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Overview

Water-Resources Engineering provides readers with a complete picture of water resources engineering by integrating the fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics, hydraulics, hydrology, and contaminant fate and transport processes in the hydrologic cycle. The material in the book is presented from first principles, is relevant to the practice of water resources engineering, and is reinforced by detailed presentations of design applications. Containss practical design applications from the areas of hydraulics, surface water and ground water hydrology, and hydrologic fate and transport processes.

Features:

  • Contains practical design applications from the areas of hydraulics, surface water and ground water hydrology, and hydrologic fate and transport processes. Coverage of design applications reinforces the basic theory. Design methods are state-of-the-art, preparing students for engineering practice. Detailed coverage of hydraulics, hydrology, and contaminant transport in a single text provides a holistic view of water-resources engineering.
  • Presents computer models that are widely used in practice to implement the techniques discussed. It is essential that today's engineers be familiar with state-of-the-art computer models for efficient and comprehensive engineering design.
  • Presents design protocols that are consistent with ASCE, WEF, and AWWA Manuals of Practice. Codes and design standards guide most modern designs. Familiarity with these rules is essential.
  • Uses SI units throughout. To be competitive in a global environment the use of SI units is essential. The United States is moving inexorably towards the universal adoption of SI units.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Chin (civil and environmental engineering, U. of Miami) presents beginning undergraduate students with a picture of water-resources engineering that integrates fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics, water treatment processes, hydraulics, hydrology, and contaminant fate and transport processes. He incorporates and explains the core design principles of water distribution, sanitary sewer, stormwater management, and water-quality control systems. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131481923
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 4/3/2006
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 976
  • Product dimensions: 8.00 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

Water-resources engineering is concerned with the design of systems that control the quantity, quality, timing, and distribution of water to support both human habitation and the needs of the environment. Water-resources engineers are typically trained in civil or environmental engineering programs and specialize in a variety of areas, including the design of water-supply systems, water and wastewater treatment facilities, irrigation and drainage systems, hydropower systems, and flood-control systems.

The technical and scientific bases for most water-resources specializations are found in the areas of fluid mechanics, hydraulics, hydrology, contaminant fate and transport processes, and water-treatment processes. Many engineering schools classify watertreatment processes as a subject that belongs to environmental engineering rather than water-resources engineering; however, a holistic view of the practice of waterresources engineering supports the study of water-treatment processes as part of both water-resources and environmental engineering specialties. The pigeonholing of fluid mechanics, hydraulics, hydrology, and contaminant fate and transport into discrete subjects, usually taught in separate courses using different textbooks, has resulted in large part from the extensive knowledge base that has developed in each of these areas and the commensurate specialization of engineers involved in research and academic practice. Engineering students are consequently left with a sense of compartmentalization and intimidation. Typically, they fail to see the complete picture of water-resources engineering and view each specialty as so vast thatmastery at the undergraduate level is impossible. To address this misperception, an integrated treatment of water-resources engineering must necessarily present the fundamental aspects of the field while providing sufficient detail for the student to feel comfortable and competent in all the areas covered. Such an integrated approach has been taken in preparing this text, resulting in a book that covers the topics most fundamental to the practicing water-resources engineer— and does so with sufficient rigor that further instruction, whether at the graduate level or in professional journals, can be assimilated at a high technical level.

A course in fluid mechanics is generally regarded as the first step in a water-resources engineering track, and criteria for accrediting civil and environmental engineering programs in the United States (ABET Engineering Criteria 2000) require at most that engineering students demonstrate a proficiency in fluid mechanics relevant to their program of study. This book covers the elements of fluid mechanics relevant to a waterresources engineering track as well as the fundamentals of fluid mechanics covered on the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam. The majority of this book provides detailed treatment of hydraulics, surface-water hydrology, ground-water hydrology, and hydrologic fate and transport processes, and it features practical design applications in all of these areas. The text incorporates, and explains in detail, the design of water distribution systems, sanitary sewer systems, stormwater management systems, and water-quality control systems in rivers, lakes, ground waters, and coastal waters. Care has been taken that all the design protocols presented in this book are consistent with the relevant American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Water Environment Federation (WET), and American Water Works Association (AWWA) Manuals of Practice.

