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Ways of the World: A Brief Global History, Combined Volume / Edition 2

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Overview

A book that helps students see the big picture

Ways of the World has quickly become one of the most widely adopted new world history textbooks and offers a genuine alternative for your world history survey. Designed as a brief text, Ways of the World focuses on the big picture of significant historical trends, themes, and developments. Author Robert W. Strayer, a pioneer in the world history movement with years of classroom experience, provides a thoughtful and insightful synthesis. The brief narrative allows you to supplement with your own readings and course materials and provides an affordable option for your students. The second edition rolls out Bedford/St. Martin's new digital history tools, including LearningCurve, an adaptive quizzing engine that garners over a 90% student satisfaction rate, and LaunchPad, the all new interactive e-book and course space that puts high quality easy-to-use assessment at your fingertips. Easy to integrate into your campus LMS, and featuring video, additional primary sources, a wealth of adaptive and summative quizzing, and more, LaunchPad cements student understanding of the text while helping them make progress toward learning outcomes.  It's the best content joined up with the best technology. Available in combined and split volumes and in a variety of electronic formats. Also available in a docutext edition with sources.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780312444433
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 10/26/2012
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 912
  • Sales rank: 337,270
  • Product dimensions: 7.45 (w) x 9.06 (h) x 1.26 (d)

Meet the Author

Robert W. Strayer (PhD, University of Wisconsin) taught African, Soviet, and world history for many years at SUNY College at Brockport, where he received Chancellor’s Awards for Excellence in Teaching and for Excellence in Scholarship. In 1998 he was visiting professor of world and Soviet history at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Since 2002, he has taught world history at the University of California, Santa Cruz; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Cabrillo College. His scholarship includes work in African history (Kenya: Focus on Nationalism, 1975; The Making of Mission Communities in East Africa, 1978); Soviet history (Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?,1998;  The Communist Experiment, 2007) and World History (The Making of the Modern World, 1988, 1995; Ways of the World, 2009, 2011). He is a long-time member of the World History Association and served on its Executive Committee.

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Table of Contents

Preface

Versions and Supplements 

Maps

Special Features

Prologue: From Cosmic History to Human History

The History of the Universe

The History of a Planet

The History of the Human Species... in a Single Paragraph

Why World History?

Comparison, Connection, and Change: The Three Cs of World History

Snapshot: A History of the Universe as a Cosmic Calendar 

Part One: First Things First: Beginnings in History, to 500 b.c.e.

The Big Picture

Turning Points in Early World History 

  The Emergence of Humankind 

  The Globalization of Humankind  

  The Revolution of Farming and Herding

  The Turning Point of Civilization 

  A Note on Dates

*Mapping Part One

1 Chapter One: First Peoples; First Farmers: Most of History in a Single Chapter, To 4000 b.c.e.

Out of Africa to the Ends of the Earth: First Migrations 

  Into Eurasia 

  Into Australia 

  Into the Americas

  Into the Pacific

The Ways We Were

  The First Human Societies 

  Economy and the Environment 

  The Realm of the Spirit

  Settling Down: The Great Transition

Breakthroughs to Agriculture

  Common Patterns 

  Variations

The Globalization of Agriculture

  Triumph and Resistance 

  The Culture of Agriculture

Social Variation in the Age of Agriculture

  Pastoral Societies 

  Agricultural Village Societies 

  Chiefdoms

Reflections: The Uses of the Paleolithic

Second Thoughts

  What's the Significance 

  Big Picture Questions 

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Paleolithic Era in Perspective

*Portrait: Ishi, The Last of His People

2 First Civilizations: Cities, States, and Unequal Societies, 3500 b.c.e.–500 b.c.e.

Something New: The Emergence of Civilizations

  Introducing the First Civilizations

  The Question of Origins

  An Urban Revolution

The Erosion of Equality

  Hierarchies of Class

  Hierarchies of Gender

  Patriarchy in Practice

The Rise of the State

  Coercion and Consent

  Writing and Accounting

  The Grandeur of Kings

Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt

  Environment and Culture

  Cities and States

  Interaction and Exchange

Reflections: "Civilization": What’s in a Word?

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Writing in Ancient Civilizations

*Portrait: Paneb of Egypt

Part Two: Second Wave Civilizations in World History, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e.

The Big Picture

After the First Civilizations: What Changed and What Didn’t?

