Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems

Overview

A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems

This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role.

Drawing substantially on ...

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Overview

A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems

This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role.

Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide:
* Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them
* An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm
* An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology
* An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date
* A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems
* A comprehensive bibliography

Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"...a very useful book for those working in the areas of medical and scientific visualization, computer-aided design, air-traffic control, and entertainment. Physicists, engineers, and computer scientists will be interested in this technology.... This is a recommended book..." (E-Streams, Vol. 4, No. 10, October 2001)
Booknews
Provides a discussion of a range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. Examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Establishes the first technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examines different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of volumetric systems are developed. Includes color photos of prototypes. Blundell was formerly a lecturer in electrical and electronic engineering at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Schwarz is a physicist at the Institute of Cancer Research, UK. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471239284
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 3/28/2000
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 338
  • Product dimensions: 6.46 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 0.93 (d)

Meet the Author

BARRY BLUNDELL, PhD, was formerly a lecturer in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

ADAM SCHWARZ, PhD, is a Postdoctoral Physicist at the Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

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Table of Contents

FOREWORD.

PREFACE.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.

LIST OF SYMBOLS.

1. VOLUMETRIC SYSTEMS AND THE PROCESS OF VISUALIZATION.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Volumetric Display.

1.2.1 Display System Classification.

1.2.2 Volumetric Display System Family.

1.3 An Elementary System Model.

1.4 Perception and Three-Dimensional Space.

1.4.1 Visual Acuity.

1.4.2 Temporal Perception: Flicker.

1.4.3 Illusion of Motion.

1.4.4 Summary of Some Depth Cues.

1.4.5 Considerations Relating to Volumetric Displays.

1.5 Methods of Displaying 3-D Information.

1.5.1 Display Systems and Depth Cues.

1.5.2 Monocular Displays.

1.5.3 Stereoscopic Displays.

1.5.4 Autostereoscopic Displays.

1.6 Discussion.

2. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS ON VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY UNITS.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Terminology.

2.3 Fundamental Image Particle: The Voxel.

2.3.1 Voxel Attributes.

2.4 Subsystems Within a Volumetric Display Unit.

2.4.1 Image Space Creation Subsystem.

2.4.2 Voxel Generation Subsystem.

2.4.3 Voxel Activation Subsystem.

2.4.4 Integration of the Subsystems.

2.5 Voxel Time Components.

2.6 Voxel Activation Capacity.

2.7 The Inclusion of the Third Dimension.

2.8 Voxel Density.

2.9 Voxel Location Capacity.

2.10 Discussion.

3. SWEPT-VOLUME DISPLAY UNITS.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Concerning the Display Unit.

3.2.1 The Moving Surface.

3.2.2 Swept-Volume Techniques.

3.3 Classification of Swept-Volume Display Units.

3.4 Image Space Creation by Rotational Motion.

3.4.1 Image Space Update.

3.4.2 Mechanical Considerations.

3.4.3 Uniformity of the Image Space.

3.5 Image Space Creation by Translational Motion.

3.5.1 Image Space Update.

3.5.2 Uniformity of the Image Space.

3.5.3 Mechanical Considerations.

3.5.4 Effect of Sequential Voxel Activation on a Line Segment.

3.6 Active Surface of Emission.

3.6.1 Rotational Motion.

3.6.2 Translational Motion.

3.7 Discussion.

4. BEAM-ADDRESSED SWEPT-VOLUME DISPLAY UNITS.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 General Dead Zone Considerations.

4.2.1 Classes of Dead Zone.

4.3 Distortional Dead Zones.

4.3.1 Planar Surface Geometry.

4.3.2 Helical Surface Geometry.

4.4 Dead Zones: Further Considerations.

4.4.1 Translational Motion.

4.4.2 Rotational Motion.

4.5 Beam Registration Considerations.

4.6 Voxel Ordering Considerations.

4.7 Use of a Reflective Screen.

4.8 Discussion.

5. SWEPT-VOLUME DISPLAY UNIT DEVELOPMENT.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Pioneering Work: 1940–1950.

5.2.1 Rectangular Scan.

5.2.2 Petal or Spiral Scan.

5.3 Pioneering Work: 1950–1960.

5.3.1 Peritron.

5.3.2 Generescope.

5.3.3 A Volumetric CRT.

5.4 Pioneering Work: 1960–1970.

5.4.1 Volumetric CRT for Multicolor Images.

5.4.2 Projection System Employing Rotational Motion.

5.4.3 Volumetric CRT with a Curved Surface of Emission.

5.4.4 Display Unit Employing an Electroluminescent Panel.

5.5 Pioneering Work: 1970–1980.

5.5.1 Display Developed for the Reconstruction of Ultrasonograms.

5.5.2 Helix Laser 3-D Display.

5.5.3 Display Unit Employing an Active Surface of Emission.

5.5.4 TOMAX System.

5.5.5 Display Unit Employing a Rotating Mirror.

5.6 Pioneering Work: 1980–Present.

5.6.1 Display Unit Employing an Archimedes Spiral.

5.6.2 Volumetric Display System for Medical Imaging.

5.6.3 Cathode Ray Sphere.

5.6.4 Display Unit Employing a Helical Screen and CRT Projection System.

5.6.5 Image Space Viewable from Within.

5.6.6 HL3D Systems Developed for the U.S. Navy.

5.6.7 System Able to Project Volumetric Images into Free Space.

5.6.8 3-D Rotatron Display.

5.7 Discussion.

6. STATIC-VOLUME DISPLAY UNITS.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Classification of Static-Volume Display Units.

