Ways of the World: A Brief Global History / Edition 1

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Overview

Ways of the World offers a genuine alternative for world history survey courses. Designed from the beginning as a brief text, Ways of the World focuses on the "big picture" of significant historical developments and is thoroughly global in its thematic and comparative approach. The accessible voice of a single author, with long experience in the classroom and in the world history movement, delivers to students an insightful new synthesis, thought-provoking questions, and chapter ending sections that invite reflection on the meaning of world history. Available in full color and in combined and split volumes, Ways of the World makes the whole world teachable.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780312452872
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 9/3/2008
  • Edition description: First Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 880
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Robert W. Strayer regularly teaches both halves of the world history course at California State University, Monterey Bay. Until his move to California in 2002, he taught courses in the history of the Soviet Union, Modern Africa, and world history for 32 years at the State University of New York College at Brockport. Strayer received the Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching at SUNY Brockport in 1997 and a similar award for Excellence in Scholarship in 2002. In 1998, he was a Visiting Professor at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Dr. Strayer began academic life as an African historian, and wrote Kenya: Focus on Nationalism (1975) and The Making of Mission Communities in East Africa (1978). More recently he developed a specialty in Soviet history and wrote Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?: Understanding Historical Change (1998) and The Communist Experiment: Revolution, Socialism, and Global Conflict in the Twentieth Century (2007) comparing the experience of the Soviet Union and China. He has also served as co-editor of the Explorations in World History series. Throughout his career, his primary intellectual focus has been world history, serving as a teacher, scholar, textbook author, consultant, and member of the Executive Committee of the World History Association.

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Table of Contents

Brief Table of Contents


Prologue: From Cosmic History to Human History

Part One: First Things First: Beginnings in History, to 500 B.C.E
The Big Picture: Turning Points in Early World History
1. First Peoples: Populating the Planet, to 10,000 B.C.E.
2. First Farmers: The Revolutions of Agriculture,
10,000 B.C.E.–3,000 B.C.E.
3. First Civilizations: Cities, States, and Unequal Societies,
3,500 B.C.E.–500 B.C.E.

Part Two: The Classical Era in World History, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E.
The Big Picture: After the First Civilizations: What Changed
and What Didn't?
4. Eurasian Empires, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E.
5. Eurasian Cultural Traditions, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E.
6. Eurasian Social Hierarchies, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E.
7. Classical Era Variations: Africa and the Americas,
500 B.C.E.–1200 C.E.

Part Three: An Age of Accelerating Connections, 500–1500
The Big Picture: Defining a Millennium
8. Commerce and Culture, 500–1500
9. East Asian Connections: China and the World, 500–1300
10. The Worlds of European Christendom: Connected and
Divided, 500–1300
11. Afro-Eurasian Connections: The Worlds of Islam, 600–1500
12. Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongol
Moment, 1200–1500
13. The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century

Part Four: The Early Modern World, 1450-1750
The Big Picture: Debating the Character of an Era
14. Empires and Encounters, 1450–1750
15. Global Commerce, 1450–1750
16. Religion and Science, 1450–1750

Part Five: The European Moment in World History, 1750-1914
The Big Picture: European Centrality and the Problem of Eurocentrism
17. Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes, 1750–1914
18. Revolutions of Industrialization, 1750–1914
19. Internal Troubles, External Threats: China, the Ottoman
Empire, and Japan, 1800–1914
20. Colonial Encounters, 1750-1914

Part Six: The Most Recent Century, 1914-2008
The Big Picture: The Twentieth Century: A New Period in World History?
21. The Collapse and Recovery of Europe, 1914–1970s
22. The Rise and Fall of World Communism, 1917–Present
23. Independence and Development in the Global South, 1914–Present
24. Accelerating Global Interaction Since 1945

Notes
Index

Complete Table of Contents

VOLUME 1: To 1500
Preface
Prologue: From Cosmic History to Human History
The History of the Universe
Snapshot: A History of the Universe as a Cosmic Calendar
The History of a Planet
The History of the Human Species…in a Single Paragraph:
A Preview
Why World History?
Comparison, Connection, and Change: The Three Cs of
World History

PART ONE:
FIRST THINGS FIRST: BEGINNINGS IN HISTORY, to 500 B.C.E.
The Big Picture: Turning Points in Early World History
The Emergence of Humankind
The Globalization of Humankind

The Revolution of Farming
The Turning Point of Civilization
Landmarks of Early World History, to 500 B.C.E.

