Water Fluoridation Principles and Practices / Edition 2

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Overview


Fluoridation is the addition of the chemical fluoride in drinking water to reduce tooth decay. Since fluoridation treatment became common practice over 50 years ago, tooth decay has been reduced 40 to 65 percent.

This manual provides data and guidance on the design, operation, and maintenance of fluoridation systems in water treatment. Coverage includes human health effects of fluoride, calculating dosage, feed systems, installation, operation, maintenance, and defluoridation.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781583213117
  • Publisher: American Water Works Association
  • Publication date: 6/28/2004
  • Series: AWWA Manual Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 104
  • Product dimensions: 11.00 (w) x 8.25 (h) x 0.22 (d)

Meet the Author


Established in 1881, the American Water Works Association is the oldest and largest nonprofit, scientific and educational association dedicated to safe and sustainable water in the world. With more than 50,000 members worldwide and 43 Sections in North America, AWWA advances public health, safety and welfare by uniting the efforts of the entire water community.
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Table of Contents


List of Figures
List of Tables
Foreword
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1.....History, Theory, and Chemicals

Fluoridation History

Bone and Tooth Incorporation of Fluoride

Tooth Decay

Health Effects

Legal Issues

Chemicals
Chapter 2....Fluoridation SystemPlanning

General System Configurations

Chemical Selection Guidelines

Preliminary Calculations

Feed Rate and Dosage Calculations

Example Feed Rate Calculations

Example Calculated Dosage Problems

Simplification of Feed Rate and Dosage Calculations
Chapter 3....Design, Equipment, and Installation

Design

Feeders

Auxiliary Equipment
Chapter 4....Operation and Maintenance

Control Scheme

Troubleshooting

Records

Maintenance

Safety
Chapter 5....Defluoridation

Activated Alumina (AA) Treatment Process

Reverse Osmosis Treatment
Additional Sources of Information
Index
Manual
Figures
Figure 1-1 Dental caries and dental fluorosis in relation to fluoride in public water supplies
Figure 1-2 The demineralization and remineralization processes lead to remineralized enamel crystals with surfaces rich in fluoride and lower in solubility
Figure 2-1 Acid feed installation
Figure 2-2 Solution fluoride saturator
Figure 2-3 Dry feed installation with volumetric feeder
Figure 2-4 Dry feed installation with gravimetric feeder
Figure 2-5 Optimal fluoride levels
Figure 2-6 Fluoridation nomograph
Figure 2-7 Fluoridation alignment chart
Figure 3-1 Fluoride injection point
Figure 3-2 Positive-displacement solution feeders
Figure 3-3 Upflow saturator
Figure 3-4 Downflow saturator
Figure 3-5 Screw-type volumetric dry feeder
Figure 3-6 Roll-type volumetric dry feeder
Figure 3-7 Belt-type gravimetric feeder
Figure 3-8 Gravimetric feeder - loss-in-weight type
Figure 3-9 Pacing meter-electronic metering pump
Figure 3-10 Pacing meter-variable-speed motor control
Figure 4-1 Simplified process control scheme
Figure 5-1 The process Schematic Flow Diagram
Figure 5-2 A typical reverse osmosis system
Tables
Table 1-1 Number of people and percentage of the population receiving optimally fluoridated water through public water systems (PWS), by state - US, 1992 and 2000
Table 1-2 Years when Canadian cities began fluoridation
Table 1-3 Characteristics of fluoride compounds
Table 2-1 Fluoridation planning checklist
Table 2-2 Optimal fluoride levels
Table 2-3 Typical values of purity and available fluoride ion (AFI)
Table 2-4 Fluoride calculation factors
Table 3-1 Detention time of sodium fluorosilicate in dissolving tanks
Table 4-1 Interfering substances
Table 4-2 Emergency treatment for ingested fluoride overdose of fluorosilicic acid H2SiF6
Table 4-3 Emergency treatment for ingested fluoride overdose of dry fluoride chemicals NaF and Na2SiF6
Table 4-4 Summary of reported fluoride overfeed incidents in public water systems
Table 4-5 Recommended fluoride overfeed action

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