6.3 Voxel Visibility Lifetime.

6.4 Active Matrix Display Units.

6.5 Beam Intersection Approach.

6.5.1 Three-State Model for a Stepwise Excitation Process.

6.5.2 Optimal Pulse Timing.

6.5.3 Voxel Brightness Considerations.

6.6 Distortional Dead Zones; Optimal Beam Source Positioning.

6.6.1 Geometry.

6.6.2 Beam Source Positions That Avoid Excessive Elongation.

6.6.3 Practical Implications.

6.7 Image Space Characteristics for Beam-Addressed Systems.

6.7.1 Other Types of Dead Zone.

6.7.2 Uniformity of the Image Space.

6.7.3 Materials.

6.7.4 Color and Intensity Scale.

6.8 Considerations on Voxel Addressing.

6.9 Discussion.

7. STATIC-VOLUME DISPLAY UNIT DEVELOPMENT.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Pioneering Work: Pre-1940.

7.3 Pioneering Work: 1940–1950.

7.4 Pioneering Work: 1950–1960.

7.4.1 Active Matrix System Addressed by an Electron Beam.

7.4.2 Active Matrix System for Echo Ranging.

7.5 Pioneering Work: 1960–1970.

7.5.1 Voxel Generation Through the Excitation of Mercury Vapor.

7.5.2 Luminous Spot Display Device.

7.5.3 Alternative Architecture for a Passive Medium Display Unit.

7.5.4 Voxel Generation by Two-Photon Fluorescence.

7.5.5 Photochromic and Thermochromic Materials for Voxel Generation.

7.5.6 Matrix of Elements.

7.6 Pioneering Work: 1970–1980.

7.6.1 Active Matrix Display Unit Using LEDs.

7.6.2 Display Unit Employing a Particle Cloud.

7.7 Pioneering Work: 1980–Present.

7.7.1 Volumetric Systems Employing Optical Fibers.

7.7.2 Two-Step Excitation of Fluorescence Within Solid Media.

7.7.3 Volumetric Image Space Composed of Switchable Panels.

7.8 Discussion.

8. GRAPHICS ENGINE: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Application of Volumetric Display Systems.

8.3 Concerning Coordinate Systems.

8.4 Components within the Graphics Engine.

8.5 A Graphics Engine for use with a Swept-Volume Display.

8.5.1 Example Display Unit.

8.5.2 Processing of the Image Data by the Graphics Engine.

8.5.3 Generation of Voxel Descriptors for the TM Prototype.

8.5.4 Voxel Ordering Considerations.

8.5.5 Graphics Engine Hardware.

8.6 Discussion.

9. GRAPHICS ENGINE: FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Characteristics of the Display Unit and Their Impact on the Graphics Engine.

9.3 Image Subspace.

9.4 Subspace Mappings.

9.4.1 Examples of Subspace Mappings.

9.4.2 Effective Image Space Volume.

9.5 Subspace in the Time Domain.

9.6 Data Throughput Issues Revisited.

9.7 Graphics Engine Architecture.

9.7.1 Data Rate Considerations.

9.7.2 Subspace Processors.

9.7.3 Image Update.

9.7.4 General Discussion.

9.8 Beam Calibration Technique.

9.8.1 Relationship Between Beam Source and Image Space Coordinate Frames.

9.8.2 First Approximation to the Transformation Matrix.

9.8.3 Interactive Refinement of the Transformation Matrix.

9.9 Discussion.

10. DISPLAY UNIT CHARACTERISTICS.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Voxel Attributes.

10.2.1 Voxel Size, Shape, and Definition.

10.2.2 Voxel Intensity and Color.

10.2.3 Voxel Opacity.

10.3 Voxel Placement.

10.4 Image Space Characteristics.

10.4.1 Size and Form.

10.4.2 Optical Characteristics of the Medium.

10.4.3 The Image Space: Some Practical Considerations.

10.4.4 Viewing-Angle Limitations.

10.5 Compensation for Adverse Image Space Characteristics.

10.5.1 Compensation for the Variation in Voxel Attributes.

10.5.2 Compensation for the Variation in Voxel Placement.

10.6 General-Purpose Display Unit Implementation.

10.6.1 CAD Visualization.

10.6.2 Medical Visualization.

10.6.3 3-D Television.

10.7 Linear Perspective and Hidden-Line Removal.

10.8 Discussion.

11. IMPLEMENTATION OF VOLUMETRIC SYSTEMS.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Research Relating to the Cathode Ray Sphere.

11.2.1 First Prototype System.

11.2.2 Subsequent Developments.

11.3 Considerations Regarding Helix Laser Technology.

11.3.1 Characteristics.

11.3.2 Development.

11.3.3 Helical Surfaces.

11.3.4 Laser Deflection and Scanning.

11.4 Laser-Addressed Multiplanar Display Apparatus.

11.5 U.S. Navy HL3D Systems.

11.5.1 Technical Objectives.

11.5.2 The Optical System.

11.5.3 Transportable Volumetric Display.

11.6 Technology Transfer.

11.7 Discussion.

12. TOWARD A HIGH-DEFINITION VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Exhaustive Scanning of an Image Space.

12.3 Beam-Addressed Systems.

12.3.1 Beam-Addressed System Employing a Helical Screen.

12.3.2 Beam-Addressed System Employing a Planar Screen.

12.4 Hybrid Display Unit.

12.4.1 Architecture.

12.4.2 Introduction of Translational Motion.

12.5 Static-Volume Display Unit.

12.6 Localized Scanning Technique.

12.7 Direct Interaction with an Image Space.

12.7.1 Image Space Pointer.

12.8 Toward the Future.

APPENDIX: HOMOGENEOUS TRANSFORMATIONS.

GLOSSARY.

REFERENCES.

PATENTS.

INDEX.

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