The Wanderings Of Peoplesby A.C. Haddon
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The Wanderings Of Peoples by A.C. Haddon, SC.D., F. R.S., who was a University Reader in Ethnology at Cambridge was published by Cambridge University Press in London in 1912. A very detailed book on the wanderings and migrations that occurred throughout history. There is an extensive Bibliography at the end of each chapter.
The Publisher has copy-edited this book to improve the formatting, style and accuracy of the text to make it readable. This did not involve changing the substance of the text.
Chapter I. Introduction.....Chapter II. Asia And Oceania......Chapter III. Europe......Chapter IV. Africa......Chapter V. America......Chapter VI. North America......Chapter VII. Mexico And Central America......Chapter VIII. South America
.....My object in writing this little book is to give a brief survey of the trend of human migrations so far as our imperfect knowledge permits, and I have endeavored to do this for various periods of human history, even going as far back as the earliest diffusions that can be predicated. It has not been easy to compress into so small a space the account of the various migrations, indeed little more could be done than merely indicate without describing the movements, their causes and effects. Much interesting information has thus had to be whittled down to a bare statement. I have introduced dates when possible, but in many cases these are only approximate, and it sometimes happens, as in Egyptian chronology, that the system of dating of one authority differs widely from that of another. This is the first time, I believe, that this task has been attempted, and consequently many errors may have crept in. The study of human migrations emphasizes the fact that ethnology and history can be satisfactorily elucidated only from the geographical standpoint.
.....The bibliographies do not profess to be exhaustive, but a sufficient number of references have been given to enable the reader to check most of the statements made. The numbers in thick type refer to authors mentioned at the end of each section, those of the pages being printed in light type.
.....It has been thought desirable to provide the reader with maps showing the more important migrations. Owing to the small size of the page these movements could be only approximately represented as regards direction, and chronology has had to be entirely left out of account, except in so far as prehistoric migrations in some instances have been indicated by dotted lines. A number of historic movements, particularly in the case of Folk-wanderings of central Europe, have had to be omitted for the sake of clearness.
.....In conclusion, my thanks are due to Mr. E. C. Quiggin, and especially to Mr. H. M. Chadwick, for their advice in respect to the section on Europe, and I must also acknowledge the great assistance which I have received from Miss Lillian Whitehouse in the compilation of this book.
A. C. HADDON
.....The "Miocene Bridge" as the land connecting Asia and America in late geological times has been called (4, ii. 61, 344), was probably very wide; one side would stretch from Kamchatka to British Columbia and the other across Behring Strait. If, as seems probable, this connection persisted till, or was reconstituted during, the human period, tribes migrating to America by the more northerly route would enter the land east of the great barrier of the Rocky Mountains. The route from the Old World to the New by the Pacific margin probably remained nearly always open.
.....As in Europe, the northern part of the continent was at one time covered by a great glacial sheet rendering it uninhabitable. This Glacial period belongs to very recent geological times. The ice-sheet spread over practically all Canada, and over New England and New York as far as the Ohio River, and westwards over the prairies and part of the great plains. The chain of great lakes and the lakes and watercourses of central and eastern Canada mark the ragged track of its boundary (3, 15). It is obvious that during the period of the great extension of the ice-sheet no immigration could take place into America, except possibly, as already mentioned, from north-east Asia to the Pacific slope of North America along the southern border of the North Pacific Bridge.
.....Ethnologists are generally agreed as to the similarity of type prevailing among most of the peoples of the New World, which points to an original common parentage. For instance the coarse, lank, black hair is a prevailing characteristic throughout both the northern and the southern continent, and in other respects a resemblance to the Mongoloid type is equally widespread. Thus it is to Asia rather than to Europe that we must look for the first ancestors of the American Indians, though it would not be correct to regard them as a branch of the Mongol race.......
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