  Continuities in Civilization

  Changes in Civilization

Snapshot: World Population during the Age of Agricultural Civilization

*Mapping Part Two

3 State and Empire in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e.

Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks

  The Persian Empire

  The Greeks

  Collision: The Greco-Persian Wars

  Collision: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era

Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese

  Rome: From City-State to Empire

  China: From Warring States to Empire

  Consolidating the Roman and Chinese Empires

  The Collapse of Empires

Intermittent Empire: The Case of India

Reflections: Enduring Legacies of Second-Wave Empires

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Distinctive Features of Second-Wave Eurasian Civilizations

*Portrait: Trung Trac, Resisting the Chinese Empire

4 Culture and Religion in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e.

China and the Search for Order

  The Legalist Answer

  The Confucian Answer

  The Daoist Answer

Cultural Traditions of Classical India

  South Asian Religion: From Ritual Sacrifice to Philosophical Speculation

  The Buddhist Challenge

  Hinduism as a Religion of Duty and Devotion

Moving toward Monotheism: The Search for God in the Middle East

  Zoroastrianism

  Judaism

The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece: The Search for a Rational Order

  The Greek Way of Knowing

  The Greek Legacy

The Birth of Christianity—with Buddhist Comparisons

  The Lives of the Founders

  The Spread of New Religions

  Institutions, Controversies, and Divisions

Reflections: Religion and Historians

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Thinkers and Philosophies of the Second-Wave Era

*Portrait: Perpetua, Christian Martyr

5 Society and Inequality in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e.

Society and the State in China

  An Elite of Officials

  The Landlord Class

  Peasants

  Merchants

Class and Caste in India

  Caste as Varna

  Caste as Jati

  The Functions of Caste

Slavery: The Case of the Roman Empire

  Slavery and Civilization

   The Making of Roman Slavery

  Resistance and Rebellion

Comparing Patriarchies

  A Changing Patriarchy: The Case of China

  Contrasting Patriarchies in Athens and Sparta

Reflections: Arguing with Solomon and the Buddha

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Social Life and Duty in India *Portrait: Ge Hong, a Chinese Scholar in Troubled Times

6 Commonalities and Variations: Africa and the Americas, 500 b.c.e.–1200 c.e.

Continental Comparisons

African Civilizations

  Meroe: Continuing a Nile Valley Civilization

  Axum: The Making of a Christian Kingdom

  Along the Niger River: Cities without States

Civilizations of Mesoamerica

  The Maya: Writing and Warfare

  Teotihuacan: The Americas’ Greatest City

  Civilizations of the Andes

  Chavin: A Pan-Andean Religious Movement

  Moche: A Civilization of the Coast

  Wari and Tiwanaku: Empires of the Interior

Alternatives to Civilization: Bantu Africa

  Cultural Encounters

  Society and Religion

Alternatives to Civilization: North America

  The Ancestral Pueblo: Pit Houses and Great Houses

  Peoples of the Eastern Woodlands: The Mound Builders

Reflections: Deciding What’s Important: Balance in World History

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Continental Population in the Second-Wave Era

*Portrait: Piye, Kushite Conqueror of Egypt

Part Three: An Age of Accelerating Connections, 500–1500

The Big Picture

Defining a Millennium

  Third-Wave Civilizations: Something New, Something Old, Something Blended

  The Ties That Bind: Transregional Interaction in the Third Wave Era

*Mapping Part Three

7 Commerce and Culture, 500–1500

Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia

  The Growth of the Silk Roads

  Goods in Transit

  Cultures in Transit

  Disease in Transit

Sea Roads: Exchange across the Indian Ocean

  Weaving the Web of an Indian Ocean World

  Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: Southeast Asia

  Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: East Africa

Sand Roads: Exchange across the Sahara

  Commercial Beginnings in West Africa

  Gold, Salt, and Slaves: Trade and Empire in West Africa

An American Network: Commerce and Connection in the Western Hemisphere

Reflections: Economic Globalization—Ancient and Modern

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Economic Exchange along the Silk Roads

Snapshot: Economic Exchange in the Indian Ocean Basin *Portrait: Thorfinn Karlsefni, Viking Voyager

8 China and the World: East Asian Connections, 500–1300

Together Again: The Reemergence of a Unified China

  A "Golden Age" of Chinese Achievement

  Women in the Song Dynasty

China and the Northern Nomads: A Chinese World Order in the Making

  The Tribute System in Theory

  The Tribute System in Practice

  Cultural Influence across an Ecological Frontier

Coping with China: Comparing Korea, Vietnam, and Japan

  Korea and China

  Vietnam and China

  Japan and China

China and the Eurasian World Economy

  Spillovers: China’s Impact on Eurasia

  On the Receiving End: China as Economic Beneficiary

China and Buddhism

  Making Buddhism Chinese

  Losing State Support: The Crisis of Chinese Buddhism

Reflections: Why Do Things Change?

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

*Snapshot: Chinese Technological Achievements

*Portrait: Izumi Shikibu, Japanese Poet and Lover

9 The Worlds of Islam: Afro-Eurasian Connections, 600–1500

The Birth of a New Religion

  The Homeland of Islam

  The Messenger and the Message

  The Transformation of Arabia

The Making of an Arab Empire

  War, Conquest, and Tolerance

  Conversion

  Divisions and Controversies

  Women and Men in Early Islam

Islam and Cultural Encounter: A Four-Way Comparison

  The Case of India

  The Case of Anatolia

  The Case of West Africa

  The Case of Spain

The World of Islam as a New Civilization

  Networks of Faith

  Networks of Exchange

Reflections: Past and Present: Choosing Our History

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Key Achievements in Islamic Science and Scholarship