Chapter 1 First Peoples: Populating the Planet, to 10,000 B.C.E.
Out of Africa to the Ends of the Earth: First Migrations
Snapshot: The Long Road to the Global Presence
of Humankind
Into Eurasia
Into Australia
Into the Americas
Into the Pacific
The Ways We Were
The First Human Societies
Economy and the Environment
The Realm of the Spirit
Snapshot: The Paleolithic Era in Perspective
Settling Down: "The Great Transition"
Comparing Paleolithic Societies
The San of Southern Africa
The Chumash of Southern California
Reflections: The Uses of the Paleolithic

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

Chapter 2 First Farmers: The Revolutions of Agriculture,
ca. 10,000 B.C.E. – 3000 B.C.E.
The Agricultural Revolution in World History
Comparing Agricultural Beginnings
Common Patterns
Snapshot: Agricultural Breakthroughs
Variations
The Globalization of Agriculture
Snapshot: The History of Maize/Corn
Triumph and Resistance
The Culture of Agriculture
Social Variation in the Age of Agriculture
Pastoral Societies
Agricultural Village Societies
Chiefdoms
Reflections: The Legacies of Agriculture

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

Chapter 3 First Civilizations: Cities, States, and
Unequal Societies, 3500 B.C.E. – 500 B.C.E.
Something New: The Emergence of Civilizations
Introducing the First Civilizations
The Question of Origins
An Urban Revolution
The Erosion of Equality
Hierarchies of Class
Hierarchies of Gender
Patriarchy in Practice
The Rise of the State
Coercion and Consent
Snapshot: Writing in Ancient Civilizations
Writing and Accounting
The Grandeur of Kings
Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt
Snapshot: Key Moments in Mesopotamian History
Environment and Culture
Cities and States
Snapshot: Key Moments in Nile Valley Civilizations
Interaction and Exchange
Reflections: "Civilization:" What’s in a Word?


Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

PART TWO:
THE CLASSICAL ERA IN WORLD HISTORY,
500 B.C.E. – 500 C.E.
The Big Picture: After the First Civilizations:
What Changed and What Didn't?
Continuities in Civilization
Changes in Civilization
Snapshot: World Population During the Age of
Agricultural Civilization
Classical Civilizations
Landmarks of the Classical Era, 500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E.

Chapter 4 Eurasian Empires, 500 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.
Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and
the Greeks
The Persian Empire
The Greeks
Snapshot: Key Political Moments in Greek Civilization
Collision: The Greco-Persian Wars
Collision: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era
Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese
Rome: From City-State to Empire
Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of the
Roman Empire
China: From Warring States to Empire
Consolidating the Roman and Chinese Empires
Snapshot: Key Moments in Early Chinese History
The Collapse of Empires
Intermittent Empire: The Case of India
Reflections: Classical Empires and the Twentieth Century

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

Chapter 5 Eurasian Cultural Traditions, 500 B.C.E. – 500 C.E.
China and the Search for Order
Snapshot: Thinkers and Philosophies of the
Classical Era
The Legalist Answer
The Confucian Answer
The Daoist Answer
Cultural Traditions of Classical India
South Asian Religion: From Ritual Sacrifice to
Philosophical Speculation
The Buddhist Challenge
Hinduism as a Religion of Duty and Devotion
Moving Toward Monotheism: The Search for God in the
Middle East
Zoroastrianism
Judaism
The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece: The Search for
a Rational Order
The Greek Way of Knowing
The Greek Legacy
Snapshot: Reflections on Human Love from
Mediterranean Civilization
Comparing Jesus and the Buddha
The Lives of the Founders
Establishing New Religions
Creating Institutions
Reflections: Religion and Historians

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

Chapter 6 Eurasian Social Hierarchies, 500 B.C.E. – 500 C.E.
Society and the State in Classical China
An Elite of Officials
The Landlord Class
Peasants
Merchants
Class and Caste in India
Caste as Varna
Snapshot: Social Life and Duty in Classical India
Caste as Jati
The Functions of Caste
Slavery in the Classical Era: The Case of the Roman Empire
Slavery and Civilization
Snapshot: Comparing Greco-Roman and
American Slavery
The Making of a Slave Society
Resistance and Rebellion
Comparing Patriarchies of the Classical Era
A Changing Patriarchy: The Case of China
Contrasting Patriarchies in Athens and Sparta
Reflections: Arguing with Solomon and Buddha

