / Edition 8 by Gary E. Kessler | 2901111834677 | Paperback | Barnes & Noble
Voices of Wisdom: A Multicultural Philosophy Reader / Edition 8

Voices of Wisdom: A Multicultural Philosophy Reader / Edition 8

by Gary E. Kessler
     
 

ISBN-10: 1111834679

ISBN-13: 2901111834677

Pub. Date: 01/01/2012

Publisher: Cengage Learning

With well-chosen classic and contemporary readings from diverse traditions, this market-leading text provides an outstandingly balanced introduction to philosophy that fosters student understanding of the world and their place in it.

Overview

With well-chosen classic and contemporary readings from diverse traditions, this market-leading text provides an outstandingly balanced introduction to philosophy that fosters student understanding of the world and their place in it.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
2901111834677
Publisher:
Cengage Learning
Publication date:
01/01/2012
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
656

Table of Contents

Prefacexi
Part IIntroduction1
Chapter 1What Is Philosophy?2
1.1A Definition of Philosophy2
1.2What Is Rationality?7
1.3Does Philosophy Bake Bread?12
Bertrand Russell: On the Value of Philosophy14
Chapter 2How Should We Read Philosophy?19
2.1Getting Started19
2.2The Critical Precis21
2.3A Test Case23
Lawrence A. Blum: Antiracism, Multiculturalism, and Interracial Community: Three Educational Values for a Multicultural Society25
Part IIEthics33
Chapter 3How Should One Live?34
3.1Introduction34
3.2The Buddha and the Middle Way36
The Buddha: The Four Noble Truths37
Walpola Rahula: The Fourth Noble Truth39
3.3Confucius and the Life of Virtue43
D. C. Lau: Confucius and Moral Character45
3.4Socrates on Living the Examined Life51
Plato: The Apology53
3.5Aristotle on Happiness and the Life of Moderation67
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics69
3.6The Song of God77
Bhagavad-Gita80
3.7.Does Life Have Meaning?86
Daniel Kolak and Raymond Martin: Meaning87
Chapter 4How Can I Know What Is Right?93
4.1Introduction93
4.2Kant and the Categorical Imperative94
Immanuel Kant: Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals96
4.3Utilitarianism101
Jeremy Bentham: Of the Principle of Utility103
4.4Revaluation of Values107
Friedrich Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil109
Friedrich Nietzsche: On the Genealogy of Morality114
4.5Toward a Feminist Ethic119
Rita Manning: Just Caring121
4.6Some African and Western Conceptions of Morals137
Kwasi Wiredu: Custom and Morality139
Chapter 5What Makes a Society Just?152
5.1Introduction152
5.2God and Justice153
Majid Khadduri: The Islamic Conception of Justice156
5.3Capitalism and Exploitation163
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: Manifesto of the Communist Party165
5.4The Original Position174
John Rawls: A Theory of Justice175
5.5Our Obligation to the State187
Plato: Crito188
5.6Civil Disobedience195
Martin Luther King, Jr.: Letter from Birmingham Jail197
5.7Sovereignty and Justice: An Indigenist's Viewpoint207
Ward Churchill: Perversions of Justice208
Chapter 6Is Justice for All Possible?219
6.1Introduction219
6.2Universal Human Rights220
Rene Trujillo: Human Rights in the "Age of Discovery"221
United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights223
6.3Are Human Rights Universal?227
Xiaorong Li: "Asian Values" and the Universality of Human Rights228
6.4Racism and Feminism234
bell hooks: Ain't I a Woman235
6.5The Affirmative Action Debate244
Warren Kessler: Is Affirmative Action a Second Wrong?245
Shelby Steele: The Price of Preference250
6.6The Animal Rights Debate256
Tom Regan: The Case for Animal Rights257
Mary Anne Warren: Difficulties with the Strong Animal Rights Position264
