W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919-1963

Overview

This monumental biography—eight years in the research and writing—treats the early and middle phases of a long and intense career: a crucial fifty-year period that demonstrates how Du Bois changed forever the way Americans think about themselves.

Winner of the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for Biography.

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Overview

This monumental biography—eight years in the research and writing—treats the early and middle phases of a long and intense career: a crucial fifty-year period that demonstrates how Du Bois changed forever the way Americans think about themselves.

Winner of the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for Biography.

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

From Barnes & Noble
W.E.B. Du Bois -- brilliant scholar, novelist, activist, statesman, founder of the NAACP, and the premier architect of the civil rights movement -- lived in a firestorm of controversy and change, dying on the eve of the historic 1963 March on Washington. Pulitzer Prize-winning author David Levering Lewis continues the saga of this extraordinary American's life and times in W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919-1963, the second volume of his monumental and definitive biography.
From the Publisher
"Splendid. . . . A landmark of American scholarship. Lewis develops the most convincing portrayal ever written of Du Bois."—Michael R. Winston, The Washington Post

"Monumental. . . . A joy to read. A work of keen scholarship that will appeal to the general reader responsive to graceful, lucid prose by an author with an eye for ironic situations and complex emotions."—John Patrick Diggins, Los Angeles Times

"A stirring yet subtle portrait of a haughty intellectual colossus. Lewis again brings Du Bois to life with startling detail and judicious frankness."—Jack E. White, Time

"This second volume of Lewis's biography of Du Bois will undoubtedly become an instant classic and indispensable reading for anyone interested in the history of the twentieth century. The result of Lewis's prodigious research efforts is a magnificent reconstruction of the evolving contours of Du Bois's thought, his interactions with a host of black organizations and key political and intellectual figures, and his personal life."—Eric Amesen, Chicago Tribune

"I did not think it was possible for David Lewis to surpass what he had accomplished in the first volume of his Du Bois biography, but he has . . . . He confirms the view of many of us who believe that he is the finest American historian plying his craft today."—John Hope Franklin, James B. Duke Professor of History Emeritus at Duke University

"A masterpiece of the biographer's craft. With this volume, David Levering Lewis has brought to magnificent completion his definitive biography of W.E.B. Du Bois. Lewis writes with consistent empathy, balance, and grace about one of the twentieth century's most complicated and controversial figures. A must-read for anyone seeking to understand the tortured history of race relations in the modern world."—David M. Kennedy, Donald J. McLachlan Professor of History at Stanford University and author of Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945, winner of the 1999 Pulitzer Prize

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Anthony C. Davis
Du Bois is probably the most written about African American intellectual of the twentieth century. Countless books and articles have either praised or criticized, canonized or vilified Du Bois and his many theories. A new book in the flow of that continual discourse is Lewis' third, meticulously researched volume. Lewis interviewed over one hundred people on four continents. He also uses over one-hundred-and-seventeen pages of notes to explain the text-which clocks in at over five hundred words itself-concentrating on the last forty-four years of Du Bois' life. If all it took was in depth research to make a best seller, then this book would be in the top ten. However, one might ask if yet another book on Du Bois is what today's black reader is clamoring for; a recent library search turned up over 140 books already inked on the subject, including his own autobiography. Every few years researchers present previously unpublished works by Du Bois. With the real thing still being freshly printed, readers may wonder why they should get the information second-hand? Still, Du Bois wrote great studies himself on other people, and I might argue that one of the greatest social commentators of the 20th century deserves such in-depth examination. Lewis' last book on Du Bois (Biography of a Race, 1868-1919), was a National Book Award finalist and won him a Pulitzer Prize. This book takes up where that one left off, with disillusioned black soldiers returning from World War One. It also covers Du Bois' thoughts on the Harlem Renaissance, the Pan African movement, the Communist Party, women's rights, and the Civil Rights Movement. Written in an almost clinical style, it is not for the casual Du Bois fan. But the serious Du Bois scholar will instantly want to sit up and take notice.
Black Issues Book Review
From The Critics
Du Bois (1868-1963), author of The Souls of Black Folk, sparked a firestorm of public controversy during his intellectual prime. "He stood on a pedestal occupied by no other American Negro," Lewis writes, "the senior intellectual of his race and its unexcelled propagandist." This second volume of Lewis' biography of Du Bois follows him from the Red Summer of 1919—in which seventy-six African-Americans were lynched—through his editorship of the NAACP's magazine, The Crisis, to his courting of Marxism, his eventual disillusionment with integration and, finally, his virtual exile in Ghana, where he died. The book pays as much attention to serious analysis of Du Bois' books, speeches and countless editorials as it does to the knotty complexities of Du Bois' quietly scandalous personal life (he had several long-term affairs). Although Du Bois was no saint, Lewis keeps his criticisms of the man on an intellectual level, pointing out the blatant hypocrisies of Du Bois' later, blind infatuation with the dictatorships of Russia and China. This is an authoritative biography of a complex man, whose writings, a combination of wit, rhetorical dash and intellect, exposed the vile underbelly of American racism.
—Chris Barsanti

