Water Resources Engineering / Edition 1

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Overview

Designed to provide an up-to-date broad coverage of pertinent topics concerning water resource engineering. This book focuses on modern computer-based modeling and analysis methods, illustrating recent advances in computer technology and computational methods that have greatly increased capabilities for solving water resources engineering problems. Focuses on fundamental topics of hydraulics, hydrology, and water management. Water resources engineering concepts and methods are addressed from the perspective of practical applications in water management and associated environmental and infrastructure management. The focus is on mathematical modeling and analysis using state-of-the-art computational techniques and computer software. Appropriate as a reference in water resources engineering for practicing engineers.

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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
A textbook Wurbs and James developed for the required undergraduate civil engineering course on water resources they taught for many years at Texas A&M University. It presents the fundamental topics of hydraulics, hydrology, and water management, with an emphasis on mathematical modeling and analysis using current computational techniques and computer software. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130812933
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 12/28/2001
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 828
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Wesley P. James has over 40 years of experience in hydraulics, hydrology, and water resources engineering, working in federal agencies, private consulting, and universities. He has continued his consulting engineering practice since retiring in 1997 after 26 years with the Civil Engineering Department, Texas A&M University. His teaching, research, and consulting have been in the areas of watershed modeling, remote sensing, groundwater engineering, stormwater management, and design and analysis of hydraulic structures and facilities. Honors include the national J. M. Robbins Excellence in Teaching Award from the Chi Epsilon Civil Engineering Honor Society in 1990. Dr. James holds degrees in Civil Engineering from Montana State University, Purdue University, and Oregon State University.

Ralph A. Wurbs is a Professor in the Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Division with the Civil Engineering Department, Texas A&M University. He worked in the water resources program of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for nine years prior to joining the TAMU faculty in 1980. Much of his research and consulting have been related to river basin management. His several teaching awards include the national J. M. Bobbins Excellence in Teaching Award from the Chi Epsilon Civil Engineering Honor Society in 2000. His many publications include two other books published by Prentice Hall: Water Management Models: A Guide to Software (1995) and Modeling and Analysis of Reservoir System Operations (1996). Dr. Wurbs holds degrees from Texas A&M University, University of Texas at Arlington, and Colorado State University.

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Read an Excerpt

Effective management of water resources, locally, regionally, and globally, is crucial for human welfare, economic prosperity, and environmental vitality. The professional field of water resources engineering is concerned with solving problems and meeting needs associated with municipal, industrial, and agricultural water supply and use, water quality in streams and aquifers, erosion and sedimentation, protection of ecosystems and other natural resources, recreation, navigation, hydroelectric power generation, stormwater drainage, and flood damage mitigation.

This textbook is designed for a basic course in water resources engineering focusing on fundamental topics of hydraulics, hydrology, and water management. It is also appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses and as a reference for practicing engineers. Water resources engineering concepts and methods are addressed from the perspective of practical applications in water management and associated environmental and infrastructure management. The focus is on mathematical modeling and analysis using state-of-the-art computational techniques and computer software.

The book is based largely on the authors' combined total of more than 40 years experience in teaching the required undergraduate civil engineering course at Texas A&M University entitled Water Resources Engineering and other undergraduate and graduate courses that build on this course. The book reflects ideas formulated by the authors and their colleagues and students for updating and improving these courses. It is designed to provide broad coverage of pertinent topics with flexibility for adaptation to the spectrum of ways that individual courses and sequences of undergraduate and graduate courses are organized at various universities.

The first three chapters are introductory overviews of the professional practice of water resources engineering (Chapter 1), the science of hydrology (Chapter 2), and fundamentals of fluid mechanics (Chapter 3). Chapters through 9 each focus on specific aspects of water resources engineering design and analysis, including pressure conduit hydraulics, open channel hydraulics, hydraulic and hydrologic routing, frequency analysis, watershed modeling, and groundwater engineering. In Chapter 10, selected methods from previous chapters are applied to urban stormwater management. Chapter 11 is an introduction to the application of systems simulation, optimization, and economic evaluation techniques in water management decision-making. Chapter 12 introduces practices and issues of comprehensive river basin management.

Chapters 1, 2, and 12 provide a broad qualitative overview of hydrology and water resources management. Chapter 3 reviews basic principles of fluid mechanics. The hydrologic and hydraulic analysis concepts and computational methods presented in Chapters 4 through 10 are applied in professional practice as components of computer models that simulate natural and constructed water systems. Chapter 11 integrates economic and systems analysis methods, along with hydrologic and hydraulic engineering methods, in a broader systems view of water resources planning and management.

