Volcanoes

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Volcanoes describes in stunning detail 100 active volcanoes around the planet. Every entry describes the principal characteristics of the volcano, such as the geodynamic environment leading to its formation, its structure, special features, morphology, its method of eruption, and the materials erupted. There are also traveler's directions for reaching each volcano.

The word volcano usually evokes images of cone-shaped mountains with smooth, steep slopes and a plume of smoke ...

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Overview

Volcanoes describes in stunning detail 100 active volcanoes around the planet. Every entry describes the principal characteristics of the volcano, such as the geodynamic environment leading to its formation, its structure, special features, morphology, its method of eruption, and the materials erupted. There are also traveler's directions for reaching each volcano.

The word volcano usually evokes images of cone-shaped mountains with smooth, steep slopes and a plume of smoke rising skyward. This, however, is only one of the five types of volcanoes. In this comprehensive guide, readers will learn about these basic types:

  • Island-Arc volcanoes (Alaska, Japan and Indonesia)
  • Hot-Spot volcanoes (Hawaii)
  • Ocean-Ridge volcanoes (Iceland)
  • Continental-Margin volcanoes (North America and the Andes)
  • Continental-Rift volcanoes (eastern Africa)

Written and illustrated by experts in the field, Volcanoes will appeal to readers interested in science and natural history; travelers to regions of volcanic activity; students; and inhabitants of areas exposed to volcanic eruptions.

The book also addresses predicting eruptions and how to minimize the risks posed by them.

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Editorial Reviews

St Catharines Standard - Lian Goodall
Quite authoritative, but it also remains entirely user friendly ... 490 color photographs, abundant illustrations, maps and glossary make this a very appealing book.
American Reference Books Annual, Volume 36 - Patrick Hall
A comprehensive handbook outlining the origins, nature, and physical mechanics of volcanic activity... a must resource that can aid both the novice geology buff and the serious graduate student in their understanding of this natural phenomenon.
Science Books and Films - Paul H. Reitan
A profusely illustrated, concise, well-done summary of volcanism followed by a guide to 100 of the world's volcanoes... easily accessible.
Choice - Y. Dilek
A superb guidebook to the world's volcanoes ... can be used as both a teaching tool and a field reference ... well illustrated diagrams and color images provide a great visual aid complementing the text ... Informative maps, simple geological diagrams, and vivid photographs accompany the text on each volcano ... An excellent, comprehensive source ... Highly recommended.
E-Streams - Stanley L. Knight-Davis
Amazing pictures. Everything from eruptions to lava fountains to crater lakes to interesting rocks is illustrated with a full color photo... The information is presented in a clear, concise and readable manner... Volcanoes is highly recommended for academic, public, and school libraries.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781552976838
  • Publisher: Firefly Books, Limited
  • Publication date: 3/1/2003
  • Series: A Firefly Guide Series
  • Pages: 336
  • Product dimensions: 5.12 (w) x 7.70 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Mauro Rosi teaches the physics of volcanism at the University of Pisa. He studies and explores volcanoes throughout the world, particularly in the Andes. He is a member of the editorial committee of the magazine Bulletin of Volcanology and is studying volcanic risk in Italy for the Department of Civil Protection.

Paolo Papale is a researcher in volcanology at the National Institute of Geophysics and the Department of Earth Sciences at Pisa; his primary field is the computerized simulation of eruptions. He is on the editorial board of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research.

Luca Lupi is founder of Vulcano Esplorazioni, which studies volcanoes and organizes scientific-naturalistic expeditions to volcanoes worldwide.

Marco Stoppato is a leading science photographer and geologist who specializes in volcanology. His photographs appear in many of the most important travel and popular science magazines, including Tuttoturism, Gullivers, Aqua, No Limits, Focus, Newton, and Scienza and Vita.

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Read an Excerpt

Preface

Volcanic eruptions, together with earthquakes, are spectacular, violent and often quite dangerous expressions of the internal dynamics of our planet.

The distribution of active volcanoes (as well as earthquakes) marks off the boundaries between and among the large rigid plates that form the surface of the Earth and that move into and away from one another. Some times they move away, as in ocean ridges, where frequent undersea eruptions are continuously generating new crust. At other times they converge and collide, one slipping beneath the other, forming cordilleras and island arcs. The nature of magma changes from one geodynamic environment to another and affects the type of eruptive activity, which varies from simple effusions of lava to highly dangerous explosions with clouds of gas dense with fiery fragments.