Publishers Weekly - Publisher's Weekly
This second (and final) volume of Lewis's critically praised biography of one of the founders of the contemporary black civil rights movement and a champion of human rights around the world is as astute and superbly written as the first. Here, in the years after WWI, Lewis finds Du BoisDalready established as one of the most controversial, powerful and persuasive voices of the movement through such books as The Souls of Black Folk and his editorship of the highly influential journal of the NAACP, CrisisDfaced with spiraling white violence against African-Americans as race riots and lynchings increase. Lewis concentrates on Du Bois's attempt to guide the movement through the increasingly precarious complexities of U.S. politics and culture as he explicates such diverse issues as Du Bois's commitment to feminism and women's rights, his dedication to Pan Africanism and his expanding roles as an official and unofficial foreign ambassador for the U.S. government, all of which are controversial both within and outside of the civil rights movement. Lewis is especially adroit at interpreting the complications of Du Bois's personal and emotional life, including his long, though not especially companionable, marriage to his wife, Nina, and his series of "parallel marriages" to other women. The biography is at its most politically and intellectually gripping when it details the tensions and interplay between the NAACP and the American Communist Party during the notorious Scottsboro trial, and later when Arthur Schlesinger Jr. red-baited the civil rights group in an infamous article in Life. While readers will need to read Lewis' first volume to fully appreciate this one, his superb command of the complexity of his subject and time make this a major work of American biography and history. Lewis's two volume biography is not only a must-read for those fascinated by African-American history, but also holds powerful crossover appeal for anyone interested in the racial conflicts at the heart of 20th century American history. Photos not seen by PW. (Oct.) Copyright 2000 Cahners Business Information.
Library Journal
Lewis has again analyzed the historical record with the utmost care to produce this second volume of his highly acclaimed 1993 biography (W.E.B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868-1919) of the founder of the NAACP and Pan Africanist leader. Lewis simultaneously narrates the life and legacy of Du Bois and the competing racial, political, and cultural ideologies of the time, which fed Du Bois's tireless activism, writings, and intellect. Salient issues include colonialism, civil rights, women's rights, affirmative action, the peace movement, multicultural education, labor, and more. While it would be easy to heap endless praise on the towering 20th-century American leader and thinker, Lewis should be commended for presenting a balanced, sophisticated portrait of the contradictions that marked Du Bois's private and public lives, not to mention U.S. policies and practices. A masterly reconstruction of the past, this book deserves shelf space in every library.--Sherri L. Barnes, Univ. of California Lib., Santa Barbara Copyright 2000 Cahners Business Information.\
Richard Lingeman
[In the] second volume of his distinguished biography . . . Lewis has given us Du Bois's life in all its multiple facets and ideological complexities. The historical background he sketches in provides informative context; his prose is vigorous, colorful.
New York Times Book Review
Sandra White
W.E.B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919 - 1963 is a stirring yet subtle portrait of a haughty intellectual colossus.
Time
Alan Brinkley
Lewis's extraordinary biography makes clear, transcends his (Du Bois) many failings.
The New Republic
Kirkus Reviews
Picking up where he left off seven years ago, Lewis ( Linebaugh, Peter & Marcus Rediker THE MANY-HEADED HYDRA: The Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic Beacon (432 pp.) Oct. 2000
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780805068139
  • Publisher: Holt, Henry & Company, Inc.
  • Publication date: 9/28/2001
  • Edition description: First Edition
  • Pages: 752
  • Product dimensions: 6.08 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.31 (d)

Meet the Author

David Levering Lewis is the Martin Luther King Jr., University Professor in the history department at Rutgers University. He has been awarded fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation, Woodrow Wilson International Center, the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, the National Humanities Center, and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Educated at Fisk and Columbia universities and the London School of Economics and Political Science, Professor Lewis is the author of several acclaimed books, including King: A Biography, When Harlem Was in Vogue, The Race to Fashoda, and his two-volume Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of W.E.B. Du Bois. He and his wife live in Manhattan.

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Read an Excerpt

W.E.B. Du Bois

The Fight for Equality & the American Century, 1919-1963
By David Levering Lewis

Rebound by Sagebrush

Copyright ©2001 David Levering Lewis
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0613708725


Chapter One


THE REASON WHY


Sitting at his large, uncluttered desk at The Crisis on a damp October morning in 1919, W.E.B. Du Bois must have wondered if he would ever see the last of such images as the one before him. The editor was examining a photograph grisly enough to cause the stomach of someone less inured to retch. It had been taken by the Chicago Tribune reporter so soon after the final agony in Omaha, Nebraska, that the body still sizzled. The blackened, naked remains, twisted and scabious like a badly burnt pretzel, sank into a pyre heaped up by the grinning white mob at a downtown intersection. The victim, a young male, was one of the last black Americans to die in the more than twenty-five race riots during what had become known as the Red Summer of 1919. "The picture is a splendid one and we will bill you at the usual [two-dollar] rate for this type of photo," the Tribune's picture editor advised Du Bois, if he wanted to run it in the NAACP's monthly magazine. By the time the Omaha atrocity appeared in the December 1919 Crisis, seventy-six black men and women had been lynched—eighteenmore than in the previous year—these mainly in the rural South. Some two hundred fifty more were slaughtered in urban riots in the North and during a pogrom in the Arkansas Delta.