The topics covered in this book constitute much of the technical background expected of water-resources engineers and part of the core requirements for environmental engineering students. This text is appropriate for undergraduate and first-year graduate courses in hydraulics, hydrology, and contaminant fate and transport processes. It also incorporates enough fluid mechanics background to rigorously cover the fundamentals of hydraulics and hydrology. Prerequisites for courses that use this text should include calculus up to differential equations.

The book begins with an introduction to water-resources engineering (Chapter 1) that orients the reader to the depth and breadth of the field. Chapter 2 covers the fundamentals of classical fluid mechanics relevant to water-resources engineering, and Chapter 3 presents the fundamentals of flow in closed conduits, including a detailed exposition on the design of water-supply systems. Chapter 4 covers flow in open channels from basic principles, including the computation of watersurface profiles and the performance of hydraulic structures. Applications of this material to the design of lined, unlined, and grassed drainage channels are presented along with the design of sanitary sewer systems. Computer models commonly used in practice to apply the principles of open-channel hydraulics are reviewed at the end of the chapter.

Many of the analytical methods used by water-resources engineers are based in the theory of probability and statistics, and Chapter 5 presents elements of probability and statistics relevant to the practice of water-resources engineering. Useful probability distributions, hydrologic data analysis, and frequency analysis are all covered, and the applications of these techniques to risk analysis in engineering design are illustrated by examples. Chapter 6 covers surface-water hydrology and focuses mostly on urban design applications. The ASCE Manuals of Practice on the design of surface-water management systems (ASCE,1992) and urban runoff quality management (ASCE, 1998) were used as bases for much of the material presented. Coverage includes the specification of design rainfall, runoff models, routing models, and water-quality models. Applications of this material to the design of both minor and major components of stormwater management systems are presented, along with computer models widely used in practice to implement these techniques in complex stormwater management systems.

Chapter 7 covers ground-water hydrology, including the basic equations of groundwater flow, analytic solutions describing flow in aquifers, saltwater intrusion, and ground-water flow in the unsaturated zone. Applications to the design of municipal wellfields and individual water-supply wells, the delineation of wellhead protection areas, the design of aquifer pumping tests, and the design of exfiltration trenches are presented. Numerical models of ground-water flow used in practice are also reviewed. Chapter 8, finally, covers hydrologic fate and transport processes, including waterquality regulations, and quantitative analyses of fate and transport processes in rivers, lakes, ground waters, and coastal waters. The applications of these analyses to the design of water-quality management systems are presented. Seven appendices at the end of the book include conversion factors between SI and U.S. Customary units, fluid properties, geometric properties of plane surfaces, statistical tables, special functions, and drinking water standards.

This book can be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs of students and instructors. As a guideline, the material in this text could be substantially covered in a two-course sequence. The first course could cover the material in Chapters 1 through 5 (Introduction, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, Flow in Closed Conduits, Flow in Open Channels, Probability and Statistics in Water-Resources Engineering); the second, Chapters 6 through 8 (Surface-Water Hydrology, Ground-Water Hydrology, Hydrologic Fate and Transport Processes). A course plan that complements other required courses in the engineering curriculum is generally recommended.

In summary, this book is a reflection of the author's belief that water-resources engineers must have a firm understanding of the depth and breadth of the technical areas fundamental to their discipline. This knowledge will allow them to be more innovative, view water-resource systems holistically, and be technically prepared for a lifetime of learning. On the basis of this vision, the material contained in this book is presented mostly from first principles, is rigorous, is relevant to the practice of water-resources engineering, and is reinforced by detailed presentations of design applications.

Even though the United States is squarely on the road to adopting International Standard (SI) units, most textbooks in hydraulics and hydrology published in this country continue to use the system of U.S. Customary units. Providing a mix of units can sometimes be confusing and usually forces the reader to adopt one set and ignore the other. Unfortunately, many engineering students tend to adopt the U.S. Customary unit system and disregard the SI system. If they are to be competitive in the future, American engineers cannot afford this luxury. Therefore, this textbook preferentially uses SI units.