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

Chapter 7 Classical Era Variations: Africa and the Americas,
500 B.C.E. – 1200 C.E.
Snapshot: Continental Population in the Classical Era
The African Northeast
Meroe: Continuing a Nile Valley Civilization
Axum: The Making of a Christian Kingdom
Along the Niger River: Cities Without States
South of the Equator: The World of Bantu Africa
Cultural Encounters
Society and Religion
Civilizations of Mesoamerica
The Maya: Writing and Warfare
Teotihuacan: The Americas’ Greatest City
Civilizations of the Andes
Chavin: A Pan-Andean Religious Movement
Moche: A Regional Andean Civilization
North America in the Classical Era: From Chaco to Cahokia
Pit Houses and Great Houses: The Ancestral Pueblo
The Mound Builders of the Eastern Woodlands
Reflections: Deciding What’s Important: Balance in
World History

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

PART THREE:
AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS, 500–1500
The Big Picture: Defining a Millennium
Third Wave Civilizations: Something New, Something Old,
Something Blended
The Ties that Bind: Trans-Regional Interaction in the
Post-Classical Era
Landmarks in the Era of Accelerating Connections,
500 to 1500

Chapter 8 Commerce and Culture, 500-1500
Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia
The Growth of the Silk Roads
Goods in Transit
Snapshot: Economic Exchange Along the Silk Road
Cultures in Transit
Disease in Transit
Sea Roads: Exchange across the Indian Ocean
Weaving the Web of an Indian Ocean World
Snapshot: Economic Exchange in the Indian
Ocean Basin
Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: Southeast Asia
and Srivijaya
Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: East Africa and
Swahili Civilization
Sand Roads: Exchange across the Sahara Desert
Commercial Beginnings in West Africa
Gold, Salt, and Slaves: Trade and Empire in West Africa
An American Network: Commerce and Connection in the
Western Hemisphere
Reflections: Economic Globalization — Ancient and Modern

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

Chapter 9 East Asian Connections: China and the World,
500-1300 C.E.
The Re-Emergence of a Unified China
A "Golden Age" of Chinese Achievement
Women in the Song Dynasty
Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of
Post-Classical China
China and the Northern Nomads: A Chinese World Order
in the Making
The Tribute System in Theory
The Tribute System in Practice
Cultural Influence Across an Ecological Frontier
Coping with China: Comparing Korea, Vietnam, and Japan
Korea and China
Vietnam and China
Japan and China
China and the Eurasian World Economy
Spillovers: China’s Impact on Eurasia
On the Receiving End: China as Economic Beneficiary
China and Buddhism
Making Buddhism Chinese
Losing State Support: The Crisis of Chinese Buddhism
Reflections: Why Do Things Change?

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

Chapter 10 The Worlds of European Christendom: Connected
and Divided, 500-1300
Eastern Christendom: Building on the Past
Snapshot: Key Moments in Byzantine History
The Byzantine State
The Byzantine Church and Christian Divergence
Byzantium and the World
The Conversion of Russia
Western Christendom: Constructing a Hybrid Civilization
Snapshot: Key Moments in the Evolution of
Western Civilization
In the Wake of Roman Collapse: Political Life in
Western Europe, 500-1000
In the Wake of Roman Collapse: Society and the
Church, 500-1000
Accelerating Change in the West, 1000-1300
Europe Outward Bound: The Crusading Tradition
The West in Comparative Perspective
Catching-Up
Pluralism in Politics
Reason and Faith
Reflections: Remembering and Forgetting: Continuity and
Surprise in the Worlds of Christendom

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

Chapter 11 Afro-Eurasian Connections: The Worlds of Islam,
600-1500
The Birth of a New Religion
The Homeland of Islam
Snapshot: Key Moments in the Early History of Islam
The Messenger and the Message
The Transformation of Arabia
The Making of an Arab Empire
War and Conquest
Conversion to Islam
Divisions in the Islamic World
Women and Men in Early Islam
Islam and Cultural Encounter: A Four-Way Comparison
The Case of India
The Case of Anatolia
The Case of West Africa
The Case of Spain
The World of Islam as a New Civilization
Networks of Faith
Networks of Exchange
Snapshot: Key Achievements in Islamic Science
and Scholarship
Reflections: A Tale of Two Travelers

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

Chapter 12 Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongol
Moment, 1200-1500
Looking Back and Looking Around: The Long History of
Pastoral Nomads
Snapshot: Varieties of Pastoral Societies
The World of Pastoral Societies
The Xiongnu: An Early Nomadic Empire
The Arabs and Turks
The Maasai of East Africa
Break-Out: The Mongol Empire
Snapshot: Key Events of the Mongol Era
From Temujin to Chinggis Khan: The Rise of the
Mongol Empire
Explaining the Mongol Moment
Encountering the Mongols: Comparing Three Cases
China and the Mongols
Persia and the Mongols
Russia and the Mongols
The Mongol Empire as a Eurasian Network
Toward a World Economy
Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale
Cultural Exchange in the Mongol Realm
The Plague: A Eurasian Pandemic
Reflections: Changing Images of Nomadic Peoples