The Red Summer's long powder train had ignited on May 10, a Saturday night, in Charleston, South Carolina, less than six weeks after Du Bois's boat docked from France at New York Harbor. The grandly symbolic Pan-African Congress successfully concluded and documents revealing the mistreatment of Negro troops in France packed in a steamer trunk, W.E.B. Du Bois had returned to New York to resume his post at the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) resolved to do his considerable part in the service of racial democracy in America. Whatever their skepticism about the near-term, tens of thousands of Crisis readers applauded the brave assurances of "Returning Soldiers," his ringing May editorial. "Make way for Democracy," Du Bois had proclaimed. "We saved it in France, and by the Great Jehovah, we will save it in the United States, or know the reason why." Such sentiments resonated deeply with a thousand or more commissioned officers and 367,000 doughboys of African descent whose attitudes about race and rights in America had been forever changed by their war experience. His words were like marching orders for the bellhops, Pullman porters, and Post Office employees now swelling the ranks of the older, smaller group of professional men and women—teachers, preachers, doctors, and undertakers—who had been the backbone of what Du Bois himself famously baptised the Talented Tenth. To the smartest and the boldest of the migrants shaking off the red clay of Georgia in Manhattan or the loam of Mississippi in the Windy City, Du Bois's elevated language, if accessible only when mediated through the palaver of barbershop and beauty parlor, began, nevertheless, to register powerfully. "Returning Soldiers" spoke to all of them in their new, self-proclaimed, exhilarating incarnation: The New Negro.

Fifty-two on his next birthday, Du Bois was the founding editor of one of the most remarkable journals of opinion and propaganda in America. Its monthly circulation of 100,000 and better exceeded that of Herbert Croly's four-year-old New Republic and Oswald Villard's just reorganized Nation, and was four times larger than Max Eastman's Liberator, the successor to the banned Masses. The September Crisis promised an additional sixteen pages in the redesigned number debuting in November—all for a mere five-cent increase in price. Sounding like any successful businessman, Du Bois announced "this year the [gross] income will probably reach $72,000" and boasted to readers of twelve full-time employees in the association's headquarters at 70 Fifth Avenue and twelve hundred subscription agents across the country. A children's magazine would appear in January 1920, to be called The Brownie's Book, prompting a precocious seven-year-old to send a dollar for a year's subscription because it was the "propper [sic] time for me to begin to learn something about my own race." Officially, The Crisis: A Record of the Darker Races was the almost ten-year-old organ of the NAACP. In reality, it was the expression, in monthly installments, of its editor's intellectual and moral personality. Often enough, the association's board of directors endured this arrangement with exasperation, alarm, and fruitless attempts at editorial supervision.

To know Du Bois was to become acquainted with the problem of the twentieth century—the problem of the color line—in one of its most intensely complex embodiments, and the experience of knowing Du Bois was frequently a searing one. The author of The Souls of Black Folk comported himself as the avatar of a race whose troubled fate he was predestined to interpret and to direct. For that very reason, most American Negroes who read seriously or listened carefully, who were increasingly alienated from the educational philosophy of Booker Washington, or who raged against a fraudulent national doctrine of separate racial equality, looked to the editor for inspiration. Although many of the large and growing number of white Americans who subscribed to The Crisis must have frequently been discomforted by its militancy, and not a few of them infuriated by Du Bois's periodic defense of racial intermarriage, they regarded the magazine as an indispensable source of information about black America. If some whites were distressed, many working-class black people were indifferent or hostile to both the magazine and the association, as Du Bois's good friend, Colonel Charles Young, found in his travels on behalf of the NAACP. "They regard the NAACP as a Negro snob affair," the retired army officer wrote the editor, "and I have been trying from Philadelphia to Topeka in the West to disabuse their minds of such a preposterous idea."

Despite Young's alarming discovery, his letter came at the very moment Du Bois sent the board of directors a glowing publications report: For August—"usually our worst month of the year"—Crisis circulation figures reached 103,000 copies. "The general condition of The Crisis is excellent." Whatever their numbers, indifferent black and irritated white readers receded, at least during this spectacular period, into relative unimportance. Du Bois allowed the magazine's proper and precise business manager, Augustus Granville Dill, whose years of service since leaving Atlanta University were a model of uncomplaining dedication, to take a vacation "for the first time in two years." Du Bois added Jessie Fauset to the masthead as literary editor, a well-deserved reward for running the magazine during his European sojourn. Fully salaried, she was finally able to leave her teaching position at the District of Columbia's elite Dunbar High School and escape a murky sexual scandal involving a dubious Dutch anthropologist whose research entailed photographs of nude female public school teachers. As far as the editor was concerned, the nude photography affair was a scientific venture scuttled by bureaucratic bungling and hysteria. The annual July "Education Number" and October "Children's Number" had achieved a popularity that now made them staple reading even in circles where The Crisis was otherwise seldom available. After the three issues covering his investigations of army racial policies and the performance of Negro troops in France (March, May, and June 1919), The Crisis mail room was flooded with letters, documents, and even diaries from officers and enlisted men responding to Du Bois's appeal for information and money to help prepare a three-volume history of the Great War, optimistically projected to appear in October.