There are places on the Earth where the presence of active volcanoes has a direct effect on the social life and economy of the region. Because of their majestic beauty and the spectacular display of their eruptions, volcanoes can be enormous tourist attractions. The soil near volcanoes is often exceptionally fertile, and in many places such soil has been the reason for centuries upon centuries of flourishing agricultural activity. On the other hand, a volcano can represent a permanent threat to all settlement, to the infrastructures necessary to settled living, to human life itself To live near a volcano requires a certain rational approach that itself requires understanding: knowing the kinds of eruption that can occur, the extent of the area at risk and the necessary measures that must be taken to prevent damage and protect life.

Many of the answers to such questions are given in this book. Written and illustrated by highly experienced experts in the field, it uses language that is simple and at the same time thoroughly scientific. It is directed at the general reader interested in knowing more about volcanoes and the Earth sciences; at the university student approaching this fascinating discipline; at the inhabitant of an area exposed to risk from volcanic eruptions. Of particular interest are the pages covering 100 of the active volcanoes of our world, located in all areas of the planet. These fully illustrated pages make this book the first comprehensive encyclopedia of volcanoes ever published. Every entry describes the principal characteristics of the volcano, such as the geodynamic environment that led to its formation, its structure, morphology, the principal types of eruption, the materials erupted, all of it based on references to historically documented events. Also provided for each volcano are directions for reaching the site and information on its most interesting aspects.

The book also addresses a theme that is currently of enormous socioeconomic and scientific importance, that of predicting eruptions and the means available to minimize the risks posed by volcanic activity. To predict an eruption one must establish the characteristics (explosiveness, area exposed to danger, sequence of events) and, well before the actual event, analyze the data collected by monitoring systems to reach a determination that an eruption is imminent. To face the threat of volcanic risk requires the advance preparation of emergency plans based on scientifically accurate scenarios of expected phenomena; also necessary is a program to educate the population of the danger. Such elements are part of the scientific and civilian measures necessary to deal with volcanic activity.

I hope this book will also find wide use as a teaching tool, most of all in grade schools and high schools, and particularly in those areas where there are active volcanoes. In such places the young should be taught early on an awareness of volcanic activity and an awareness of the danger such activity represents, but without in any way diminishing the fascination that all volcanoes possess.

Franco Barberi

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Table of Contents

Preface by Franco Barberi

Introduction The Geodynamic Structure of the Earth Ocean-ridge Volcanoes Continental Rift Volcanoes Continental-margin Volcanoes Island-arc volcanoes Hot-spot volcanoes The Internal Structure of the Earth

Magma Chemical Composition Magmatic Series Intrusive Rocks and Volcanic Rocks The Chemical Evolution of Magma Criteria of Classification of Magmatic Rocks Classification of Magmatic Intrusive Rocks Classification of Volcanic Magmatic Rocks Magmatic Gases Properties of Magmas Saturation by Volatile Elements Density of Magma Viscosity of Magma

Volcanic Eruptions Effusive Activity Products of Effusive Activity Lava Flows and Lava Domes Undersea Effusive Activity Explosive Activity Factors Controlling Explosive Activity Classification of Explosive Eruptions The Plinian Eruption Column: Convective Clouds and Collapsing Clouds Pelean Eruptions The Products of Explosive Volcanic Activity Deposits of Explosive Activity Ignimbrite Eruptions with the Interaction of Water and Their Products Hydrothermal Activity Lahars

Volcanic Structures Volcanic Cones Craters and Calderas Volcanic Necks

Volcano Monitoring Volcanic Risk
Monitoring Volcanoes Methods of Volcano Monitoring Volcanic Seismic Activity Surface Deformation Geochemical Analysis of Fluids Determining Volcanic Danger

The Volcanologist The "Classic" Volcanologist The Geochemist The Geophysicist The Experimental Volcanologist The Computer Analyst

Symbols

Europe


• Campi Flegrei, Italy
• Somma, Vesuvius, Italy
• Stromboli, Italy
• Vulcano, Italy
• Etna, Italy
• Santorini, Greece
• Nisryos, Greece
• Pico, Azores, Portugal
• Agua de Pau, Azores, Portugal
• Hierro, Canaries, Spain
• Tenerife, Canaries, Spain

• Snaefellsjökul, Iceland
• Surtsey, Iceland
• Heimaey, Iceland
• Hekla, Iceland
• Grimsvöton, Iceland
• Laki, Iceland
• Askja, Iceland
• Krafla, Iceland
• Herdubried, Iceland

Africa


• Erta Ale, Ethiopia
• Ol Doinyo Lengai, Tanzania
• Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
• Nyirangongo, Congo
• Piton de la Fournaise, Réunion

