Vold's Theoretical Criminology / Edition 6

Vold's Theoretical Criminology / Edition 6

by Thomas J. Bernard, George B. Vold, Jeffrey B. Snipes, Alexander L. Gerould

ISBN-10: 0195386418

ISBN-13: 9780195386417

Pub. Date: 04/14/2009

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Vold's Theoretical Criminology, Sixth Edition, presents the most precise, up-to-date, and comprehensive overview of criminological theory available, building on the foundation of George B. Vold's Theoretical Criminology, which paved the way for a generation of criminological theorists.

Coupled with new, student-friendly features, the sixth edition features

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Vold's Theoretical Criminology, Sixth Edition, presents the most precise, up-to-date, and comprehensive overview of criminological theory available, building on the foundation of George B. Vold's Theoretical Criminology, which paved the way for a generation of criminological theorists.

Coupled with new, student-friendly features, the sixth edition features expanded discussions of: empirical research within specific theories; the "biosocial" approach; theoretical explanations for gendered differences in crime; low self-control and the general theory of crime; Control Balance Theory; and General Strain Theory. In addition, the text covers such new topical areas as Lonnie Athens's Theory of "Violentization;" Agnew's General Theory; Zimbardo's "Lucifer Effect;" the Cambridge Youth Violence Study; and Coercion and Social Support. Offering improved pedagogy-including new Key Terms lists and end-of-chapter Discussion Questions-this new edition also presents additional material on policy implications.

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Oxford University Press
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Older Edition
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6.30(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Chapter 1 Theory and Crime 1

