Water Centric Sustainable Communities: Planning, Retrofitting and Building the Next Urban Environment / Edition 1

Water Centric Sustainable Communities: Planning, Retrofitting and Building the Next Urban Environment / Edition 1

by Vladimir Novotny, Jack Ahern, Paul Brown
     
 

The book that breaks new ground for creating water centric cities of the future

Outdated water and wastewater practices in conjunction with increased consumption from a growing population have left today's urban communities perilously close to running dry—or ironically—being inundated with stormwater-related floods. Water Centric Sustainable

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Overview

The book that breaks new ground for creating water centric cities of the future

Outdated water and wastewater practices in conjunction with increased consumption from a growing population have left today's urban communities perilously close to running dry—or ironically—being inundated with stormwater-related floods. Water Centric Sustainable Communities departs from the traditional "clean water in, dirty water out" approach to establish a holistic paradigm for integrated water conservation and use in cities by embracing the three r's: reduce, reuse, recycle. This book provides the forum for lively discussion on the social concerns, technological challenges, planning issues, and economic woes putting up barriers to the reality of achieving a sustainable urban environment—and presents expert suggestions for overcoming them. Water Centric Sustainable Communities:

  • Includes case studies of successful implementations from cities around the world
  • Explores the history of urban water, stormwater, and wastewater management
  • Discusses not only newly planned and constructed infrastructure, but also the retrofit and upgrading of existing infrastructure
  • Offers new methods to integrate the new water paradigm with urban planning and design
  • Provides guidance on connecting microscale components (green roofs, pervious pavements, stream restoration and daylighting, riparian zone design, water reclamation and reuse, drainage, energy) in a distributed macroscale sustainable water ecosystem

The first book to combine landscape, water management, transportation, infrastructure, and triple bottom line assessment into one integrated system, Water Centric Sustainable Communities is inspired in its mission to avoid an unthinkable ecological catastrophe. It offers an eye-opening reminder of how today's actions can have a profound impact on tomorrow's survival by stressing the importance of stabilizing the Earth's water and energy supply now—to keep it sustainably flowing into the future.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780470476086
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
10/12/2010
Series:
CourseSmart Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
624
Product dimensions:
6.40(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.50(d)

Meet the Author

Vladimir Novotny is Professor at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, and Emeritus Professor at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He is also President of AquaNova, LLC.

Jack Ahern is Professor of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, Massachusetts.

Paul Brown is Executive Vice President at CDM in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and is also Technical Director of the Neysadurai Centre for Integrated Water Resources and Urban Planning in Singapore.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xii

I HISTORIC PARADIGMS OF URBAN WATERSTORMWATER WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT AND DRIVERS FOR CHANGE 1

I.1 Introduction 1

I.2 Historic Paradigms: From Ancient Cities to the 20th Century 5

I.2.1 First Paradigm 8

I.2.2 Second Paradigm 9

I.2.3 Third Paradigm 15

I.2.4 Fourth Paradigm 25

I.2.5 The Impact of Automobile Use 32

I.2.6 Urban Sprawl 38

I.2.7 The Rise of New Great Powers Competing for Resources 40

I.3 Drivers for Change towards Sustainability 42

I.3.1 Population Increases and Pressures 44

I.3.2 Water Scarcity Problems and Flooding Challenges of Large Cities 49

I.3.3 Greenhouse Emissions and Global Warming Effects 51

I.3.4 Aging Infrastructure and the Need to Rebuild and Retrofit 59

I.3.5 The Impossibility of Maintaining the Status Quo and Business as Usual 60

I.4 The 21st Century and Beyond 65

References 68

II URBAN SUSTAINABILITY CONCEPTS 72

II.1 The Vision of Sustainability 72

II.2 The Sustainability Concept and Definitions 73

II.2.1 A New (Fifth) Paradigm Is Needed 73

II.2.2 Definition of Pollution 76

II.2.3 Sustainability Definitions 80

II.2.4 Economic versus Resources Preservation Sustainability 82

II.2.5 Sustainability Components 85

II.2.6 The Environment and Ecology 87

II.2.7 Living within the Limits in the Urban Landscape 90

II.2.8 The Economy 94

II.3 Towards the Fifth Paradigm of Sustainability 97

II.3.1 Emerging Sustainable Urban Water Stormwater Used Water Systems 99

II.3.2 Triple Bottom Line—Life Cycle Assessment (TBL—LCA) 104

II.3.3 Water Reclamation and Reuse 106

II.3.4 Restoring Urban Streams 108

II.3.5 Stormwater Pollution and Flood Abatement 110

II.3.6 Urban Landscape 113

II.4 Cities of the Future—Water Centric Ecocities 114

II.4.1 Drainage and Water Management 114

II.4.2 Microscale Measures and Macroscale Watershed Goals 116

II.4.3 Integrated Resource Management Clusters—Ecoblocks of the Cities of the Future 120