In the beginning, far more African Americans had known the name Jack Johnson, ex-world heavyweight boxing champion, than they had that of W.E.B. Du Bois, civil rights militant. But by 1919, the editor's influence and renown began to give every indication of attaining household familiarity even among unskilled factory workers and trapped tenant farmers. The issues of the magazine during summer 1919 powerfully stoked the fires of New Negro rage and discontent, and the accents of Du Bois's "Returning Soldiers" were to be clearly heard in the Jamaican poet Claude McKay's ardent "If We Must Die":


And for their thousand blows deal one deathblow!
What though before us lies the open grave?
Like men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack,
Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back!


But Du Bois and the NAACP were civil rights militants, not social revolutionaries—defenders of the Constitution, not exponents of class war—and like the association he sometimes unpredictably represented, the editor occasionally could appear exceedingly sensitive, if not squeamish, about charges of espousing political subversion and social unrest. There had been the April editorial that ran during his absence in France, probably authored by Fauset, that seemed to write off the beleaguered Industrial Workers of the World (the "Wobblies" of the IWW) because of the union's opposition to the war. Immediately upon returning, the editor set the record straight, praising the IWW as one of the few movements that "draws no color line" in its membership; but though admirable in their objectives, he was compelled to doubt that the "methods of the IWW are today feasible or advisable." The editor made it clear, repeatedly, that the Bolshevik Revolution was not in his eyes what it was in Asa Philip Randolph's—"the greatest achievement of the twentieth century." Du Bois would stick pretty much to the argument advanced in the July 1921 "The Negro and Radical Thought"—essentially one of militant petit bourgeois opportunism—throughout the decade.

Seeing little relevancy in the Bolshevik triumph in Russia to the United States, and abhorring the politics of violence, Du Bois would insist in a June 1921 editorial, "The Class Struggle," that "we do not believe in revolution. We expect revolutionary changes to come mainly through reason, human sympathy and the education of children, and not by murder." The Hamiltonian progressivism of Harvard classmate Herbert Croly's The Promise of American Life had greater appeal than did the hard-edged gospel of Lenin's What's to Be Done?. Still, The Crisis sprang to the defense of the Messenger in late 1919, when federal authorities appeared ready to suppress it again. The editor held no brief for the Messenger, Negro World, "and other periodicals, but they have a right to speak." He didn't "believe in Revolution," but he did believe profoundly "in free speech and freedom to think, and it is the duty of every Negro to see that the right of black men to think and write and criticize shall not be abridged and taken away under the guise of curbing revolution." A lengthy report, forwarded in late September 1919 to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer by a twenty-four-year-old graduate of George Washington University Law School, aimed to accomplish that very objective. "Radicalism and Sedition Among Negroes as Reflected in Their Publications" was signed by John Edgar Hoover, the darkly ambitious head of the Justice Department's new General Intelligence Division (GID), created in emergency response to a terrifying monsoon of anarchist bombings raining on Washington, D.C., Cleveland, Paterson (New Jersey), Boston, Pittburgh, and Philadelphia. With assassination attempts against the attorney general of the United States, a justice of the Supreme Court, members of the United States Senate, the secretary of labor, and prominent public officials barely foiled or failing through luck, and a final blast in September 1920 ripping through the heart of Wall Street itself, killing thirty people, many Americans believed the country was experiencing the terminal chaos before Armageddon.

Bomb-throwing anarchists, antiwar Socialists, levelling Wobblies, and conspiring Communists seemed bent on recasting America in shapes as alien as many of their foreign-sounding names. In Seattle, the shipyard upheaval in January sent temblors rolling across the country over Judge Elbert Gary's U.S. Steel mills and Boston's police force by September, then shaking the coal mines of West Virginia in November, until four million workers had gone out on strike. What became known as the Red Scare of 1919 unfolded against a backdrop of revolutionary consolidation in Russia, establishment of the Third International, rapid advance of soviets in Germany and Hungary, and the formation of two feuding blocs of North American Communists (Charles Ruthenberg's Communist Party and John Reed's Communist Labor Party). The U.S. House of Representatives expelled Socialist Victor Berger, and the New York state legislature promptly kicked out its five Socialist members. Disabled by a stroke suffered in his manic campaign to drum up public support for the League of Nations, Woodrow Wilson languished bedridden through the remaining months of his presidency. Law and order was in the hands of Attorney General Palmer, the ambitious "Fighting Quaker," whose uncomplicated solution to the national crisis was to terrorize those who couldn't be deported and deport those who, because they were aliens, were ipso facto terrorists or subversives. "Not for at least a half century, perhaps at no time in our history," declared one historian of the period, "had there been such wholesale violation of civil liberties."

