Water Softening with Potassium Chloride: Process, Health, and Environmental Benefits / Edition 1

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Overview

Potassium chloride is a logical alternative to sodium chloride in water softening. Water Softening with Potassium Chloride provides a thorough overview of the process, the equipment, and the techniques used. Then it compiles diverse trade and technical data on water softening with potassium chloride so readers can make informed decisions. It documents the health and environmental consequences and benefits of using potassium chloride and includes a chapter with summaries of recent research projects and FAQs. This is a key reference for professional water treatment specialists, environmental science researchers, and others.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470087138
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 10/5/2009
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 250
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

WILLIAM WIST (deceased) spent eleven years at Central Canada Potash as a lab technician, senior chemist, and chief chemist. After joining Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Inc. in 1980 as chief chemist, he set up and equipped a new research and development laboratory for them. From 1988 until his retirement in 2005, he was chief chemist and pilot plant supervisor. Bill spearheaded the research and development of the use of potassium chloride as a water softening regenerant, in addition to other projects involving potash product quality and analytical procedures.

JAY H. LEHR holds a PhD in environmental science from the University of Arizona and an engineering degree from Princeton University. He is the author of twenty-eight books and over 600 journal and magazine articles. He has taught at the University of Arizona and The Ohio State University, directed a professional society of environmental scientists, and formed a variety of environmental teaching and consulting firms.

ROD McEACHERN holds a PhD in chemistry from the University of Saskatchewan. He currently works as the Director of R&D with the Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Inc. in Saskatoon, Canada. His research interests include the application of new technology to environmental stewardship through improved air pollution abatement equipment, improved waste management practices, and process improvements to potash operations.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.

1 WHAT IS POTASSIUM CHLORIDE?

Saskatchewan Potash History.

Potash Mining.

Solution Mining.

Processing Potash Ore.

Storage, Transportation, and Distribution of Potash.

Potash Products.

2 WHAT IS HARD WATER?

Definition of Hard Water.

How Hard Water is Created.

Problems Associated With Hard Water.

How Hard Water is Measured.

Uniform Degrees of Hardness.

Types of Hardness.

3 LOWERING WATER HARDNESS.

Ion Exchange.

Deionization or Demineralization.

Reverse Osmosis.

Distillation.

Precipitation.

4 THE ION EXCHANGE PROCESS.

Synthesis and Structure of Ion Exchange Resins.

Types of Ion Exchange Resins.

Household Water Softening.

Typical Household Water Softening.

Cocurrent and Countercurrent Regeneration.

Mathematical Treatment of Ion Exchange Equilibria.

Selectivity of Ion Exchange Reactions.

References.

5 BASIC CHEMISTRY OF ION EXCHANGE.

The Building Blocks of Matter.

Atomic and Molecular Weights.

Cations and Anions.

Chemical Reactions.

6 OPERATION AND TYPES OF WATER SOFTENERS.

Historical Methods of Regeneration.

Operation of a Typical Water Softener.

Common Sequences of Cycles.

Types of Water Softeners.

Sizing a Water Softener.

7 POTASSIUM CHLORIDE REGENERANT FOR WATER SOFTENING.

Alternate Regenerants.

Potassium Chloride Regenerant.

Initial Comparison of KCl and NaCl.

Challenges When Using KCl as a Regenerant.

Frequently Asked Questions.

8 COMPARISON OF KC1 AND NaCl AS REGENERANT.

Definition of Terms.

Theoretical Capacities of KCl and NaCl Regenerants.

Calculation of Regeneration Efficiency.

Sizing a Softener for Salt Efficiency.

Implications for Salt Consumption.

Total Salt Released to the Environment.

Comparison of KCl and NaCl: Solubility.

Comparison of KCl and NaCl: Speed of Dissolution.

Comparison of KCl and NaCl: Capacity.

Comparison of KCl and NaCl: Used and Unused Regenerant.

Comparison of KCl and NaCl: Release of Chlorides to the Environment.

Comparison of KCl and NaCl: Taste.

Comparison of KCl and NaCl: Generation of Fines.

Comparison of KCl and NaCl: Sodium Content of Softened Water.

Comparison of KCl and NaCl: Potassium Content of Softened Water.

Comparison of KCl and NaCl: Total Dissolved Solids.

9 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS.

Potassium versus Sodium: Impact on Soil.

Potassium versus Sodium: Impact on Septic Systems.

Potassium versus Sodium: Impact on Sewage Treatment Systems.

Potassium versus Sodium: Sewage Sludge.

Potassium versus Sodium: Algae Growth.

Potassium versus Sodium: Impact on Plants and Animals.

Potassium versus Sodium: Use of Recycled Graywater.

Recycling Regenerant Wastewater.

Use of Regenerant Wastewater Studies at University of California, Davis.

In Conclusion.

10 POTASSIUM AND HUMAN HEALTH.

Overview.

Introduction.

Cellular Physiology of Potassium.

Potassium Balance.

Defects in Potassium Elimination.

Medical Conditions Related to Potassium Excess.

Medical Conditions Related to Potassium Deficit.

Indirect Role of Potassium in Health.

Summary.

11 ONGOING RESEARCH.

Iron and Manganese Removal.

Grade of KCl Regenerant.

Cocurrent versus Countercurrent Regeneration.

Portable Exchange Tanks.

Research into Alternate Regenerants.

APPENDIX 1 STANDARD TEST PROTOCOL FOR COMPARISON OF KCl AND NaCl REGENERANTS.

Protocol Development.

Standard Test Protocol.

APPENDIX 2 LABORATORY DATA OBTAINED WITH THE STANDARD TEST PROTOCOL.

APPENDIX 3 ACCELERATED MUSH TEST.

Apparatus.

Method.

INDEX

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