Voltage References: From Diodes to Precision High-Order Bandgap Circuits / Edition 1

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The foremost tutorial resource on the design of integrated voltage references, from theory to real-life practice.

Voltage References covers the conceptual history and scope of practical design issues behind marketable and precision integrated voltage references. Effectual for professionals and understandable to novice designers, this book provides a familiarity with simple rudimentary design as well as precision state-of-the-art ones. Also covered are the design implications on SOC solutions, and low-voltage, low-power, and noisy mixed-signal environments. Enhanced with design examples, this volume will increase the reader's understanding of analog integrated circuits and the issues involved in producing commercially marketable and reliable devices.

Primary topics include:

  • The complete design of integrated voltage references
  • Basics of voltage references, from diodes and current mirrors to temperature-dependent current references
  • Design of zero-order, first-order, second-order, and higher-order reference circuits
  • State-of-the-art curvature-correction techniques
  • Practical design issues of integrated references, from error sources and circuit topologies to trimming circuits, package-shift effects, and characterization

Voltage References is an essential book for IC designers, product engineers, test engineers, researchers, and professors, as well as undergraduate and graduate students.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"...a valuable guide to the design of voltage references." (Choice, Vol. 39, No. 8, April 2002)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471143369
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 10/25/2001
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 192
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.04 (h) x 0.48 (d)

Meet the Author

GABRIEL ALFONSO RINCĂ“N-MORA, PhD, is Adjunct Professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology and a senior designer for Texas Instruments, Inc. He is the author of several journal publications, the inventor of numerous patents, and the designer of many products sold throughout the world.

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Table of Contents







1.1 The Diode 4

1.1.1 Breakdown Region 6

1.1.2 Forward-Biased Region 7

1.2 Current Mirrors 8

1.2.1 The Simple Mirror 10

1.2.2 Cascode Mirrors 11

1.2.3 Regulated Cascode Mirrors 13

1.3 Summary 16

Appendix A.I Temperature Dependence of the Diode Voltage 16

Bibliography 20


2.1 PTAT Current References 24

2.1.1 Bipolar Implementations 24

2.1.2 CMOS Implementations 26

2.2 Startup Circuits and Frequency Compensation 29

2.2.1 Continuous-Conduction Startup Circuits 29

2.2.2 State-Dependent Startup Circuits 30

2.2.3 Frequency Compensation 33

2.3 CTAT Current References 34

2.4 Temperature-Independent Current References 35

2.5 PTAT2 Current Generators 36

2.5.1 Bipolar Implementations 36

2.5.2 CMOS Implementations 37

2.6 Summary 42

Bibliography 43


3.1 Zero-Order References 46

3.1.1 Forward-Biased Diode References 46

3.1.2 Zener References 50

3.2 First-Order References 50

3.2.1 Forward-Biased Diode References 50

3.2.2 Zener References 53

3.3 Second-Order References (Curvature Correction) 57

3.4 State-of-the-Art Curvature-Correction Techniques 61

3.4.1 Temperature-Dependent Resistor Ratio 61

3.4.2 Diode Loop 62

3.4.3 j8 Compensation 64

3.4.4 Piecewise-Linear Current-Mode Technique 65

3.4.5 Matched-Nonlinear Correction 67

3.4.6 Exact Method 71

3.5 Summary 76

Bibliography 77


4.1 Error Sources 80

4.1.1 Qualitative Effects 81

4.2 The Output Stage 87

4.2.1 Voltage-Mode 88

4.2.2 Current-Mode 89

4.2.3 Mixed-Mode 90

4.2.4 Regulated versus Unregulated References 91

4.3 Designing for Power Supply Rejection and Line Regulation 99

4.3.1 Cascodes 99

4.3.2 Pseudo-Power Supply 101

4.4 Summary 108

Appendix A.4 Error Sources in a Typical First-Order Bandgap 108

Appendix B.4 Effect of the Resistors' Temperature Coefficient on a Reference with a Current-Mode Output Stage 116

Bibliography 118


5.1 Design of the Trim Network 120

5.1.1 Trim Range 121

5.1.2 Trimming Techniques 124

5.2 Package-Shift Effects 130

5.3 System-Related Issues 134

5.3.1 Circuit Implications 134

5.3.2 Layout Implications 135

5.4 Characterization 138

5.5 Summary 142

Appendix A.5 Bandgap Trimming Procedure for a Mixed-Mode (Both Voltage-Mode and Current-Mode) Output Stage 143

Appendix B.5 Package Shift-Effects in Bandgap Reference Circuits 148

Appendix C.5 Derivation of the Time Required for a Reference Circuit to Change a Finite Amount upon a Single-Step Stimulus 153

Bibliography 155



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