Many people have contributed both directly and indirectly to the creation of this book. I acknowledge the many inspirational teachers who kindled my interest in waterresources engineering and whose philosophical ideas have contributed to development of my present view of the field. To name only a few people would be a disservice to many, but the faculty I studied under at Caltech and Georgia Tech during my graduate school days certainly deserve special recognition. My students in the civil and environmental engineering programs at the University of Miami provided valuable feedback in the development of this book, and Michael Slaughter of Addison-Wesley was a source of advice and help. I would like to join with the publisher in thanking the following reviewers for their comments and suggestions during the development of the manuscript: Mary Bergs, University of Toledo; Paul C. Chan, New Jersey Institute of Technology; Alexander Cheng, University of Delaware; Steven Chiesa, Santa Clara University; Bruce DeVantier, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale; Robert Kersten, University of Central Florida; Jay Lund, University of California, Davis; Joe Middlebrooks, University of Nevada, Reno; Paul Trotta, Northern Arizona University; and Ralph Wurbs, Texas A&M University. A special thanks to Bob Liu, who drafted most of the figures, and whose dedication to this project was beyond the call of duty.

David A. Chin

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Water-Resources Engineering 1
1.2 The Hydrologic Cycle 3
1.3 Design of Water-Resource Systems 5
1.3.1 Water-Control Systems 6
1.3.2 Water-Use Systems 7
1.4 About This Book 7
2 Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 9
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Physical Properties of Water 9
2.3 Fluid Statics 16
2.3.1 Pressure Distribution in Static Fluids 16
2.3.2 Pressure Measurements 19
2.3.3 Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces 22
2.3.4 Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces 26
2.4 Fluid Kinematics 32
2.4.1 Turbulence 33
2.4.2 Reynolds Transport Theorem 34
2.5 Fluid Dynamics 35
2.5.1 Conservation of Mass 35
2.5.2 Conservation of Momentum 36
2.5.3 Conservation of Energy 51
2.6 Dimensional Analysis and Similitude 53
Summary 59
Problems 59
3 Flow in Closed Conduits 65
3.1 Introduction 65
3.2 Single Pipelines 65
3.2.1 Continuity Equation 65
3.2.2 Momentum Equation 67
3.2.3 Energy Equation 80
3.3 Multiple Pipelines 93
3.3.1 Nodal Method 94
3.3.2 Loop Method 97
3.4 Pumps 101
3.4.1 Affinity Laws 105
3.4.2 Operating Point 107
3.4.3 Limits on Pump Location 111
3.4.4 Multiple-Pump Systems 114
3.5 Design of Water Distribution Systems 116
3.5.1 Components of a Distribution System 116
3.5.2 Water Demand 117
3.5.3 Pipelines 127
3.5.4 Operating Criteria for Water-Distribution Systems 128
3.5.5 Network Analysis 132
Summary 133
Problems 133
4 Flow in Open Channels 138
4.1 Introduction 138
4.2 Basic Principles 138
4.2.1 Continuity Equation 139
4.2.2 Momentum Equation 139
4.2.3 Energy Equation 151
4.3 Water Surface Profiles 161
4.3.1 Profile Equation 161
4.3.2 Classification of Water-Surface Profiles 163
4.3.3 Hydraulic Jump 167
4.3.4 Computation of Water-Surface Profiles 170
4.4 Hydraulic Structures 177
4.4.1 Weirs 177
4.4.2 Parshall Flume 187
4.4.3 Gates 191
4.4.4 Culverts 196
4.5 Design of Open Channels 204
4.5.1 Basic Principles 205
4.5.2 Lined Channels 208
4.5.3 Unlined Channels 212
4.5.4 Grass-Lined Channels 219
4.6 Design of Sanitary-Sewer Systems 224
4.6.1 Design Flows 224
4.6.2 Hydraulics of Sewers 227
4.6.3 Sewer-Pipe Material 230
4.6.4 System Layout 230
4.6.5 Sulfide Generation 234
4.6.6 Design Computations 236
4.7 Computer Models 242
Summary 243
Problems 244
5 Probability and Statistics in Water-Resources Engineering 250
5.1 Introduction 250
5.2 Probability Distributions 251
5.2.1 Discrete Probability Distributions 251
5.2.2 Continuous Probability Distributions 252
5.2.3 Mathematical Expectation and Moments 253
5.2.4 Return Period 257
5.2.5 Common Probability Functions 258
5.3 Analysis of Hydrologic Data 279
5.3.1 Estimation of Population Distribution 279
5.3.2 Estimation of Population Parameters 285
5.3.3 Frequency Analysis 288
5.4 Floods 294
Summary 295
Problems 295
6 Surface-Water Hydrology 299
