War on Land

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781615306978
  • Publisher: Britannica Educational Publishing
  • Publication date: 12/15/2011
  • Series: Britannica Guide to War Series
  • Pages: 160
  • Age range: 15 - 17 Years
  • Product dimensions: 7.60 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction x

Chapter 1 Prehistoric and Early Warfare 1

The Earliest Military Weapons 2

From Precious Metals to Base Metals 4

Antiquity and the Classical Age 5

The Phalanx and the Legion 5

Military Technology of the Period 7

Defensive Weaponry 8

Types of Armour 11

Offensive Weaponry 12

Arrows 16

Mechanical Artillery 17

Fortification 18

Land Transportation 19

Chapter 2 War in the Middle Ages 22

The Age of Cavalry 22

The Medieval Knight 23

The War-Horse 27

The Castle 29

Siege Weapons 31

The Trebuchet 31

Greek Fire 32

The Horse Archer 33

The Huns and Avars 33

The Byzantine Cataphract 33

The Turks 34

The Mongols 34

The Infantry Revolution 35

The Crossbow 36

The English Longbow 38

Halberd and Pike 39

Chapter 3 The Gunpowder Revolution 40

Early Gunpowder 42

Serpentine Powder 42

Corned Powder 42

Gunpowder Recipes 43

Refinements in Ballistics 44

The Development of Artillery 45

Wrought-Iron Muzzle-Loaders 45

Wrought-Iron Breechloaders 46

Cast Bronze Muzzle-Loaders 48

Cast-Iron Cannons 49

Early Use of Artillery 50

Special-Purpose Shot 51

Gunnery 52

The First Small Arms 52

The Matchlock 52

The Wheel Lock 53

The Flintlock 53

Chapter 4 Fortification and Modern Body Armour 55

Fortification 59

The Effect of Artillery and Siegecraft on Fortification Design 56

The Sunken Profile 57

The Bastioned Trace 59

Duration of Early Modern Fortification 59

Trench Warfare, 1850-1918 60

The Siege of Petersburg 61

Permanent Fortification During World War I 62

The Maginot Line and the West Wall in World War II 62

Other Fort Series 63

German Channel Defenses in World War II 63

Nuclear Fortification 64

Body Armours 65

New Materials 67

Modern Body Armour Systems 68

Chapter 5 Modern Small Arms: Shoulder Weapons and Pistols 71

Shoulder Weapons 71

Smoothbore Muzzle-Loaders 72

Rifled Muzzle-Loaders 75

Breechloaders 77

The Many Uses of Guncotton 80

Automatic Weapons 82

The Assault Rifle 85

Pistols 88

Revolvers 88

Samuel Colt 89

Self-Loaders 89

Chapter 6 Machine Guns and Specialty Shoulder Weapons 91

Early Manual Multibarreled Weapons 91

The Gatling Gun 91

Richard J. Gatling 92

The Mutrailleuse 92

Heavy Machine Guns 93

Recoil 93

Gas Operation 94

Blowback 94

Light Machine Guns 95

Large-Calibre Machine Guns 96

Grenade Launchers 97

Single Shot 97

Automatic Fire 98

Antitank Weapons 100

Chapter 7 Modern Artillery 102

Cannons 102

Rifled Bores 103

Recoil Control 106

Carriages and Mountings 107

Big Bertha 109

Fire Control 110

Ammunition 112

Mortars 115

Antiaircraft Artillery 115

Heavy Weapons and the Problem of Fire Control 116

Light Weapons 116

Antitank Guns 118

Recoilless Guns 119

Chapter 8 Tanks and Other Armoured Vehicles 120

Tanks 120

Earliest Developments 120

World War I 121

Interwar Developments 123

World War II 125

The Sherman Tank 126

Postwar Tank Development 128

Other Armoured Vehicles 134

Armoured Personnel Carriers 134

Amphibious Assault Vehicles 136

Infantry Fighting Vehicles 137

Wheeled Armoured Vehicles 139

Chapter 9 Rocket and Missile Systems 143

Military Rockets 143

The Congreve Rocket 144

Francis Scott Key and the Star Spangled Banner 146

Rocketry Research and Experimentation 147

Barrage Rockets 149

Bazookas and Panzerschrecks 150

Antiaircraft Rockets and Aerial Rockets in World War II 152

Tactical Guided Missiles 153

Guidance Methods 153

Guided-Missile Systems 155

Conclusion 162

Glossary 163

Bibliography 165

Index 169

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