II.4.4 Interconnectivity of Clusters—Spatial Integration 123

II.5 Ecocity Ecovillage Concepts 124

References 129

III PLANNING AND DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT CITIES: THEORIES, STRATEGIES, AND BEST PRACTICES FOR GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE 135

III.1 Introduction 135

III.1.1 Achieving Sustainability 135

III.1.2 Sustainability through Urban Planning and Design 137

III.2 Ecosystem Services 138

III.2.1 Concepts 138

III.2.2 The Non-Equilibrium Paradigm 141

III.3 Planning for Resilient and Sustainable Cities 143

III.3.1 Ecosystem Service Goals and Assessments 143

III.3.2 Resilience Strategies 144

III.3.3 Scenario Planning 155

III.3.4 Transdisciplinary Process 157

III.3.5 Adaptive Planning 157

III.4 Best Practices for Green Infrastructure 158

III.4.1 SEA Street Seattle 159

III.4.2 Westergasfabriek Park, Amsterdam 162

III.4.3 Staten Island Blue Belt, New York 162

III.4.4 Ecostaden (Ecocities): Augustenborg Neighborhood and Western Harbor, Malm¨o, Sweden 164

III.5 Discussion 170

References 171

IV STORMWATER POLLUTION ABATEMENT AND FLOOD CONTROL—STORMWATER AS A RESOURCE 177

IV.1 Urban Stormwater—A Problem or an Asset? 177

IV.1.1 Problems with Urban Stormwater 177

IV.1.2 Current Urban Drainage 182

IV.1.3 Urban Stormwater Is an Asset and a Resource 184

IV.1.4 Low Impact Development (LID) 186

IV.2 Best Management Practices to Control Urban Runoff for Reuse 189

IV.2.1 Soft Surface Approaches 190

IV.2.2 Ponds and Wetlands 201

IV.2.3 Winter Limitations on Stormwater Management and Use 212

IV.2.4 Hard Infrastructure 216

IV.2.5 ID Urban Drainage—A Step to the Cities of the Future 218

References 222

V WATER DEMAND AND CONSERVATION 228

V.1 Water Use 228

V.1.1 Water on Earth 228

V.1.2 Water Use Fundamentals 232

V.1.3 Municipal Water Use in the U.S. and Worldwide 235

V.1.4 Components of Municipal Water Use 239

V.1.5 Virtual Water 240

V.2 Water Conservation 241

V.2.1 Definition of Water Conservation 241

V.2.2 Residential Water Use 241

V.2.3 Commercial and Public Water Use and Conservation 249

V.2.4 Leaks and Other Losses 251

V.3 Substitute and Supplemental Water Sources 252

V.3.1 Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) 252

V.3.2 Gray Water Reclamation and Reuse as a Source of New Water 256

V.3.3 Desalination of Seawater and Brackish Water 260

V.3.4 Urban Stormwater and Other Freshwater Flows as Sources of Water 266

References 268

VI WATER RECLAMATION AND REUSE 272

VI.1 Introduction 272

VI.2 Water Reclamation and Reuse 274

VI.2.1 The Concept 274

VI.2.2 Reclaiming Rainwater and Stormwater 279

VI.2.3 Water-Sewage-Water Cycle—Unintended Reuse 280

VI.2.4 Centralized versus Decentralized Reclamation 281

VI.2.5 Cluster Water Reclamation Units 282

VI.3 Water Quality Goals and Limits for Selecting Technologies 286

VI.3.1 Concepts 286

VI.3.2 Landscape and Agricultural Irrigation 289

VI.3.3 Urban Uses Other Than Irrigation and Potable Water Supply 293

VI.3.4 Potable Reuse 297

VI.3.5 Groundwater Recharge 300

VI.3.6 Integrated Reclamation and Reuse—Singapore 304

References 308

VII TREATMENT AND RESOURCE RECOVERY UNIT PROCESSES 311

VII.1 Brief Description of Traditional Water and Resource Reclamation Technologies 311

VII.1.1 Basic Requirements 311

VII.1.2 Considering Source Separation 312

VII.1.3 Low-Energy Secondary Treatment 315

VII.1.4 New Developments in Biological Treatment 324

VII.2 Sludge Handling and Resource Recovery 329

VII.2.1 Types of Solids Produced in the Water Reclamation Process 331

VII.2.2 A New Look at Residual Solids (Sludge) as a Resource 334

VII.3 Nutrient Recovery 336

VII.4 Membrane Filtration and Reverse Osmosis 339

VII.5 Disinfection 340

VII.6 Energy and GHG Emission Issues in Water Reclamation Plants 346

VII.7 Evaluation and Selection of Decentralized Water Reclamation Technologies 348

