Walden's Shore: Henry David Thoreau and Nineteenth-Century Scienceby Robert M. Thorson
"Let us settle ourselves, and work and wedge our feet downward," Thoreau invites his readers in Walden, "till we come to a hard bottom and rocks in place, which we can call reality." Walden's Shore explores Thoreau's understanding of that hard reality, not as metaphor but as physical science. Robert M. Thorson is interested in Thoreau the rock/i>/i>/i>
"Let us settle ourselves, and work and wedge our feet downward," Thoreau invites his readers in Walden, "till we come to a hard bottom and rocks in place, which we can call reality." Walden's Shore explores Thoreau's understanding of that hard reality, not as metaphor but as physical science. Robert M. Thorson is interested in Thoreau the rock and mineral collector, interpreter of landscapes, and field scientist whose compass and measuring stick were as important to him as his plant press. At Walden's climax, Thoreau asks us to imagine a "living earth" upon which all animal and plant life is parasitic. This book examines Thoreau's understanding of the geodynamics of that living earth, and how his understanding informed the writing of Walden.
The story unfolds against the ferment of natural science in the nineteenth century, as Natural Theology gave way to modern secular science. That era saw one of the great blunders in the history of American science--the rejection of glacial theory. Thorson demonstrates just how close Thoreau came to discovering a "theory of everything" that could have explained most of the landscape he saw from the doorway of his cabin at Walden. At pivotal moments in his career, Thoreau encountered the work of the geologist Charles Lyell and that of his protégé Charles Darwin. Thorson concludes that the inevitable path of Thoreau's thought was descendental, not transcendental, as he worked his way downward through the complexity of life to its inorganic origin, the living rock.
Thorson (Geology/Univ. of Connecticut; Beyond Walden: The Hidden History of America's Kettle Lake and Ponds, 2009, etc.) follows up his earlier work by establishing Henry David Thoreau's own scientific credentials. The author adds depth to the iconic image of Thoreau, revered for his contributions to the American literary renaissance and his role as a social reformer. Thorson uses Thoreau's journals as a source for his contention that he had a keen interest in geology and the emerging theories of geological evolution reflected in Charles Darwin's Journal of Researches (1851), which Thoreau read with great interest. He cites notations predating The Origin of Species that anticipated Darwin's theory of natural selection--e.g., how "individual fitness, adaptation, co-evolution, and competition" shaped the evolution of animals and plants. Thoreau accepted the correct view of Swiss paleontologist Louis Agassiz about how glaciation shaped the geology and ecology of the region--a view rejected by American geologists for theological reasons. Thorson explains that his purpose is "to counterbalance what strikes me as a recent trend in eco-criticism that refracts science through literature without being scientific." He seeks to dig deeper than the "wave of marketing Thoreau as the symbolic ‘green man,' " in which his scientific interests are often overlooked. The author takes issue with such authors as Leo Marx, who reduced the inner meaning of Walden to "the dialectic tension between industrial progress and the timeless beauty of nature." Marx and others often bypassed Thoreau's intellectual connection to the ideas that were animating Darwin and the geologists, such as Charles Lyell, who helped shape Darwin's thought. Thorson suggests that seasonal change and the contrast in Walden Pond between summer and winter is a metaphor for Thoreau's own mind, which "toggled [between] poetic and scientific." An intriguing academic book best read in conjunction with Walden.
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Meet the Author
Robert M. Thorson is Professor of Geology at the University of Connecticut.
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