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

Chapter 13 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century
Snapshot: Around the World in the Fifteenth Century
The Shapes of Human Communities
Paleolithic Persistence
Agricultural Village Societies
Herding Peoples
Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing
China and Europe
Ming Dynasty China
European Comparisons: State-Building and
Cultural Renewal
European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging
Snapshot: Key Moments in European Oceanic Voyaging
Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World
In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires
On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and
Mughal Empires
Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The "Americas"
The Aztec Empire
The Inca Empire
Webs of Connection
A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern
Era, 1500-2000
Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000-2000
Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in
World History

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

Notes
Index

VOLUME 2: From 1500
Preface
Prologue: Considering World History
Why World History?
Comparison, Connection, and Change: The Three Cs
of World History

Chapter 13 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century
Snapshot: Around the World in the Fifteenth Century
The Shapes of Human Communities
Paleolithic Persistence
Agricultural Village Societies
Herding Peoples
Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing
China and Europe
Ming Dynasty China
European Comparisons: State-Building and
Cultural Renewal
European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging
Snapshot: Key Moments in European Oceanic Voyaging
Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World
In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires
On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and
Mughal Empires
Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The "Americas"
The Aztec Empire
The Inca Empire
Webs of Connection
A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern
Era, 1500-2000
Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000-2000
Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in
World History

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

PART FOUR:
THE EARLY MODERN WORLD, 1450-1750
The Big Picture: Debating the Character of an Era
An Early Modern Era?
A Late Agrarian Era?
Landmarks of the Early Modern Era, 1450-1750

Chapter 14 Empires and Encounters, 1450-1750
European Empires in the Americas
The European Advantage
The Great Dying
The Columbian Exchange
Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas
In the Lands of the Aztecs and Incas
Colonies of Sugar
Snapshot: Comparing Colonial Societies in
Latin America
Settler Colonies in North America
Steppe Lands and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire
Experiencing the Russian Empire
Russians and Empire
Snapshot: Demographics of the Russian Empire
Asian Empires
Making China an Empire
Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire
Muslims, Christians, and the Ottoman Empire
Reflections: Countering Eurocentrism…or Reflecting It?

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

Chapter 15 Global Commerce, 1450-1750
Europeans and Asian Commerce
A Portuguese Empire of Commerce
Snapshot: Key Moments in the European Encounter
with Asia
Spain and the Philippines
The East India Companies
Asian Commerce
Silver and Global Commerce
The "World Hunt": Fur in Global Commerce
Commerce in People: The Atlantic Slave Trade
The Slave Trade in Context
The Slave Trade in Practice
Snapshot: The Slave Trade in Numbers
Comparing Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade
in Africa
Reflections: Economic Globalization — Then and Now

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study

Chapter 16 Religion and Science, 1450-1750
The Globalization of Christianity
Western Christendom Fragmented: The
Protestant Reformation
Snapshot: Catholic/Protestant Differences in the
Sixteenth Century
Christianity Outward Bound
Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America
An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits
Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions
Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World
China: New Directions in an Old Tradition
India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide
A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science
The Question of Origins: Why Europe?
Science as Cultural Revolution
Snapshot: Major Thinkers and Achievements of the
Scientific Revolution
Science and Enlightenment
Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century
European Science Beyond the West
Reflections: Cultural Borrowing and Its Hazards

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For further Study

PART FIVE:
THE EUROPEAN MOMENT IN WORLD HISTORY, 1750-1914
The Big Picture: European Centrality and the Problem
of Eurocentrism
Euro-centric Geography and History
Countering Eurocentrism
Landmarks of the European Moment in World
History, 1750-1914

Chapter 17 Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes, 1750-1914
Comparing Atlantic Revolutions
Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of
Atlantic Revolutions
The North American Revolution, 1775-1787
The French Revolution, 1789-1815
The Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804
Spanish American Revolutions, 1810-1826
Echoes of Revolution
The Abolition of Slavery
Nations and Nationalism
Snapshot: Key Moments in the Growth of Nationalism
Feminist Beginnings
Reflections: Revolutions Pro and Con