Asia and Oceania


• White Island, New Zealand
• Tarawera, New Zealand
• Tongariro, New Zealand
• Ruapehu, New Zealand
• Rabaul, Papua New Guinea
• Lamington, Papua New Guinea
• Krakatau, Indonesia
• Galunggung, Java, Indonesia
• Merapi, Indonesia

• Semeru, Indonesia
• Bromo, Indonesia
• Ijen, Kawah, Indonesia
• Tambora, Indonesia
• Mayon, Philippines
• Taal, Philippines
• Pinatubo, Philippines
• Sakura-Jima, Japan
• Unzen, Japan
• Aso, Japan
• Fuji, Japan
• Usu, Japan
• Karymsky, Kamchataka
• Bezymianny, Kamchatka

The Americas


• Shishaldin, Alaska, USA
• Pavlof, Alaska, USA
• Trident, Alaska, USA
• Katmai-Novarupta, Alaska, USA
• Augustine, Alaska, USA
• Redoubt, Alaska, USA
• Rainier, Cascades, USA
• St. Helens, Cascades, USA
• Crater Lake, USA
• Shasta, Cascades, USA
• Lassen Peak, USA
• Mono-Inyo Craters, Mono Lake, USA
• Yellowstone, USA

• Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands, USA
• Mauna Loa, Hawaiian Islands, USA
• Colima, Mexico
• Parícutin, Mexico
• Popcatépetl, Mexico
• El Chichón, Mexico
• Santiaguito, Guatemala
• Fuego, Guatemala
• Pacaya, Guatemala
• Cerro Negro, Nicaragua
• Momotombo, Nicaragua
• Masaya, Nicaragua
• Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica
• Arenal, Costa Rica
• Poas, Costa Rica
• Irazú, Costa Rica
• Ruiz, Colombia
• Galeras, Colombia
• Reventador, Ecuador
• Pululagua, Ecuador
• Guagua Pinchincha, Ecuador
• Antisana, Ecuador
• Cotopaxi, Ecuador
• Quilotoa, Ecuador
• Tungurahua, Ecuador
• Sangay, Ecuador
• Fernandian, Ecuador
• Isabela, Ecuador
• Sabancaya, Peru

• El Misti, Peru
• Lascar, Chile
• Lonquimay, Chile
• Llaima, Chile
• Villarrica, Chile
• Cerro Hudson, Chile
• Soufriére Hills, Montserrat, West Indies
• Soufrière, Guadeloupe, West Indies
• Pelée, Martinique, West Indies
• La Soufrière, St Vincent, West Indies

References Global Volcanism Program Index Glossary WOVO: World Organization of Volcano Observatories Bibliography Photo Credits

Read More Show Less

Preface

Preface

Volcanic eruptions, together with earthquakes, are spectacular, violent and often quite dangerous expressions of the internal dynamics of our planet.

The distribution of active volcanoes (as well as earthquakes) marks off the boundaries between and among the large rigid plates that form the surface of the Earth and that move into and away from one another. Some times they move away, as in ocean ridges, where frequent undersea eruptions are continuously generating new crust. At other times they converge and collide, one slipping beneath the other, forming cordilleras and island arcs. The nature of magma changes from one geodynamic environment to another and affects the type of eruptive activity, which varies from simple effusions of lava to highly dangerous explosions with clouds of gas dense with fiery fragments.

There are places on the Earth where the presence of active volcanoes has a direct effect on the social life and economy of the region. Because of their majestic beauty and the spectacular display of their eruptions, volcanoes can be enormous tourist attractions. The soil near volcanoes is often exceptionally fertile, and in many places such soil has been the reason for centuries upon centuries of flourishing agricultural activity. On the other hand, a volcano can represent a permanent threat to all settlement, to the infrastructures necessary to settled living, to human life itself To live near a volcano requires a certain rational approach that itself requires understanding: knowing the kinds of eruption that can occur, the extent of the area at risk and the necessary measures that must be taken to prevent damage and protect life.

Many of the answers to such questions are given in this book. Written and illustrated by highly experienced experts in the field, it uses language that is simple and at the same time thoroughly scientific.
It is directed at the general reader interested in knowing more about volcanoes and the Earth sciences; at the university student approaching this fascinating discipline; at the inhabitant of an area exposed to risk from volcanic eruptions. Of particular interest are the pages covering 100 of the active volcanoes of our world, located in all areas of the planet. These fully illustrated pages make this book the first comprehensive encyclopedia of volcanoes ever published. Every entry describes the principal characteristics of the volcano, such as the geodynamic environment that led to its formation, its structure, morphology, the principal types of eruption, the materials erupted, all of it based on references to historically documented events. Also provided for each volcano are directions for reaching the site and information on its most interesting aspects.