Du Bois's Crisis provided Palmer's Department of Justice with abundant and unambiguous evidence of sedition and conspiracy, or so it would claim. Unintimidated by the Post Office delay of the controversial May issue containing the exposé of military documents and the defiant editorials "Returning Soldiers" and "The League of Nations," Du Bois had continued to write and speak about the new militancy of the race. Negroes would not be passively butchered nor would they allow themselves to be indiscriminately barred or ousted from their wartime labor gains. Addressing the association's spirited tenth-anniversary national conference in Cleveland that June, but clearly speaking beyond the NAACP to white America, the editor called racism the handmaiden of Bolshevism: a sentiment overwhelmingly endorsed by the 265 delegates from thirty-four states. South Carolina congressman James F. Byrnes, whose political ambitions were as broad as his racial ideas were narrow, heard the message. Anarchists and Wobblies were far less vexatious to Byrnes than was a Harvard-educated Negro editor whose inflammatory writings were being read and talked about by thousands of black people in his part of the country. Future secretary of state, presidential aspirant, and Supreme Court justice Jimmy Byrnes demanded that the Justice Department do something about Du Bois. Byrnes charged the editor with causing race riots in Washington and Chicago and with posing the gravest threat to race relations and order in America. For good measure he read a Crisis editorial into the Congressional Record. Cordially thanking Byrnes for providing him a readership of "some seventy-five million of our fellow citizens," a sardonic Du Bois countered the politician with his own indictment in the October Crisis, making Byrnes and his kind responsible not only for the urban race riots of the Red Summer, "but also of encouraging for fifty years the lynching of 4,000 Negroes, the disfranchisement of a million and a half voters, the enforced ignorance of three million human beings and the theft of hundreds of millions of dollars in wages."

Nor did he stop with a blast in the magazine. In an unprecedented feature article in the New York Sun for October 12, "Causes of Discontent," Du Bois wondered, ironically, whether Americans had "lost their sense of humor?" Could they really seriously believe that Negroes were increasingly discontented because they were being "unduly excited by the Russian Bolsheviki?" Learning that the Justice Department intended to investigate the causes of racial discontent was even more reason to laugh in order not to cry, Du Bois groaned. "We black folk have for some years been trying to get the United States Department of Justice to look into several matters that touch us." The danger facing the nation came not from Communist revolution but from the consequences of its own moral and humanitarian failure. "Negroes are in a fighting mood," he asserted, and mainstream America would have to learn to live without the class of race leaders who told whites that "Negroes wanted nothing but the right to work at such wages as the white people wished to give them." Du Bois and Hoover were never to meet in person, but their encounter in print during the late summer and fall of 1919 imbued both with prejudices that would fester in the years ahead with fateful consequences.

"Radicalism and Sedition Among Negroes as Reflected in Their Publications," his 1919 report to Palmer, won young J. Edgar Hoover (as he now signed himself) a starring role in the Red Scare capers. The head of the new General Intelligence Division had saved his severest censure for Randolph's Messenger—"the most able and the most dangerous of all negro publications"—but there was no doubt that he and his superiors regarded Du Bois's Crisis as a major menace to the status quo. The report made him invaluable to the attorney general and commenced his unique role as purveyor to congressional bodies of confidences about the actions, ideas, and morals of American citizens. Palmer incorporated Hoover's report into the Justice Department's comprehensive report forwarded to the Senate in mid-November. A curious coincidence unnoticed until now was that "Radicalism and Sedition Among Negroes" was remarkably similar in analytical power and scope of detail (covering the NAACP, the UNIA, the Messenger, Hubert Harrison Liberty League, and Cyril Briggs's West Indian Marxists in the African Blood Brotherhood) to a document submitted to the director of military intelligence by Major Walter Loving, a man of impressive culture and one of the army's most effective wartime Negro undercover agents. Loving's report the pros and cons of Du Bois's officer's commission two years earlier had been a major factor in Colonel Marlborough Churchill's decision to withdraw the army's offer. Loving's fifteen-page essay, "Final Report on Negro Subversion," had been handed in to military intelligence on August 6, just in time for young Hoover to acquire his expertise in this area.

