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First published in 1992 this anthology quickly became the standard for multicultural introductions to philosophy. Composed of a group of culturally diverse readings addressing a selection of seminal philosophical questions in ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics, VOICES OF WISDOM introduces students to the traditional terrain of philosophy as developed in the European tradition, yet in a manner that embraces significant philosophical insights borne out of different cultural legacies.
Part I: INTRODUCTION. 1. What is Philosophy? A Definition of Philosophy. What is Rationality? Why Study Multicultural Philosophy? Joseph Prabhu: "The Clash or Dialogue of Civilizations?" Does Philosophy Bake Bread? Bertrand Russell: "On the Value of Philosophy." Reading Philosophy. Part II: ETHICS. 2. How Should One Live? Introduction. The Buddha and the Middle Way. Buddha: "The Four Noble Truths." Walpola Rahula: "The Fourth Noble Truth." Confucius and the Life of Virtue. D.C.Lau: "Confucius and Moral Character." Socrates on Living the Examined Life. Plato: "The Apology." Aristotle on Happiness and the Life of Moderation. Aristotle: "Nicomachean Ethics." The Song of God. Bhagavad-Gita. Does Life Have Meaning? Daniel Kolak and Raymond Martin: "The Ethics of Emergencies." 3. How Can I Know What Is Right? Introduction. The Categorical Imperative. Immanuel Kant: "Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals." Utilitarianism. John Stuart Mill: "What Utilitarianism Is." Revaluation of Values. Friedrich Nietzsche: "Beyond Good and Evil and On the Genealogy of Morality." Care versus Rights. Joy Roeger-Mappes: "The Ethic of Care vis-a-vis the Ethic of Rights." Moral Relativism. David Wong: "Relativism." 4. What Makes a Society Just? Introduction. God and Justice. Majid Khadduri: "The Islamic Conception of Justice." Capitalism and Exploitation. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: "Manifesto of the Communist Party." The Original Position. John Rawls: "A Theory of Justice." Our Obligation to the State. Plato: "Crito." Civil Disobedience. Martin Luther King, Jr.: "Letter from Birmingham Jail." Sovereignty and Justice: An Indigenist''s Viewpoint. Ward Churchill: "Perversions of Justice." 5. Is Justice for All Possible? Introduction. Universal Human Rights. Rene Trujillo: "Human Rights in the "Age of Discovery"."United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Racism and Feminism. bell hooks: "Ain''t I a Woman." Globalization and Justice. Benjamin R. Barber: "Jihad vs. McWorld." Terrorism and Morality. Bat-Ami Bar On: "Why Terrorism is Morally Problematic." Justice and the Land. Aldo Leopold: "The Land Ethic." Part III: EPISTEMOLOGY. 6. Is Knowledge Possible? Introduction. Sufi Mysticism. Al-Ghazali: "Deliverance from Error." Is Certainty Possible? Rene Descartes: "Meditations I and II." Empiricism and Limited Skepticism. David Hume: "An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding." Should We Believe Beyond the Evidence? William K. Clifford: "The Ethics of Belief." William James: "The Will to Believe." Classical Indian Epistemology. D. M. Datta: "Knowledge and the Methods of Knowledge." Afrocentric Feminist Epistemology. Patricia Hill Collins: "Toward an Afrocentric Feminist Epistemology." 7. Does Science Tell us the Whole Truth and Nothing But the Truth? Introduction. The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Karl R. Popper: "Conjectures and Refutations." Scientific Revolutions. Thomas S. Kuhn: "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Feminism and Science. Elizabeth Anderson: "Knowledge, Human Interests, and Objectivity in Feminist Epistemology." Japanese Views of Western Science. Thomas P. Kasulis: "Sushi, Science, and Spirituality." Science and Traditional Thought. Kwame Anthony Appiah: "Old Gods, New Worlds." Part IV: METAPHYSICS. 8. What Is Really Real? Introduction. The Dao. Laozi: "Dao De Jing." Platonic Dualism. Plato: "The Republic." Nondualism. Shankara: "The Crest-Jewel of Discrimination." Subjective Idealism. George Berkeley: "The Principles of Human Knowledge." Pre-Columbian Cosmologies. Jorge Valadez: "Pre-Columbian Philosophical Perspectives." So What Is Real? Jorge Luis Borges: "The Circular Ruins." 9. Are We Free or Determined? Introduction. We Are Determined. Laura Waddell Ekstrom: "Arguments for Incompatibilism." We Are Free. Jean-Paul Sartre: "Existentialism." Karma and Freedom. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan: "Karma and Freedom." We Are Both Free and Determined. Raymond M. Smullyan: "Is God a Taoist?" 10. What Am I? Introduction. You Are Your Mind. Rene Descartes: "Meditation VI." You Are an Embodied Self. Eve Browning Cole: "Body, Mind, and Gender." You are a Computing Machine. Bruce Hinrichs: "Computing the Mind." You are not a Computing Machine. John Searle: "Can Computers Think?" 11. Who Am I? Introduction. There Is No Self. Buddha: "False Doctrines About the Soul and the Simile of the Chariot." Down With the Ego. Derek Parfit: "Divided Minds and the Nature of Persons." Where am I? Daniel C. Dennett: "Brainstorms." Social Identity. Gloria Anzaldua: "How to Tame a Wild Tongue." Gender Identity. Deirdre (Donald) N. McCloskey: "Crossing." 12. Is There a God? Introduction. Arguments for God''s Existence. St. Thomas Aquinas: "The Five Ways." William Craig: "The Kalam Argument from Islam." Gunapala Dharmasiri: "Problems with the Cosmological Argument." Hinduism and Science. P. Venugopala Rao: "Science and Dharma." Creation vs. Evolution. Richard Dawkins: "The Blind Watchmaker." The Mystery of Evil. Louis P. Pojman: "The Problem of Evil." The Gender of God. Mary Daly: "Beyond God the Father." Are All Religions True? John Cobb, Jr: "Beyond Pluralism." Appendix I: Glossary. Appendix II: Pronunciation Guide.