Spiritual Explanations 1

Natural Explanations 3

Scientific Theories 4

Causation in Scientific Theories 4

Three Frames of Reference 7

Relationships Among the Three Frames of Reference 8

Key Terms 10

Discussion Questions 10

Chapter 2 Classical Criminology 14

The Social and Intellectual Background of Classical Criminology 14

Beccaria and the Classical School 16

From Classical Theory to Deterrence Research 18

Three Types of Deterrence Research 20

Rational Choice and Offending 24

Routine Activities and Victimization 26

Conclusions 28

Key Terms 28

Discussion Questions 29

Chapter 3 Biological Factors and Criminal Behavior 37

Background: Physical Appearance and Defectiveness 37

Lombroso, the "Born Criminal" and Positivist Criminology 38

Goring's Refutation of the "Born Criminal" 40

Body Type Theories 41

Family Studies 43

Twin and Adoption Studies 44

Neurotransmitters 47

Hormones 48

The Central Nervous System 49

The Autonomic Nervous System 50

Environmentally Induced Biological Components of Behavior 52

Implications and Conclusions 55

Key Terms 56

Discussion Questions 56

Chapter 4 Psychological Factors and Criminal Behavior 65

Intelligence and Crime: Background Ideas and Concepts 66

IQ Tests and Criminal Behavior 66

Delinquency, Race, and IQ 69

Interpreting the Association between Delinquency and IQ 71

Personality and Criminal Behavior 72

Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder 74

Clinical Prediction of Future Dangerousness 75

Actuarial Prediction of Later Crime and Delinquency 76

Depression and Delinquency 77

Impulsivity and Crime 78

PolicyImplications of Personality Research 81

Conclusions 82

Key Terms 83

Discussion Questions 83

Chapter 5 Crime and Poverty 93

Historical Background: Guerry and Quetelet 93

Research on Crime and Poverty: Contradictions and Disagreements 97

Crime and Unemployment: A Detailed Look at Research 99

Problems Interpreting Research on Crime and Economic Conditions 101

Implications and Conclusions 106

Key Terms 107

Discussion Questions 107

Chapter 6 Durkheim, Anomie, and Modernization 115

Emile Durkheim 116

Crime as Normal in Mechanical Societies 117

Anomie as a Pathological State in Organic Societies 120

Durkheim's Theory of Crime 123

Conclusion 127

Key Terms 128

Discussion Questions 129

Chapter 7 Neighborhoods and Crime 133

The Theory of Human Ecology 133

Research in the "Delinquency Areas" of Chicago 136

Policy Implications 139

Residential Succession, Social Disorganization, and Crime 141

Sampson's Theory of Collective Efficacy 142

Expanding Interest in Neighborhood Social Processes 146

Implications and Conclusions 147

Key Terms 148

Discussion Questions 149

Chapter 8 Strain Theories 154

Robert K. Merton and Anomie in American Society 154

Strain as the Explanation of Gang Delinquency 159

1960s Strain-Based Policies 162

The Decline and Resurgence of Strain Theories 162

Strain in Individuals 164

Strain in Societies 167

Conclusion 170

Key Terms 171

Discussion Questions 171

Chapter 9 Learning Theories 177

Basic Psychological Approaches to Learning 178

Sutherland's Differential Association Theory 179

Research Testing Sutherland's Theory 182

The Content of Learning: Cultural and Subcultural Theories 184

The Learning Process: Social Learning Theory 189

Athens's Theory of "Violentization" 191

Implications 193

Conclusions 194

Key Terms 195

Discussion Questions 196

Chapter 10 Control Theories 203

Early Control Theories: Reiss to Nye 203

Matza's Delinquency and Drift 206

Hirschi's Social Control Theory 208

Assessing Social Control Theory 211

Gottfredson and Hirschi's A General Theory of Crime 213

Assessing Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory 214

Implications and Conclusions 218

Key Terms 219

Discussion Questions 220

Chapter 11 The Meaning of Crime 226

The Meaning of Crime to the Self: Labeling Theory 227

The Meaning of Crime to the Criminal: Katz's Seductions of Crime 231

The Situational Meaning of Crime: Zimbardo's Lucifer Effect 233

The Meaning of Crime to the Larger Society: Deviance and Social Reaction 235

State Power and the Meaning of Crime: Controlology 237

Implications and Conclusions 239

Key Terms 240

Discussion Questions 240

Chapter 12 Conflict Criminology 246

Early Conflict Theories: Sellin and Vold 247

Conflict Theories in a Time of Conflict: Turk, Quinney, and Chambliss and Seidman 249

Black's Theory of the Behavior of Law 253

A Unified Conflict Theory of Crime 256

Testing Conflict Criminology 258

Implications and Conclusions 261

Key Terms 262

Discussion Questions 262

Chapter 13 Marxism and Postmodern Criminology 267

Overview of Marx's Theory 268

Marx on Crime, Criminal Law, and Criminal Justice 269

The Emergence of Marxist Criminology 271

Marxist Theory and Research on Crime 272

Overview of Postmodernism 275

Postmodern Criminology 277

Conclusion 279

Key Terms 280

Discussion Questions 280

Chapter 14 Gender and Crime 287

The Development of Feminist Criminology 287

Schools of Feminist Criminology 289

Gender in Criminology 291

Why are Women's Crime Rates So Low? 293

Why are Men's Crime Rates So High? 295

Conclusions 298

Key Terms 299

Discussion Questions 299

Chapter 15 Developmental Theories 305

The Great Debate: Criminal Careers, Longitudinal Research, and the Relationship Between Age and Crime 306

Criminal Propensity Versus Criminal Career 308

The Transition to Developmental Criminology 311

Three Developmental Directions 314

Thornberry's Interactional Theory 314

Sampson and Laub's Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control 316

Tremblay's Developmental Origins of Physical Aggression 319

Conclusions 320

Key Terms 321

Discussion Questions 321

Chapter 16 Integrated Theories 327

Elliott's Integrated Theory of Delinquency and Drug Use 327

The Falsification versus Integration Debate 329

Braithwaite's Theory of Reintegrative Shaming 330

Tittle's Control Balance Theory 332

Coercion and Social Support 335

Bernard and Snipes's Approach to Integrating Criminology Theories 337

Agnew's General Theory 340

Conclusion 341

Key Terms 342

Discussion Questions 342

Chapter 17 Assessing Criminology Theories 346

Science, Theory, Research, and Policy 346

Individual Difference Theories 348

Structure/Process Theories 354

Theories of the Behavior of Criminal Law 360

Conclusion 364

Index 367

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