Wastewater Treatment Plants: Planning, Design, and Operation / Edition 2

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Overview

Step-by-step procedures for planning, design, construction and operation:
* Health and environment

* Process improvements

* Stormwater and combined sewer control and treatment

* Effluent disposal and reuse

* Biosolids disposal and reuse

* On-site treatment and disposal of small flows

* Wastewater treatment plants should be designed so that the effluent standards and reuse objectives, and biosolids regulations can be met with reasonable ease and cost. The design should incorporate flexibility for dealing with seasonal changes, as well as long-term changes in wastewater quality and future regulations. Good planning and design, therefore, must be based on five major steps:

characterization of the raw wastewater quality and effluent,

pre-design studies to develop alternative processes and selection of final process train,
detailed design of the selected alternative,
contraction, and
operation and maintenance of the completed facility.
Engineers, scientists, and financial analysts must utilize principles from a wide range of disciplines: engineering, chemistry, microbiology, geology, architecture, and economics to carry out the responsibilities of designing a wastewater treatment plant. The objective of this book is to present the technical and nontechnical issues that are most commonly addressed in the planning and design reports for wastewater treatment facilities prepared by practicing engineers. Topics discussed include facility planning, process description, process selection logic, mass balance calculations, design calculations, and concepts for equipment sizing. Theory, design, operation and maintenance, trouble shooting, equipment selection and specifications are integrated for each treatment process. Thus delineation of such information for use by students and practicing engineers is the main purpose of this book.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781566766883
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 10/5/1998
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 1126
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 2.30 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction

Historical Background

Current Status

Future Directions

Plant Design

Scope of the Book References

Basic Design Considerations

Introduction

Initial and Design Years

Service Area

Site Selection

Design Population

Regulatory Controls and Effluent Limitations

Characteristics of Wastewater

Degree of Treatment

Choice of Treatment Processes, Process Train and Comparison of Alternatives

Equipment Selection

Plant Layout and Hydraulic Profile

Energy and Resource Requirements

Plant Economics

Environmental Impact Assessment

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Wastewater Characteristics

Introduction

Municipal Water Demand

Wastewater Flow

Quality of Wastewater

Characteristics of Wastewater

Unit Waste Loading and Population

Equivalents

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Wastewater Treatment Unit Operations and Processes, and Process Diagram

Introduction

Liquid Treatment Systems

Sludge Processing and Disposal

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Predesign Studies

Introduction

Project Planning

Facility Planning

Preparation of Design Plans, Specifications, Cost Estimates, and Support Documents

Discussion Topics

Model Facility Plan

Introduction

Project Identification

Objectives and Scope

Effluent Limitations and Initial Design Period

Existing and Future Conditions

Forecast of Waste-water Characteristics from Service Areas

Wastewater Treatment Process Alternatives

Engineer's Development of the Proposed Project

Financial Status

Description of Selected Wastewater Treatment Facility

Environmental Impact Assessment

Public Participation

Program Cost

Breakdown Time

Schedule for Project Milestones

Attachments

Problems and Discussion Topics References

Design of Intercepting Sewers

Introduction

Design and Construction of Community Sewerage System

Information Checklist for the Design of Sanitary Sewers

Design Example

Operation and Maintenance, and Troubleshooting in Sanitary Sewers

Specifications

Problems and Discussion

Topics References

Screening

Introduction

Types of Screens

Design Factors for Bar Racks (Bar Screens)

Equipment Manufacturers of Bar Racks

Information Checklist for Design of Bar Rack

Design Example

Operation and Maintenance and Troubleshooting at Mechanically Cleaned Bar Rack

Specifications

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Pumping Station

Introduction

Pump Types and Applications

Types of Pumping Stations

Hydraulic Terms and Definitions Commonly Used in Pumping

Centrifugal Pumps

Design of Pump Stations

Manufacturers of Pumping Equipment

Information Checklist for Design of Pumping Station

Design Example

Operation and Maintenance, and Troubleshooting at Pumping Station

Specifications

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Flow Measurement

Introduction

Location of Flow Measurement Devices

Flow Measurement Methods and Devices

Flow Sensors and Recorders

Equipment Manufacturers for Flow-Measuring and Flow-Sensing Devices and Recorders

Information Checklist for Design of Flow-Measuring Device

Design Example

Operation and Maintenance Specifications

Problems and Discussion

Topics References

Grit Removal

Introduction

Location of Grit Removal Facility

Gravity Settling

Types of Grit Removal Facilities

Grit Collection and Removal

Quantity of Grit

Grit Disposal Equipment

Manufacturers of Grit Removal Facilities

Information Checklist for Design of Grit Removal

Facility Design Example

Operations and Maintenance, and Troubleshooting at Aerated Grit Removal Facility

Specifications

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Primary Sedimentation

Introduction

Flocculent Settling (Type II)