6.1 Introduction 299
6.2 Rainfall 299
6.2.1 Local Rainfall 300
6.2.2 Spatially Averaged Rainfall 310
6.2.3 Design Rainfall 312
6.3 Rainfall Abstractions 323
6.3.1 Interception 323
6.3.2 Depression Storage 325
6.3.3 Infiltration 326
6.3.4 Rainfall Excess on Composite Areas 345
6.4 Runoff Models 348
6.4.1 Time of Concentration 349
6.4.2 Peak-Runoff Models 359
6.4.3 Continuous-Runoff Models 365
6.5 Routing Models 387
6.5.1 Hydrologic Routing 387
6.5.2 Hydraulic Routing 394
6.6 Water Quality Models 396
6.6.1 USGS Model 397
6.6.2 EPA Model 399
6.7 Design of Stormwater Management Systems 400
6.7.1 Minor System 401
6.7.2 Runoff Controls 415
6.7.3 Major System 436
6.8 Evapotranspiration 436
6.8.1 The Penman-Monteith Equation 438
6.8.2 Evaporation Pans 447
6.9 Computer Models 448
Summary 449
Problems 450
7 Ground-Water Hydrology 459
7.1 Introduction 459
7.2 Basic Equations of Ground-Water Flow 464
7.2.1 Darcy's Law 464
7.2.2 General Flow Equation 476
7.2.3 Two-Dimensional Approximations 481
7.3 Solutions of the Ground-Water Flow Equation 493
7.3.1 Steady Uniform Flow in a Confined Aquifer 493
7.3.2 Steady Uniform Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer 494
7.3.3 Steady Unconfined Flow Between Two Reservoirs 495
7.3.4 Steady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer 498
7.3.5 Steady Flow to a Well in an Unconfined Aquifer 501
7.3.6 Steady Flow to a Well in a Leaky Confined Aquifer 504
7.3.7 Steady Flow to a Well in an Unconfined Aquifer with Recharge 509
7.3.8 Unsteady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer 511
7.3.9 Unsteady Flow to a Well in an Unconfined Aquifer 517
7.3.10 Unsteady Flow to a Well in a Leaky Confined Aquifer 519
7.3.11 Partially Penetrating Wells 522
7.4 Principle of Superposition 525
7.4.1 Multiple Wells 525
7.4.2 Well in Uniform Flow 528
7.5 Method of Images 530
7.5.1 Constant-Head Boundary 530
7.5.2 Impermeable Boundary 533
7.5.3 Other Applications 536
7.6 Saltwater Intrusion 536
7.7 Ground-Water Flow in the Unsaturated Zone 541
7.8 Engineered Systems 545
7.8.1 Design of Wellfields 545
7.8.2 Design of Water-Supply Wells 547
7.8.3 Wellhead Protection 559
7.8.4 Design of Aquifer Pumping Tests 563
7.8.5 Slug Test 568
7.8.6 Design of Exfiltration Trenches 572
7.9 Computer Models 576
Summary 577
Problems 578
8 Hydrologic Fate and Transport Processes 585
8.1 Introduction 585
8.2 Water Quality 585
8.2.1 Measures of Water Quality 586
8.2.2 Water-Quality Standards 593
8.3 Fate and Transport Processes 597
8.4 Rivers and Streams 601
8.4.1 Initial Mixing 602
8.4.2 Longitudinal Dispersion 608
8.4.3 Spills 611
8.4.4 Oxygen-Sag Model 618
8.5 Lakes 627
8.5.1 Near-Shore Mixing Model 628
8.5.2 Eutrophication 630
8.5.3 Thermal Stratification 634
8.5.4 Completely Mixed Model 635
8.6 Ocean Discharges 639
8.6.1 Near-Field Mixing 640
8.6.2 Far-Field Mixing 648
8.7 Ground Water 653
8.7.1 Dispersion Models 655
8.7.2 Transport Processes 661
8.7.3 Fate Processes 668
8.7.4 Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids 676
8.8 Computer Models 678
Summary 680
Problems 681
Appendices
A Units and Conversion Factors 687
A.1 Units 687
A.2 Conversion Factors 688
B Fluid Properties 691
B.1 Water 691
B.2 Organic Compounds Found in Contaminated Water 692
C Geometric Properties of Plane Surfaces 693
D Statistical Tables 695
D.1 Areas Under Standard Normal Curve 695
D.2 Critical Values of the Chi-Square Distribution 697
D.3 Critical Values for the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Statistic 698
E Special Functions 699
E.1 Error Function 699
E.2 Gamma Function 700
F Bessel Functions 701
F.1 Definition 701
F.2 Evaluation of Bessel Functions 701
F.2.1 Bessel Function of the First Kind of Order n 702
F.2.2 Bessel Function of the Second Kind of Order n 702
F.2.3 Modified Bessel Function of the First Kind of Order n 702
F.2.4 Modified Bessel Function of the Second Kind of Order n 702
F.3 Tabulated Bessel Functions 703
F.3.1 I[subscript 0](x), K[subscript 0](x), I[subscript 1](x), and K[subscript 1](x) 703
G Drinking-Water Standards 707
G.1 Primary Drinking-Water Standards 707
G.2 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards 709
Bibliography 711
Index 733
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Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