Congressman Byrnes had taken a more accurate measure of Du Bois's significance as a leader of his people than had the inexperienced Hoover. The editor's power to inspire returning soldiers, ambitious migrants, and determined college men and women to stand up for their basic citizenship rights was far more dangerous in his eyes than any prospect of Negro Americans being converted in significant numbers to communism, as Byrnes (and even Hoover) knew, whatever was stated in official documents or barked into the Congressional Report. And never was inspiration more needed as 1919 flamed out. The riot in Charleston had been contained fairly quickly by the authorities, but there were two black fatalities. The three-day convulsion in the nation's capital, triggered partly by The Washington Post's incendiary journalism at the end of July and extinguished as much by heavy rains as by two thousand infantry ordered up by Secretary of War Newton Baker, injured more than a hundred people and killed six. In Washington, as was the case in the Chicago riot beginning on July 27, people of color defended themselves with guns, bricks, and other makeshift weapons. Reporting on the situation in the capital, NAACP field secretary James Weldon Johnson was positively euphoric: "The Negroes saved themselves and saved Washington by their determination not to run, but to fight." In Chicago, black and white workers and demobilized soldiers and sailors skirmished for twelve days back and forth along Wentworth Avenue, the line dividing the white, blue-collar stockyard neighborhoods from those in what Chicagoans called the Black Belt. Fifteen white people joined twenty-three black people in death, while more than five hundred Chicagoans were treated for their wounds and another thousand emerged stunned and homeless from the Windy City's mimicry of a battle in the just-ended European war. Knoxville came at the beginning of September; then, at the end of September, the riot in Omaha, suppressed only by the intercession of the U.S. Army.

Race relations seemed to reach a nadir in the Arkansas outback that October. Gunfire from black sharecroppers meeting in a church near Elaine, a town in the Arkansas Delta, had left a deputy sheriff dead and several white citizens wounded in the early morning of October. Having provoked the Wednesday shootout, enraged white planters and farmers chased down black men and women in the high cotton of Phillips County in a frenzy lasting seven days, until the count of the dead approached two hundred. The fact that Elaine's whites had paid for their jamboree with five of their own dead made the "legal" aftermath notably outrageous even for the Deep South of that time. U.S. infantry, arriving from Camp Pike, took the side of the frenzied whites. A thousand or so black men were rounded up by soldiers and vigilantes and packed into a stockade where the sheriff and the big planters selected seventy-nine of them for rapid grand jury indictment. Six of these were sentenced to hang on November 18 and another six on the following day after five-minute deliberations, while the rest were convicted in batches and given prison terms of from five to twenty-five years. Their alleged crime, as The New York Times reported in all seriousness, was conspiracy to seize control of the county by armed force.

Furious about distortions in the press concerning the Arkansas bloodlettings, Du Bois sent a three-page letter to the editor of the New York World that served as a powerful corrective when it appeared in the November 28 edition. The real crime of the Phillips County sharecroppers, he said, was to have the gall to hire a maverick white Arkansas lawyer to help organize and incorporate a farmer's protective association in order to compel landlords to open their books on prices and profits of supplies and cotton revenues. The normal practice in that part of Arkansas, Du Bois explained to the World's readers, was for a farmer to sell to the planter and wait a full year to be told "how much his crop was worth, and what is the balance due" for the supplies bought on credit from the company store. It was slavery by another name, but to dispute such an arrangement was, "in Arkansas custom, to dispute 'white supremacy.'" "There is not a civilized country in the world that would for a moment allow this kind of justice to stand." The editor and officers of the NAACP had inside information about the Arkansas pogrom, thanks to Walter Francis White, the twenty-six-year-old new assistant secretary. White's sensational expose in The Nation of a six-person lynching in two Georgia counties in May 1918 had already caught the attention of northern progressives. A small, trim man of seemingly bottomless, nervous energy and enormous self-confidence, White was the light-skinned, blond, blue-eyed son of an austere postal employee and his civic-minded wife, both of whom were highly respected members of Atlanta's colored community. Du Bois knew the White family well from his years spent at Atlanta University; he regarded young Walter, who played football and graduated from "AU" with high marks, as a model representative of the Talented Tenth.

Because Walter White looked so white, his services to the NAACP were invaluable, but they also placed him in situations of awful danger. Aboard a train leaving a Deep South lynching bee, the assistant secretary was once challenged by a suspicious white passenger who boasted that he could always spot a "yaller nigger" by the absence of half moons on the fingernails. White's half moons saved him. Hurrying back to NAACP headquarters from Arkansas undercover work as a white reporter (the governor gave him a reference and Phillips County vigilantes took him into their confidence), White handed in a detailed report of surreal barbarity. When White's revised report appeared in The Nation under the startling title "'Massacring Whites in Arkansas,'" ten days after Du Bois's letter in the World, public opinion outside the Deep South began to shift to the association. The Arkansas cases became known as Moore v. Dempsey, and as court costs rose in regular five-thousand-dollar increments over the next year, and two years beyond that, Du Bois made contributions to the legal defense fund the litmus test of racial loyalty. The Crisis published a list of delinquent NAACP branches, with Texas and Georgia having the largest number, but the critical state of Illinois had, surprisingly, as many as five. "If the officers of these branches will take no action," the editor admonished, then the members themselves ought to take matters into their own hands and appeal directly to the national headquarters. Meanwhile, the legal battle on behalf of the twelve condemned defendants proceeded like a grim game of volleyball back and forth between the federal courts and Arkansas courts, with The Crisis continuing to play its decisive role in mobilizing public opinion and raising funds for the NAACP's defense treasury.