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For further Study

Chapter 18 Revolutions of Industrialization, 1750-1914
Explaining the Industrial Revolution
Why Europe?
Why Britain?
The First Industrial Society
Snapshot: Measuring the Industrial Revolution
The British Aristocracy
The Middle Classes
The Laboring Classes
Social Protest Among the Laboring Classes
Variations on a Theme: Comparing the United States
and Russia
The United States: Industrialization without Socialism
Russia: Industrialization and Revolution
The Industrial Revolution and Latin American in the
Nineteenth Century
Snapshot: The Industrial Revolution and the
Global Divide
After Independence in Latin America
Facing the World Economy
Becoming Like Europe?
Reflections: History and Horse-races

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For further Study

Chapter 19 Internal Troubles, External Threats: China,
The Ottoman Empire, and Japan, 1800-1914
The External Challenge: European Industry and Empire
New Motives, New Means
New Perceptions of the "Other"
Reversal of Fortunes: China’s Century of Crisis
The Crisis Within
Western Pressures
Snapshot: Chinese/British Trade at Canton, 1835-1836
The Failure of Conservative Modernization
The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century
"The Sick Man of Europe"
Reform
Identity
Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire
The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East
Asian Power
The Tokugawa Background
American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration
Modernization Japanese Style
Snapshot: Tracking the Rise of Japan in the
Nineteenth Century
Japan and the World
Reflections: Success and Failure in History

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For further Study

Chapter 20 Colonial Encounters, 1750-1914
A Second Wave of European Conquests
Under European Rule
Cooperation and Rebellion
Colonial Empires with a Difference
Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies
Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power
of the State
Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market
Economies of Wage Labor: Working for Europeans
Women and the Colonial Economy: An African Case Study
Assessing Colonial Development
Snapshot: Long Distance Migration in an Age of
Empire, 1846-1940
Believing and Belonging: Cultural Change in the Colonial Era
Education
Religion
"Race" and "Tribe"
Reflections: Who Makes History?

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For further Study

PART SIX:
THE MOST RECENT CENTURY, 1914-2008
The Big Picture: The Twentieth Century: A New Period in
World History?
Old and New in the Twentieth Century
Three Regions — One World
Landmarks of the Most Recent Century, 1914-2007

Chapter 21 The Collapse and Recovery of Europe, 1914-1970s
The First World War: European Civilization in Crisis,
1914-1918
An Accident Waiting to Happen
Legacies of the "Great War"
Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression
Snapshot: Comparing the Impact of the Depression
Democracy Denied: Comparing Italy, Germany, and Japan
The Fascist Alternative in Europe
Hitler and the Nazis
Japanese Authoritarianism
A Second World War
The Road to War in Asia
The Road to War in Europe
Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of World War II
World War II: The Outcomes of Global Conflict
The Recovery of Europe
Reflections: War and Remembrance: Learning from History

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For further Study

Chapter 22 The Rise and Fall of World Communism,
1917-Present
Global Communism
Comparing Revolutions as a Path to Communism
Russia: Revolution in a Single Year
China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle
Building Socialism in Two Countries
Communist Feminism
Socialism in the Countryside
Communism and Industrial Development
Snapshot: China Under Mao, 1949-1976
The Search for Enemies
East Versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War
Military Conflict and the Cold War
Nuclear Stand-Off and Third World Rivalry
The United States: Superpower of the West, 1945-1975
The Communist World, 1950s-1970s
Comparing Paths to the End of Communism
China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party
The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism
and Country
Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge: The Ambiguous Legacy
of Communism

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For further Study

Chapter 23 Independence and Development in the Global
South, 1914-Present
Toward Freedom: Struggles for Independence
The End of Empire in World History
Explaining African and Asian Independence
Comparing Freedom Struggles
The Case of India: Ending British Rule
The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid
Snapshot: Key Moments in South African History
Experiments with Freedom
Experiments in Political Order: Comparing African Nations
and India
Experiments in Economic Development: Changing
Priorities, Varying Outcomes
Snapshot: Economic Development in the Global South
by the Early 21st Century
Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey
and Iran
Reflections: History in the Middle of the Stream

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For further Study

Chapter 24 Accelerating Global Interaction, Since 1945
Global Interaction and the Transformation of the
World Economy
Re-Globalization
Snapshot: Indicators of "Re-Globalization"
Disparities and Resistance
Globalization and an American Empire
The Globalization of Liberation: Comparing
Feminist Movements
Feminism in the West
Feminism in the Global South
International Feminism
Religion and Global Modernity
Fundamentalism on a Global Scale
Creating Islamic Societies: Resistance and Renewal in the
World of Islam
Religious Alternatives to Fundamentalism
The World’s Environment and the Globalization
of Environmentalism
The Global Environment Transformed
Snapshot: World Population Growth 1950-2005
Green and Global
Final Reflections: Pondering the Uses of History

Second Thoughts
What's the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For further Study

Notes
Index

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