Water-resources engineering is concerned with the design of systems that control the quantity, quality, timing, and distribution of water to support both human habitation and the needs of the environment. Water-resources engineers are typically trained in civil or environmental engineering programs and specialize in a variety of areas, including the design of water-supply systems, water and wastewater treatment facilities, irrigation and drainage systems, hydropower systems, and flood-control systems.

The technical and scientific bases for most water-resources specializations are found in the areas of fluid mechanics, hydraulics, hydrology, contaminant fate and transport processes, and water-treatment processes. Many engineering schools classify watertreatment processes as a subject that belongs to environmental engineering rather than water-resources engineering; however, a holistic view of the practice of waterresources engineering supports the study of water-treatment processes as part of both water-resources and environmental engineering specialties. The pigeonholing of fluid mechanics, hydraulics, hydrology, and contaminant fate and transport into discrete subjects, usually taught in separate courses using different textbooks, has resulted in large part from the extensive knowledge base that has developed in each of these areas and the commensurate specialization of engineers involved in research and academic practice. Engineering students are consequently left with a sense of compartmentalization and intimidation. Typically, they fail to see the complete picture of water-resources engineering and view each specialty as so vastthatmastery at the undergraduate level is impossible. To address this misperception, an integrated treatment of water-resources engineering must necessarily present the fundamental aspects of the field while providing sufficient detail for the student to feel comfortable and competent in all the areas covered. Such an integrated approach has been taken in preparing this text, resulting in a book that covers the topics most fundamental to the practicing water-resources engineer— and does so with sufficient rigor that further instruction, whether at the graduate level or in professional journals, can be assimilated at a high technical level.

A course in fluid mechanics is generally regarded as the first step in a water-resources engineering track, and criteria for accrediting civil and environmental engineering programs in the United States (ABET Engineering Criteria 2000) require at most that engineering students demonstrate a proficiency in fluid mechanics relevant to their program of study. This book covers the elements of fluid mechanics relevant to a waterresources engineering track as well as the fundamentals of fluid mechanics covered on the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam. The majority of this book provides detailed treatment of hydraulics, surface-water hydrology, ground-water hydrology, and hydrologic fate and transport processes, and it features practical design applications in all of these areas. The text incorporates, and explains in detail, the design of water distribution systems, sanitary sewer systems, stormwater management systems, and water-quality control systems in rivers, lakes, ground waters, and coastal waters. Care has been taken that all the design protocols presented in this book are consistent with the relevant American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Water Environment Federation (WET), and American Water Works Association (AWWA) Manuals of Practice.

The topics covered in this book constitute much of the technical background expected of water-resources engineers and part of the core requirements for environmental engineering students. This text is appropriate for undergraduate and first-year graduate courses in hydraulics, hydrology, and contaminant fate and transport processes. It also incorporates enough fluid mechanics background to rigorously cover the fundamentals of hydraulics and hydrology. Prerequisites for courses that use this text should include calculus up to differential equations.

The book begins with an introduction to water-resources engineering (Chapter 1) that orients the reader to the depth and breadth of the field. Chapter 2 covers the fundamentals of classical fluid mechanics relevant to water-resources engineering, and Chapter 3 presents the fundamentals of flow in closed conduits, including a detailed exposition on the design of water-supply systems. Chapter 4 covers flow in open channels from basic principles, including the computation of watersurface profiles and the performance of hydraulic structures. Applications of this material to the design of lined, unlined, and grassed drainage channels are presented along with the design of sanitary sewer systems. Computer models commonly used in practice to apply the principles of open-channel hydraulics are reviewed at the end of the chapter.