The situation demanded a voluntary of prose, an editorial reveille crackling over those of limp resolve and shaken courage. Du Bois's response was predictable. "Progress," the lead essay in the November 1920 Crisis—the tenth-anniversary issue—sought to wrench inspiration from the jaws of desperation. "But above all comes the New Spirit," the editor wrote. "From a bewildered, almost listless, creeping sense of impotence and despair have come a new vigor, hopefulness and feeling of power." The bugle call ended on a confident note: "We are no longer depending on our friends. We are depending on ourselves." Impressive evidence of this new self-dependence came with the latest twist of the Arkansas saga. The Crisis ran an exciting replay in the December issue of a roller-coaster extradition contest between the Arkansas attorney general and lawyers hired by the NAACP in the case of Robert Hill, alleged ringleader of the Phillips County insurgents, who had fled to Topeka, Kansas. With NAACP board member and Kansas U.S. senator Arthur Capper interceding with the governor, and a Shawnee County attorney acting as Hill's lawyer, the sympathetic Kansas authorities refused to honor the extradition writ on the certain grounds that Hill's return to Arkansas would prove fatal. The dismissal of federal charges against the Arkansas farmer in early October 1920 enormously enhanced the NAACPs creditability, making it possible to raise another five thousand dollars above the eight thousand already expended in legal fees. "Thus ends one of the most dramatic legal fights the Association has ever undertaken," Du Bois wrote, rightly predicting that it would have "a most far-reaching effect."

The "far-reaching effect" would finally come in January 1923 when the U.S. Supreme Court delivered an opinion, revolutionary in its civil rights implications, that the twelve sharecroppers had been denied a fair trial, thereby reversing the federal appeals court's September 1921 decision against them and remanding the case for reconsideration of the facts. Only eight years had elapsed since the high court's decision upholding the infamous rape conviction of Atlanta Jewish businessman Leo Frank on grounds that the mere observance of judicial formalities was sufficient to preclude reversal of state court decisions involving capital crimes. Given the seven-to-two decision in Frank v. Mangum, Moorfield Storey, the NAACP's honorific and aged president, still highly respected and enormously capable, had confessed serious doubts about winning the justices to his argument that the Phillips County trials had been judicial farces. But when the day came for arguments, Storey had exquisitely refined the brief handed over by Scipio Africanus Jones, the portentously named black Little Rock attorney retained earlier by the NAACP. Attorney Jones's race made an appearance in person before nine glowering justices tactically unwise, but without his meticulous lawyering no victory could have been sustained. Writing for the majority in Moore v. Dempsey, Oliver Wendell Holmes noted such circumstantial peculiarities in the case as the all-white Phillips County juries in a population two-thirds black, the hysteria surrounding the trials, the absence of basic procedural guarantees of counsel, speed of conviction, and other matters, which led the leonine senior jurist to sneer that the trials had been nothing more than a charade in which "the whole proceeding is a mask." The Crisis would record the last Gothic act in the drama in the issue for April 1925 when, after fifty thousand dollars in legal fees and six years of propaganda, all the original defendants—the twelve sentenced to die along with the seventy-six clapped in prison—were finally released. It was "a complete victory for the NAACP," Du Bois wrote, even though he, above all others, must have realized how remote was the time when even minimal due process standards would be found in real-world trials of colored people in the south.



Continues...


Excerpted from W.E.B. Du Bois by David Levering Lewis Copyright ©2001 by David Levering Lewis. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

1 The Reason Why 1
2 Du Bois and Garvey: Two "Pan-Africas" 37
3 On Being Crazy and Somewhat Devious 85
4 Rearranging Ethiopia Abroad and at Home 118
5 Civil Rights by Copyright 153
6 Bolsheviks and Dark Princesses 183
7 The Possibility of Democracy in America 229
8 Holding on, Amorously and Angrily 266
9 A New Racial Philosophy 302
10 Atlanta: Black Reconstruction and Casanova Unbound 349
11 Dictatorships Compared: Germany, Russia, China, Japan 388
12 Atlanta: the Politics of Knowledge 422
13 Atlanta: Soldiering on 454
14 Against the Grain: From the NAACP to the Far Left 496
15 Exeunt 554
Persons Interviewed 573
Notes 575
Index 689
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Interviews & Essays

Exclusive Author Essay
In Volume One, W.E.B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868-1919 (Holt 1993), the focus is on Du Bois the New England prodigy who blazes through Fisk, Harvard, and the University of Berlin, a pioneering scholar in sociology and history. Opponent of Booker T. Washington and the racial apartheid ordained by the Supreme Court's infamous 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision, a founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and founding editor of The Crisis, one of the great American journals of opinion, Du Bois is 51 as World War I ends. He has written one of the 20th century's most influential books, The Souls of Black Folk, and he is the unrivaled spirit and voice of the black civil rights struggle.

The Fight for Equality and the American Century re-creates the second portion of Du Bois's charged and brilliant career, from the return of World War I African-American veterans to the riots and lynchings of the "Red Summer" of 1919 to his self-imposed exile in Ghana 44 years later. Decade by dramatic decade, Du Bois becomes more radical in his determination not only to dismantle Jim Crow but to transform the black civil rights movement from a struggle for racial equality into global struggle against economic inequality.

