Finding "streams in the desert" has never been more urgent for the peoples of the Middle East. Rapid population growth and a rising standard of living are driving water demand inexorably upward, while the natural supply has not increased since Biblical times. Ensuring a fair and adequate distribution of water in the region is vitally important for building a lasting peace among the nations of the Middle East.
Addressing water needs from a geographical perspective, the contributors to this book analyze and assess the impact of scarce water resources in the Jordan River basin countries and territories (Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria) as these long-time antagonists work toward peace. After geographical and historical overviews, the authors envision the future—what the water issues may be when Israel and Syria begin negotiating, the "hydro-security" needs of each nation, and the difficulties of planning for uncertainty. Without proposing any one ideal scheme, they discuss the possibilities for cooperative sharing of water resources, while honestly acknowledging the political constraints that may limit such projects. The final essay speaks to the needs of the one party so rarely represented at the negotiating table—the Jordan River itself.
Foreword (Tony Allan, University of London)
1. Water, Geography, and Peace in the Middle East: An Introduction (Hussein A. Amery and Aaron T. Wolf)
2. Conflict, Coexistence, and Cooperation: A Study of Water Use in the Jordan Basin (Peter Beaumont, University of Wales)
3. Forces of Change and the Conflict over Water in the Jordan River Basin (Steve Lonergan, University of Victoria)
4. "Hydrostrategic" Territory in the Jordan Basin: Water, War, and Arab-Israeli Peace Negotiations (Aaron T. Wolf, Oregon State University)
5. A Popular Theory of Water Diversion from Lebanon: Toward Public Participation for Peace (Hussein A. Amery, Colorado School of Mines)
6. The Water Dimension of Golan Heights Negotiations (Frederic C. Hof, Armitage Associates, L.C.)
7. Water Security for the Jordan River States: Performance Criteria and Uncertainty (Paul A. Kay and Bruce Mitchell, University of Waterloo)
8. A Cooperative Framework for Sharing Scarce Water Resources: Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority (Nurit N. Kliot, University of Haifa)
9. Political Controls of River Waters and Abstractions between Various States within the Middle East: Laws and Operations, with Special Reference to the Jordan Basin (Gwyn Rowley, University of Sheffield)
10. The Spatial Attributes of Water Negotiation: The Need for a River Ethic and River Advocacy in the Middle East (John Kolars, University of Michigan [emeritus])
Appendix 1. Jordan-Israel Peace Treaty, 26 October 1994, Article 6: Water
Appendix 2. The Israel-PLO Interim Agreement, 28 September 1995, Annex III, Article 40: Water and Sewage