Many of the analytical methods used by water-resources engineers are based in the theory of probability and statistics, and Chapter 5 presents elements of probability and statistics relevant to the practice of water-resources engineering. Useful probability distributions, hydrologic data analysis, and frequency analysis are all covered, and the applications of these techniques to risk analysis in engineering design are illustrated by examples. Chapter 6 covers surface-water hydrology and focuses mostly on urban design applications. The ASCE Manuals of Practice on the design of surface-water management systems (ASCE,1992) and urban runoff quality management (ASCE, 1998) were used as bases for much of the material presented. Coverage includes the specification of design rainfall, runoff models, routing models, and water-quality models. Applications of this material to the design of both minor and major components of stormwater management systems are presented, along with computer models widely used in practice to implement these techniques in complex stormwater management systems.

Chapter 7 covers ground-water hydrology, including the basic equations of groundwater flow, analytic solutions describing flow in aquifers, saltwater intrusion, and ground-water flow in the unsaturated zone. Applications to the design of municipal wellfields and individual water-supply wells, the delineation of wellhead protection areas, the design of aquifer pumping tests, and the design of exfiltration trenches are presented. Numerical models of ground-water flow used in practice are also reviewed. Chapter 8, finally, covers hydrologic fate and transport processes, including waterquality regulations, and quantitative analyses of fate and transport processes in rivers, lakes, ground waters, and coastal waters. The applications of these analyses to the design of water-quality management systems are presented. Seven appendices at the end of the book include conversion factors between SI and U.S. Customary units, fluid properties, geometric properties of plane surfaces, statistical tables, special functions, and drinking water standards.

This book can be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs of students and instructors. As a guideline, the material in this text could be substantially covered in a two-course sequence. The first course could cover the material in Chapters 1 through 5 (Introduction, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, Flow in Closed Conduits, Flow in Open Channels, Probability and Statistics in Water-Resources Engineering); the second, Chapters 6 through 8 (Surface-Water Hydrology, Ground-Water Hydrology, Hydrologic Fate and Transport Processes). A course plan that complements other required courses in the engineering curriculum is generally recommended.

In summary, this book is a reflection of the author's belief that water-resources engineers must have a firm understanding of the depth and breadth of the technical areas fundamental to their discipline. This knowledge will allow them to be more innovative, view water-resource systems holistically, and be technically prepared for a lifetime of learning. On the basis of this vision, the material contained in this book is presented mostly from first principles, is rigorous, is relevant to the practice of water-resources engineering, and is reinforced by detailed presentations of design applications.

Even though the United States is squarely on the road to adopting International Standard (SI) units, most textbooks in hydraulics and hydrology published in this country continue to use the system of U.S. Customary units. Providing a mix of units can sometimes be confusing and usually forces the reader to adopt one set and ignore the other. Unfortunately, many engineering students tend to adopt the U.S. Customary unit system and disregard the SI system. If they are to be competitive in the future, American engineers cannot afford this luxury. Therefore, this textbook preferentially uses SI units.

Many people have contributed both directly and indirectly to the creation of this book. I acknowledge the many inspirational teachers who kindled my interest in waterresources engineering and whose philosophical ideas have contributed to development of my present view of the field. To name only a few people would be a disservice to many, but the faculty I studied under at Caltech and Georgia Tech during my graduate school days certainly deserve special recognition. My students in the civil and environmental engineering programs at the University of Miami provided valuable feedback in the development of this book, and Michael Slaughter of Addison-Wesley was a source of advice and help. I would like to join with the publisher in thanking the following reviewers for their comments and suggestions during the development of the manuscript: Mary Bergs, University of Toledo; Paul C. Chan, New Jersey Institute of Technology; Alexander Cheng, University of Delaware; Steven Chiesa, Santa Clara University; Bruce DeVantier, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale; Robert Kersten, University of Central Florida; Jay Lund, University of California, Davis; Joe Middlebrooks, University of Nevada, Reno; Paul Trotta, Northern Arizona University; and Ralph Wurbs, Texas A&M University. A special thanks to Bob Liu, who drafted most of the figures, and whose dedication to this project was beyond the call of duty.

David A. Chin

Read More Show Less

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