The book also addresses a theme that is currently of enormous socioeconomic and scientific importance,
that of predicting eruptions and the means available to minimize the risks posed by volcanic activity. To predict an eruption one must establish the characteristics (explosiveness, area exposed to danger, sequence of events) and, well before the actual event, analyze the data collected by monitoring systems to reach a determination that an eruption is imminent. To face the threat of volcanic risk requires the advance preparation of emergency plans based on scientifically accurate scenarios of expected phenomena; also necessary is a program to educate the population of the danger. Such elements are part of the scientific and civilian measures necessary to deal with volcanic activity.

I hope this book will also find wide use as a teaching tool, most of all in grade schools and high schools, and particularly in those areas where there are active volcanoes. In such places the young should be taught early on an awareness of volcanic activity and an awareness of the danger such activity represents, but without in any way diminishing the fascination that all volcanoes possess.

Franco Barberi

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Preface

Volcanic eruptions, together with earthquakes, are spectacular, violent and often quite dangerous expressions of the internal dynamics of our planet.

The distribution of active volcanoes (as well as earthquakes) marks off the boundaries between and among the large rigid plates that form the surface of the Earth and that move into and away from one another. Some times they move away, as in ocean ridges, where frequent undersea eruptions are continuously generating new crust. At other times they converge and collide, one slipping beneath the other, forming cordilleras and island arcs. The nature of magma changes from one geodynamic environment to another and affects the type of eruptive activity, which varies from simple effusions of lava to highly dangerous explosions with clouds of gas dense with fiery fragments.

There are places on the Earth where the presence of active volcanoes has a direct effect on the social life and economy of the region. Because of their majestic beauty and the spectacular display of their eruptions, volcanoes can be enormous tourist attractions. The soil near volcanoes is often exceptionally fertile, and in many places such soil has been the reason for centuries upon centuries of flourishing agricultural activity. On the other hand, a volcano can represent a permanent threat to all settlement, to the infrastructures necessary to settled living, to human life itself To live near a volcano requires a certain rational approach that itself requires understanding: knowing the kinds of eruption that can occur, the extent of the area at risk and the necessary measures that must be taken to prevent damage and protect life.

Many of theanswers to such questions are given in this book. Written and illustrated by highly experienced experts in the field, it uses language that is simple and at the same time thoroughly scientific. It is directed at the general reader interested in knowing more about volcanoes and the Earth sciences; at the university student approaching this fascinating discipline; at the inhabitant of an area exposed to risk from volcanic eruptions. Of particular interest are the pages covering 100 of the active volcanoes of our world, located in all areas of the planet. These fully illustrated pages make this book the first comprehensive encyclopedia of volcanoes ever published. Every entry describes the principal characteristics of the volcano, such as the geodynamic environment that led to its formation, its structure, morphology, the principal types of eruption, the materials erupted, all of it based on references to historically documented events. Also provided for each volcano are directions for reaching the site and information on its most interesting aspects.

The book also addresses a theme that is currently of enormous socioeconomic and scientific importance, that of predicting eruptions and the means available to minimize the risks posed by volcanic activity. To predict an eruption one must establish the characteristics (explosiveness, area exposed to danger, sequence of events) and, well before the actual event, analyze the data collected by monitoring systems to reach a determination that an eruption is imminent. To face the threat of volcanic risk requires the advance preparation of emergency plans based on scientifically accurate scenarios of expected phenomena; also necessary is a program to educate the population of the danger. Such elements are part of the scientific and civilian measures necessary to deal with volcanic activity.

I hope this book will also find wide use as a teaching tool, most of all in grade schools and high schools, and particularly in those areas where there are active volcanoes. In such places the young should be taught early on an awareness of volcanic activity and an awareness of the danger such activity represents, but without in any way diminishing the fascination that all volcanoes possess.

Franco Barberi

Read More Show Less

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  • Anonymous

    Posted July 9, 2004

    Most comprehensive compact guide on volcanic eruptive styles, lava types, shapes, & world's volcanoes

    This is a must text book for a course in volcanology or those doing research. Suitable level of reading. Good diagrams. Features descriptions of all world volcanoes. Best section on magma types I've come across. Also particularly good on showing and describing eruptive styles and volcanic shape. Many excellent photos. Not burdensome with overly verbose detail.

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