6.7Environmental Ethics271
J. Baird Callicott and Thomas W. Overholt: Traditional American Indian Attitudes Toward Nature272
6.8Development, Environment, and the Third World289
Ramachandra Guha: Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation290
6.9International Business Ethics298
David M. Adams and Edward W. Maine: International Competition and Corporate Social Responsibility300
Part IIIEpistemology307
Chapter 7Is Knowledge Possible?308
7.1Introduction308
7.2Sufi Mysticism310
Al-Ghazali: Deliverance from Error312
7.3Is Certainty Possible?319
Rene Descartes: Meditations I and II322
7.4Empiricism and Limited Skepticism328
David Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding331
7.5Should We Believe Beyond the Evidence?337
William K. Clifford: The Ethics of Belief339
William James: The Will to Believe341
7.6Classical Indian Epistemology346
D. M. Datta: Knowledge and the Methods of Knowledge348
7.7Afrocentric Feminist Epistemology352
Patricia Hill Collins: Toward an Afrocentric Feminist Epistemology354
Chapter 8Does Science Tell Us the Whole Truth and Nothing But the Truth?363
8.1Introduction363
8.2Science and Common Sense364
Ernest Nagel: The Structure of Science365
8.3Scientific Revolutions374
Thomas S. Kuhn: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions376
8.4Feminism and Science387
Elizabeth Anderson: Knowledge, Human Interests, and Objectivity in Feminist Epistemology389
8.5Japanese Views of Western Science401
Thomas P. Kasulis: Sushi, Science, and Spirituality403
8.6Science and Traditional Thought416
Kwame Anthony Appiah: Old Gods, New Worlds418
Part IVMetaphysics427
Chapter 9What Is Really Real?428
9.1Introduction428
9.2The Dao430
Laozi: Dao De Jing433
9.3Platonic Dualism440
Plato: The Republic443
9.4Nondualism450
Shankara: The Crest-Jewel of Discrimination451
9.5Subjective Idealism459
George Berkeley: The Principles of Human Knowledge461
9.6Materialism466
Paul M. Churchland: Eliminative Materialism467
9.7Pre-Columbian Cosmologies475
Jorge Valadez: Pre-Columbian Philosophical Perspectives477
9.8So What Is Real?483
Jorge Luis Borges: The Circular Ruins484
Chapter 10Are We Free or Determined?488
10.1Introduction488
10.2We Are Determined489
Robert Blatchford: Not Guilty490
10.3We Are Free495
Jean-Paul Sartre: Existentialism496
10.4Karma and Freedom504
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan: Karma and Freedom506
10.5We Are Both Free and Determined509
Raymond M. Smullyan: Is God a Taoist?511
Chapter 11What Am I? Who Am I?519
11.1Introduction519
11.2You Are Your Mind522
Rene Descartes: Meditation VI524
Rene Descartes and Princess Elisabeth: Correspondence with Princess Elisabeth, Concerning the Union of Mind and Body530
11.3You Are an Embodied Self534
Eve Browning Cole: Body, Mind, and Gender535
11.4There Is No Self544
False Doctrines About the Soul and the Simile of the Chariot547
11.5What Is Consciousness?549
Colin McGinn: Can We Ever Understand Consciousness?551
11.6How Much Can I Change and Still Be Me?560
Jeffry Olen: Personal Identity and Life After Death561
11.7Social Identity571
Gloria Anzaldua: How to Tame a Wild Tongue572
Chapter 12Is There a God?579
12.1Introduction579
12.2Cosmological Arguments580
Maimonides: Guide for the Perplexed583
St. Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica589
12.3The Origin of the Universe According to Modern Science596
Victor Weisskopf: The Origin of the Universe592
12.4Creationism Vs. Evolution601
Richard Dawkins: The Blind Watchmaker603
12.5An Ontological Argument for God's Existence613
St. Anselm and Gaunilo: A Debate615
12.6The Gender of God617
Mary Daly: Beyond God the Father619
Appendix IGlossary627
Appendix IIPronunciation Guide636

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