Once again, he confronts a powerful ideological adversary, Marcus Garvey, a charismatic nemesis whose fabulous success in enrolling black people into a back-to-Africa movement comes perilously close during the 1920s to displacing Du Bois's own grandiose schemes of Pan-African advancement. The biography chronicles, in vivid blow-by-blow detail, the titanic confrontation of Du Bois and Garvey, a struggle that rages as Du Bois, in collaboration with others, inaugurates the Harlem Renaissance, a civil rights enterprise masquerading as an arts and letters movement. The remorselessly principled Du Bois soon renounces this movement as being an evasion of the political and economic exigencies of the masses of black people.

While others were stunned and thought only of surviving the crisis, the Great Depression acts as a tonic for Du Bois. The premier architect of civil rights sheds the "talented-tenth" elitism of which he was the leading exponent, breaks with the NAACP as an outmoded bureaucracy no longer adequate to the times, produces in short order a masterwork of history, Black Reconstruction in America, and pursues a politically risky course into socialism and anti-imperialism that takes him to Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, China, and Japan as the major geopolitics of the American Century are taking shape. In defiance of the laws of aging in obedience to which most men and women become less radical and increasingly fixed in their ideas and passions, Du Bois's writings and actions become ever bolder and more creative. His private life mirrors his public life, filled with remarkable women who inspire him and, in many cases, wait patiently in hopes of becoming the second Mrs. Du Bois.

Increasingly committed to world socialism in his search for racial solutions after his post-World War II return to the NAACP, Du Bois embraces the Progressive Party politics of Henry Wallace and once again departs the NAACP in a firestorm of controversy in 1948. Federal indictment as a foreign agent and humiliation follow, but fail to silence the great contrarian, who remarked that had he died at 50, he would have been acclaimed: "At seventy-five, my death was practically requested." Du Bois died in Accra, Ghana, in August 1963, on the eve of the March on Washington, just as the generation that would change America came onto the stage inspired by his legacy.

--David Levering Lewis

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 11, 2003

    A BIOGRAPHY TO TREASURE

    Lewis's illuminating double-volume biography on the exceptional historian, literary artist, and sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois is one of the most fascinating and informative in all American letters. It's a literary treasure in a class in which few biographies may be placed.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted November 17, 2002

    I would have liked to learn about Du Bois, but...

    Thus was to be my introduction to Du Bois, but it was stillborn. The book was intimidating in that it uses words not used by the educated public and sentence structures that are fit for academic journals. Also, there was rarely a description of the background to the event being discusses. And this was only the first chapter. I gave up in the second chapter. I felt guilty and stupid, so I looked at the review on the B&N site. There was no review by a typical reader. I quote parts of the review by Anthony C. Davis - Black Issues Book Review ¿If all it took was in depth research to make a best seller, then this book would be in the top ten. However, one might ask if yet another book on Du Bois is what today's black reader is clamoring for¿. Written in an almost clinical style, it is not for the casual Du Bois fan.¿

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 27, 2001

    Lewis Triumphs Again with Second Installment on DuBois

    There were few americans of any hue who led a life as filled with encounters with destiny as did W.E.B. DuBois. David Levering Lewis's tour de force on this pioneering African American Civil Rights Leader's first fifty years earned him the Pulitzer for Biography in 1995. And remarkable as it may seem, the second installment, which covers the final 45 years of his life is an even more compelling story. DuBois who was born aourn the time of Andrew Johnson''s impeachment (1868), and died the morning of the 1963 March on Washington, found himself, at age 50 undersiege by the very people he believed ready and willing to take the matle of leadership from DuBois and his sometime nemesis Booker T. Washington. Instead, this 'talented tneth', as DuBois dubbed them, found themselves mired in in-fighting, and often grappling not for equality or civil rights, but often for lesser gains. and even when they were fighting for civil rights gains, they marginalized DuBois, much as he had been by his white counterparts decades earlier. Lewis weaves a story which such grace and power, that it is difficult to not react to things which happened 70 or more years ago. W.E.B. DuBois was a complicated man: he fought fiercely for womens rights, yet subjugated his wife and daughter to subordinate roles, while having numerous adulterous affairs. He was a pioneering pan-Africanist who was almost blindly continental. He was an asiduous researcher and intellectual who wrote some of the most insightful and prophetic political works of the 20th century, yet could be given to trust the most unsavory characters who were subtile enough to lather him with a compliment. Lewis deals with all these personalities, with delicacy, without mincing words or side stepping criticism of his subject. This biography is more than 600 pages long, with an additional 100 plus more in notes - Lewis has, as in all his previous works researched every conceivable angle - yet, I can guarantee that when you complete the book, you will wish, as DuBois had planned, that he'd lived another 20 or 30 years to give you more. If the literary Gods are just, when Pulitzer time rolls around again, David Levering Lewis's named will be called to claim his prize!

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 19, 2010

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