Types of Sediment Basins

Design Factors

Enhanced Sedimentation

Equipment Manufacturers of Sedimentation Basins

Information Checklist for Design of Sedimentation Basin

Design Example

Operations and Maintenance, and Troubleshooting at Primary Sedimentation Facilities

Specifications

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Biological Waste Treatment

Introduction

Fundamentals of Biological Waste Treatment

Aerobic Suspended Growth Reactors

Aerobic Attached Growth and Combined Attached and Suspended Growth

Biological Treatment

Anaerobic Suspended-Growth Biological Treatment

Anaerobic Attached Growth Biological Treatment

Biological Nutrient Removal Processes

Secondary Clarifiers

Equipment Manufacturers of Biological Waste Treatment Processes

Information Checklist for BNR and Clarification Facilities

Design Example

Operation and Maintenance, and Troubleshooting at Activated Sludge Treatment
Facility

Specifications Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Disinfection

Introduction

Methods of Disinfection

Kinetics of Disinfection

Disinfection with Chlorine

Dechlorination Chlorine Dioxide

Bromine

Chloride

Ozonation

UV Disinfection Equipment Manufacturers of a UV Disinfection Facility

Information Checklist for Design of a UV Disinfection Facility

Design Example

Operation and Maintenance, and Troubleshooting at UV Disinfection Facility

Specifications

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Effluent Disposal

Introduction

Methods of Effluent

Reuse and Disposal Information

Checklist for Design of Outfall Structure

Design Example

Operation and Maintenance, and Troubleshooting at Outfall Structure

Specifications

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Sources of Sludge and Thickener Design

Introduction

Characteristics of Municipal Sludge

Sludge-Processing Systems and Environmental Control

Volume-Weight Relationship and Pumping

Preliminary Operations

Sludge Thickening

Equipment Manufacturers

Information Checklist for Thickener Design

Design Example

Operation and Maintenance, and Troubleshooting at Sludge-Thickening Facility

Specifications

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Sludge Stabilization

Introduction

Process Selection

Anaerobic Digestion

Aerobic Digestion

Other Sludge Stabilization Processes

Equipment Manufacturers of Sludge Stabilization Systems

Information Checklist for Design of Sludge Stabilization Facility

Design Example

Operation and Maintenance, and Troubleshooting at Sludge Stabilization Facility

Specifications

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Sludge Conditioning and Dewatering

Introduction

Sludge Conditioning

Sludge Dewatering

Equipment Manufacturers of Sludge Conditioning and Dewatering Systems

Information Checklist for Design of Sludge Conditioning and Dewatering Facilities

Design Example

Operation and Maintenance, and Troubleshooting at Belt Filter Press

Specifications Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Sludge Disposal

Introduction

Overview of Sludge Disposal Practices

Sludge Conversion Processes

Land Applications of Municipal Sludge (Biosolids)

Sludge Disposal by Landfilling

Information Checklist for Design of Sludge Disposal Facility

Design Example

Operation and Maintenance, and Specifications

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Plant Layout

Introduction

Factors Affecting Plant Layout and Site Development

Design Example

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Yard Piping and Hydraulic Profile

Introduction

Yard Piping

Plant Hydraulics

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Instrumentation and Controls

Introduction

Benefits and Need of Instrumentation and Control Systems

Sludge Dewatering

Equipment Manufacturers of Instrumentation and Control Systems

Information Checklist for Design and Selection of Instrumentation and Control
Systems

Design Example

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Design Summary
Advanced Wastewater Treatment and Upgrading Secondary Treatment Facility

Introduction

Natural Systems

Overview of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Technology Problems and Discussion
Topics

References

Wastewater Treatment Systems for Small Flows

Introduction

Wastewater Problems of Small Communities

Strategy for Selection of Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems for Small
Flows

Wastewater Flowrates and Characteristics

Site Evaluation and Selection for Onsite Treatment and Effluent Disposal

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

Final Disposal Methods

Wastewater Collection, Treatment and Disposal Systems for Sewered Areas

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Management of Stormwater and Combined Sewer Overflows

Introduction

Current Status

Characteristics, Impacts and Management of Stormwater

Characteristics, Impacts, and Management of Combined Sewer Overflows

Problems and Discussion Topics

References

Avoiding Design Errors

Introduction

Examples of Design Errors and Deficiencies

Procedure to Avoid or Reduce Common Design Errors and Deficiencies

Do's and Don'ts Design

Checklist Discussion Topics

References

Appendices

Physical and Chemical Properties of Water

Head Loss Constants in Open Channels and Pressure Pipes

Treatment Plant Cost Equations

Manufacturers and Suppliers of Wastewater Treatment Plant Equipment

Selected Chemical Elements

Abbreviations and Symbols, Useful Constants, Unit Conversions, Design Parameters, and Units of Expression for Wastewater Treatment

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