The chapters can be covered in essentially any order, subject to the following considerations. Students using the text will likely have already completed a course in fluid mechanics and may not need Chapter 3. However, because hydraulics is built on fluid mechanics, a brief review of basic fluid mechanics concepts is presented in Chapter 3 prior to addressing hydraulics in depth in Chapters 4-6 and 9-10. The basic overview of hydrology presented in Chapter 2 is prerequisite for Chapter 7, "Hydrologic Frequency Analysis," and Chapter 8, "Modeling Watershed Hydrology," and also provides an introduction for Chapter 9, "Groundwater Engineering." Chapter 10, "Urban Stormwater Management," applies methods from all of the hydrology and hydraulics chapters. Chapter 1 is the only prerequisite chapter for Chapters 11 and 12. Although Chapters 11 and 12 complement each other, either may be covered without the other.

Sufficient material is provided for multiple courses, particularly if supplemented by the computer models discussed in the book. The text may be used for courses in hydrology, hydraulics, urban stormwater management, and water systems planning and management, as well as for a fundamental first course in water resources engineering. A set of computer programs developed in conjunction with the text enhances understanding and application of computational methods. Modeling capabilities provided by generalized simulation models developed by federal water agencies and other entities greatly contribute to water resources engineering practice and play an important role in education.

The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of our students and colleagues at Texas A&M University in shaping our perspectives on the subject matter of this book. We join the publisher in thanking the following reviewers for their thoughtful comments during the development of the manuscript: Paul C. Chan, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Robert D. Kersten, University of Central Florida, and Thomas C. Piechota, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Mrs. Joyce Hyden typed much of the manuscript, proficiently as always. Finally, we thank our wives, Keri and Karen, for their enduring patience and support during the project.

RALPH A. WURBS WESLEY P. .LAMES

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction.

Water Resources Engineering Disciplines. Water Management Sectors. The Water Management Community. Computer Models in Water Resources Engineering. Units of Measure.

2. Hydrology.

Water. Hydroclimatology. Atmospheric Processes. Precipitation. Evaporation and Transpiration. Units of Measure for Depth, Area, Volume, and Volumetric Rates. Watershed Hydrology and Streamflow. Subsurface Water. Erosion and Sedimentation. Water Quality. Climatic, Hydrologic, and Water Quality Data.

3. Fluid Mechanics.

Units. Properties of Water. Statics. Reynolds Transport Theorem. Dimensional Analysis. Water Flow in Pipes. Open Channel Flow. Groundwater.

4. Hydraulics of Pipelines and Pipe Networks.

Steady Flow. Unsteady Flow.

5. Open Channel Hydraulics.

Uniform Flow. Gradually Varied Steady Flow. Rapidly Varied Flow. Unsteady Flow.

6. Flood Routing.

Hydrologic Routing. Kinematic Routing. Hydraulic Stream Routing. Dam Break Analysis. Overland Flow and Channel Routing.

7. Hydrologic Frequency Analysis.

Hydrologic Random Variables and Data. Probability Relationships. Binomial Distribution and Risk Formula. Empirical Relative Frequency Relations. Analytical Probability Distributions. Frequency Graphs. Bulletin 17B Flood Frequency Analysis Methodologies. Other Flood Frequency Analysis Methods. Flow-Duration, Concentration-Duration, and Low-Flow Frequency Relationships. Reservoir/River System Reliability. Precipitation Frequency Analysis.

8. Modeling Watershed Hydrology.

Watershed Hydrology. Watershed Models. Watershed Characteristics. Rational Method for Estimating Peak Flow. Separating Precipitation into Abstractions and Runoff. Unit Hydrograph Approach for Estimating Flow Rates. Erosion and Sediment Yield. Water Quality Modeling. Generalized Watershed Simulation Models.

9. Groundwater Engineering.

Wells. Flow Net Analysis. Numerical Methods. Groundwater Quality.

10. Urban Stormwater Management.

Stormwater Collection Systems. On-Site Detention Basins. Regional Detention Facilities. Water Quality. Flood Damage Mitigation.

11. Water Resources Systems Analysis.

The Systems Philosophy. Economic Benefit-Cost Analysis. Simulation of Flood Damage Reduction Systems. Simulation and Optimization. Linear Programming.