VII.7.1 Closed Cycle Water Reclamation 348

References 354

VIII ENERGY AND URBAN WATER SYSTEMS—TOWARDS NET ZERO CARBON FOOTPRINT 358

VIII.1 Interconnection of Water and Energy 358

VIII.1.1 Use of Water and Disposal of Used Water Require Energy and Emit GHGs 358

VIII.1.2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Areas 360

VIII.1.3 The Water-Energy Nexus on the Regional and Cluster Scale 362

VIII.1.4 Net Zero Carbon Footprint Goal for High-Performance Buildings and Developments 365

VIII.2 Energy Conservation in Buildings and Ecoblocks 71

VIII.2.1 Energy Considerations Related to Water 371

VIII.2.2 Heat Recovery from Used Water 379

VIII.3 Energy from Renewable Sources 380

VIII.3.1 Solar Energy 380

VIII.3.2 Wind Power 387

VIII.4 Energy from Used Water and Waste Organic Solids 392

VIII.4.1 Fundamentals 392

VIII.4.2 Biogas Production, Composition, and Energy Content 394

VIII.4.3 Small and Medium Biogas Production Operations 397

VIII.4.4 Anaerobic Upflow Reactor 398

VIII.5 Direct Electric Energy Production from Biogas and Used Water 399

VIII.5.1 Hydrogen Fuel Cells 400

VIII.5.2 Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) 403

VIII.5.3 Harnessing the Hydraulic Energy of Water Used Water Systems 406

VIII.6 Summary and a Look into the Future 408

VIII.6.1 A New Look at the Used Water Reclamation Processes 408

VIII.6.2 Integrated Resource Recovery Facilities 411

VIII.7 Overall Energy Outlook—Anticipating the Future 416

VIII.7.1 A Look into the Future 20 or More Years Ahead 416

VIII.7.2 Is Storage a Problem? 421

References 422

IX RESTORING URBAN STREAMS 427

IX.1 Introduction 427

IX.1.1 Rediscovering Urban Streams 427

IX.1.2 Definitions 437

IX.2 Adverse Impacts of Urbanization to Be Remedied 438

IX.2.1 Types of Pollution 438

IX.2.2 Determining Main Impact Stressors to Be Fixed by Restoration 443

IX.2.3 Effluent Dominated and Effluent Dependent Urban Water Bodies 447

IX.3 Water Body Restoration in the Context of Future Water Centric (Eco) Cities 453

IX.3.1 Goals 453

IX.3.2 Regionalized versus Cluster-Based Distributed Systems 455

IX.3.3 New Developments and Retrofitting Older Cities 457

IX.4 Summary and Conclusions 476

References 479

X PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE FUTURE COMMUNITIES 482

X.1 Integrated Planning and Management 482

X.1.1 Introduction 482

X.1.2 Footprints 484

X.2 Urban Planning 487

X.2.1 Ecocity Parameters and Demographics—Population Density Matters 488

X.3 Integrated Resources Management (IRM) 493

X.3.1 Sustainability 493

X.4 Clusters and Ecoblocks—Distributed Systems 497

X.4.1 The Need to Decentralize Urban WaterStormwaterUsed Water Management 497

X.4.2 Distribution of Resource Recovery, Reclamation and Management Tasks 499

X.4.3 Cluster Creation and Size 503

X.4.4 Types of WaterEnergy Reclamations and Creation of a Sustainable Urban Area 505

X.5 System Analysis and Modeling of Sustainable Cities 514

X.5.1 Complexity of the System and Modeling 514

X.5.2 Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Assessment 518

X.6 Institutions 525

X.6.1 Institutions for Integrated Resource Management 526

X.6.2 Enhanced Private Sector 532

X.6.3 Achieving Multibenefit System Objectives 533

References 535

XI ECOCITIES: EVALUATION AND SYNTHESIS 539

XI.1 Introduction 539

XI.2 Case Studies 542

XI.2.1 Hammarby Sjöstad, Sweden 542

XI.2.2 Dongtan, China 549

XI.2.3 Qingdao (China) Ecoblock and Ecocity 556

XI.2.4 Tianjin (China) 560

XI.2.5 Masdar (UAE) 566

XI.2.6 Treasure Island (California, U.S.) 573

XI.2.7 Sonoma Mountain Village (California, U.S.) 579

XI.2.8 Dockside Green 585

XI.3 Brief Summary 588

References 590

APPENDIX 595

INDEX 597

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