Water Pollution and Fish Physiology / Edition 2

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This book provides a concise synthesis of how toxic chemical pollutants affect physiological processes in teleost fish. This Second Edition of the well-received Water Pollution and Fish Physiology has been completely updated, and chapters have been added on immunology and acid toxicity. The emphasis, as in the first edition, is on understanding mechanisms of sublethal effects on fish and their responses to these environmental stressors.
The first chapter covers the basic principles involved in understanding how fish respond, in general, to environmental alterations. Each subsequent chapter is devoted to a particular organ system or physiological function and begins with a short overview of normal physiology of that system/function. This is followed by a review of how various toxic chemicals may alter normal conditions in fish. Chapters covering environmental hypoxia, behavior, cellular enzymes, and acid toxicity are also included. The book closes with a discussion on the practical application of physiological and biochemical measurements of fish in water pollution control in research and regulatory settings.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780873716321
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 9/28/1995
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 384
  • Product dimensions: 6.25 (w) x 9.50 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Some Introductory Concepts
Types of Water Pollution
The Relationship Between Aquatic Toxicology and Fish Physiology
Levels of Biological Organization
Importance of Dose and Duration of Exposure
Toxic Mode of Action
Environmental Hypoxia
Minimum Levels of Oxygen Required for Fish Life
Interaction of Hypoxia and Toxicity of Pollutant Chemicals
Gill vs. Cutaneous Respiration
Adjustments in Ventilation
Adjustments by the Gills to Hypoxia
Transport of Oxygen by the Blood
Cardiovascular Changes During Hypoxia
Respiratory Regulation and Conformity
Anaerobic Metabolism
Swimming Speed
Blood and Urine
Acclimation to Hypoxia
Respiratory and Cardiovascular Responses
Overview of Normal Respiratory Physiology
Histopathology of Gill Lamellae Exposed to Pollutants
Ventilation Changes in Response to Pollutants
Physiological Mechanisms of Changes in Ventilation
Circulatory Physiology
Cardiac Responses to Pollutants
Fish Blood Cells and their Measurement
Chemicals that Cause Anemia
Chemicals Causing an Increase in Hematological Variables
Uptake, Accumulation, Biotransformation, and Excretion of Xenobiotics
Uptake from the Environment
Transport Within the Fish of Metals and Organics
Accumulation of Metals in Different Organs
Regulation of Metal Concentration
Glutathione and Metal Detoxification
Involvement of Metallothionein in Metal Accumulation and Acclimation to Metals
Bioconcentration of Organic Pollutants
Biotransformation of Organic Contaminants
Excretion of Organic Contaminants
Structure of Liver
Alterations of Liver/Somatic Index
Histopathological Effects of Pollutants
Major Functions of Liver
Effects of Pollutants on Liver Function
Ascorbic Acid and Pollutant Exposure
Osmotic and Ionic Regulation
Effects of Pollutants on Osmotic and Ionic Regulation
Chloride Cell Proliferation
Some Summary Comments Regarding Osmoregulatory and Electrolyte Alterations
Physiological Energetics
General Concepts
Methods for Measuring Energy Expenditure in Fish
Effects of Metals on Metabolic Rate
Gill Tissue Metabolism: Effects of Metals and Possible Relation of Gill Metabolism to Whole-Body Metabolic Rate
Effects of Pesticides on Whole-Body and Individual Tissue Respiration
Methods Applicable to Measurement of Energy Expenditure in the Field
Effects of Pollutants on Larval and Juvenile Growth
Swimming Performance
Changes in Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Energy Stores
Alterations in Cellular Enzyme Activity, Antioxidants, Adenylates, and Stress Proteins
Some Comments About Enzyme Methodology
Alterations in Cellular Enzyme Activity from Metal Exposure
Enzyme Effects from Organic Chemicals
Concluding Remarks on Enzyme Effects
Stress Proteins
Acid Pollution
Embryonic Development and Hatching
Larvae from Hatching Through Swim-Up
Juvenile and Adult: Acid-Base Balance and Electrolyte Changes from Acute Exposures
Juvenile and Adult: Blood Changes from Chronic Exposures
Hormonal Responses
Adults: Ventilation and Blood Gases
Oxygen Consumption, Swimming Performance, and Swimbladder Inflation
Concluding Comment
The Immune System
Effects of Pollutants on Immune Function
Hormonal Modulation of Immune Response
Behavior and Nervous System Function
Locomotor Activity
Avoidance of or Attractance to Waterborne Chemicals
Sensory Receptors
Feeding and Predator-Prey Behavior
Optomotor Response
Concluding Comments
Overview of Fish Reproductive Physiology
Action of Pollutants on Reproductive Function
Use of Physiological and Biochemical Measures in Pollution Biology
Water Quality Criteria
Biomonitoring of Fish in the Field and Mesocosms
Early Warning Systems
Each chapter includes an introduction and/or overview and a list of relevant references.

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