12. River Basin Management.

Multiobjective, Multipurpose River Basin Development and Management. Major River Basin Management Systems. River Control Structures. Water Rights and Allocation. Water Quality Management. Environmental Management.

Appendix: Dimensions and Unit Conversion Factors.

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Preface

Effective management of water resources, locally, regionally, and globally, is crucial for human welfare, economic prosperity, and environmental vitality. The professional field of water resources engineering is concerned with solving problems and meeting needs associated with municipal, industrial, and agricultural water supply and use, water quality in streams and aquifers, erosion and sedimentation, protection of ecosystems and other natural resources, recreation, navigation, hydroelectric power generation, stormwater drainage, and flood damage mitigation.

This textbook is designed for a basic course in water resources engineering focusing on fundamental topics of hydraulics, hydrology, and water management. It is also appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses and as a reference for practicing engineers. Water resources engineering concepts and methods are addressed from the perspective of practical applications in water management and associated environmental and infrastructure management. The focus is on mathematical modeling and analysis using state-of-the-art computational techniques and computer software.

The book is based largely on the authors' combined total of more than 40 years experience in teaching the required undergraduate civil engineering course at Texas A&M University entitled Water Resources Engineering and other undergraduate and graduate courses that build on this course. The book reflects ideas formulated by the authors and their colleagues and students for updating and improving these courses. It is designed to provide broad coverage of pertinent topics with flexibility for adaptation to the spectrum of ways that individual courses and sequences of undergraduate and graduate courses are organized at various universities.

The first three chapters are introductory overviews of the professional practice of water resources engineering (Chapter 1), the science of hydrology (Chapter 2), and fundamentals of fluid mechanics (Chapter 3). Chapters through 9 each focus on specific aspects of water resources engineering design and analysis, including pressure conduit hydraulics, open channel hydraulics, hydraulic and hydrologic routing, frequency analysis, watershed modeling, and groundwater engineering. In Chapter 10, selected methods from previous chapters are applied to urban stormwater management. Chapter 11 is an introduction to the application of systems simulation, optimization, and economic evaluation techniques in water management decision-making. Chapter 12 introduces practices and issues of comprehensive river basin management.

Chapters 1, 2, and 12 provide a broad qualitative overview of hydrology and water resources management. Chapter 3 reviews basic principles of fluid mechanics. The hydrologic and hydraulic analysis concepts and computational methods presented in Chapters 4 through 10 are applied in professional practice as components of computer models that simulate natural and constructed water systems. Chapter 11 integrates economic and systems analysis methods, along with hydrologic and hydraulic engineering methods, in a broader systems view of water resources planning and management.

The chapters can be covered in essentially any order, subject to the following considerations. Students using the text will likely have already completed a course in fluid mechanics and may not need Chapter 3. However, because hydraulics is built on fluid mechanics, a brief review of basic fluid mechanics concepts is presented in Chapter 3 prior to addressing hydraulics in depth in Chapters 4-6 and 9-10. The basic overview of hydrology presented in Chapter 2 is prerequisite for Chapter 7, "Hydrologic Frequency Analysis," and Chapter 8, "Modeling Watershed Hydrology," and also provides an introduction for Chapter 9, "Groundwater Engineering." Chapter 10, "Urban Stormwater Management," applies methods from all of the hydrology and hydraulics chapters. Chapter 1 is the only prerequisite chapter for Chapters 11 and 12. Although Chapters 11 and 12 complement each other, either may be covered without the other.

Sufficient material is provided for multiple courses, particularly if supplemented by the computer models discussed in the book. The text may be used for courses in hydrology, hydraulics, urban stormwater management, and water systems planning and management, as well as for a fundamental first course in water resources engineering. A set of computer programs developed in conjunction with the text enhances understanding and application of computational methods. Modeling capabilities provided by generalized simulation models developed by federal water agencies and other entities greatly contribute to water resources engineering practice and play an important role in education.

The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of our students and colleagues at Texas A&M University in shaping our perspectives on the subject matter of this book. We join the publisher in thanking the following reviewers for their thoughtful comments during the development of the manuscript: Paul C. Chan, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Robert D. Kersten, University of Central Florida, and Thomas C. Piechota, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Mrs. Joyce Hyden typed much of the manuscript, proficiently as always. Finally, we thank our wives, Keri and Karen, for their enduring patience and support during the project.

RALPH A. WURBS
WESLEY P. .LAMES

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