*Portrait: Mansa Musa, West African Monarch and Muslim Pilgrim

10 The Worlds of Christendom: Contraction, Expansion, and Division, 500–1300

Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa

  Asian Christianity

  African Christianity

Byzantine Christendom: Building on the Roman Past

  The Byzantine State

  The Byzantine Church and Christian Divergence

   Byzantium and the World

  The Conversion of Russia

Western Christendom: Rebuilding in the Wake of Roman Collapse

  Political Life in Western Europe, 500–1000

  Society and the Church, 500–1000

  Accelerating Change in the West, 1000–1300

  Europe Outward Bound: The Crusading Tradition

The West in Comparative Perspective

  Catching Up

  Pluralism in Politics

  Reason and Faith

Reflections: Remembering and Forgetting: Continuity and Surprise in the Worlds of Christendom

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

*Snapshot: European Borrowing

*Portrait: Cecilia Penifader, An English Peasant and Unmarried Woman

11 Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongol Moment, 1200–1500

Looking Back and Looking Around: The Long History of Pastoral Nomads

  The World of Pastoral Societies

  Before the Mongols: Pastoralists in History

Breakout: The Mongol Empire

  From Temujin to Chinggis Khan: The Rise of the Mongol Empire

  Explaining the Mongol Moment

Encountering the Mongols: Comparing Three Cases

  China and the Mongols

  Persia and the Mongols

  Russia and the Mongols

The Mongol Empire as a Eurasian Network

  Toward a World Economy

  Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale

  Cultural Exchange in the Mongol Realm

  The Plague: An Afro-Eurasian Pandemic

Reflections: Changing Images of Nomadic Peoples

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Varieties of Pastoral Societies

*Portrait, Khutulun, A Mongol Wrestler Princess

12 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century

The Shapes of Human Communities

  Paleolithic Persistence: Australia and North America

  Agricultural Village Societies: The Igbo and the Iroquois

  Herding Peoples: Central Asia and West Africa

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe

  Ming Dynasty China

  European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal

  European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World

  In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires

  On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Americas

  The Aztec Empire

  The Inca Empire

Webs of Connection

A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern Era, 1500–2012

Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Major Developments around the World in the Fifteenth Century

Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000–2000

*Portrait: Zheng He, China's Non-Chinese Admiral

Part Four: The Early Modern World, 1450–1750

The Big Picture

Debating the Character of an Era

  An Early Modern Era?

  A Late Agrarian Era?

*Mapping Part Four

13 Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters, 1450–1750

European Empires in the Americas

  The European Advantage

  The Great Dying

  The Columbian Exchange

Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas

  In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas

  Colonies of Sugar

  Settler Colonies in North America

The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire

  Experiencing the Russian Empire

  Russians and Empire

Asian Empires

  Making China an Empire

  Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire

  Muslims and Christians in the Ottoman Empire

Reflections: The Centrality of Context in World History

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Ethnic Composition of Colonial Societies in Latin America

*Portrait: Do–a Marina, Between Two Worlds

14. Economic Transformations: Commerce and Consequence, 1450–1750

Europeans and Asian Commerce

  A Portuguese Empire of Commerce

  Spain and the Philippines

  The East India Companies

  Asian Commerce

Silver and Global Commerce

The "World Hunt": Fur in Global Commerce

Commerce in People: The Atlantic Slave Trade

  The Slave Trade in Context

  The Slave Trade in Practice

  Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa

Reflections: Economic Globalization—Then and Now

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: The Slave Trade in Numbers (1501-1866)

*Portrait: Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, To Slavery and Back

15 Cultural Transformations: Religion and Science, 1450–1750

The Globalization of Christianity

  Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation

  Christianity Outward Bound

  Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America

  An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits

Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions

  Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World

  China: New Directions in an Old Tradition

  India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide

A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science

  The Question of Origins: Why Europe?

  Science as Cultural Revolution

  Science and Enlightenment

  Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century

  European Science beyond the West

Reflections: Cultural Borrowing and Its Hazards

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Catholic/Protestant Differences in the Sixteenth Century

Snapshot: Major Thinkers and Achievements of the Scientific Revolution

*Portrait: Ursula de Jesus, An Afro-Peruvian Slave and Christian Visionary

Part Five: The European Moment In World History, 1750–1914

The Big Picture

European Centrality and the Problem of Eurocentrism

  Eurocentric Geography and History

  Countering Eurocentrism

*Mapping Part Five

16 Atlantic Revolutions, Global Echoes, 1750–1914

Atlantic Revolutions in a Global Context

Comparing Atlantic Revolutions

  The North American Revolution, 1775–1787

  The French Revolution, 1789–1815

  The Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804

  Spanish American Revolutions, 1810–1825

Echoes of Revolution

  The Abolition of Slavery

  Nations and Nationalism

  Feminist Beginnings

Reflections: Revolutions Pro and Con

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Key Moments in the Growth of Nationalism

*Portrait: Kartini, Feminism and Nationalism in Java

17 Revolutions of Industrialization, 1750–1914

Explaining the Industrial Revolution

  Why Europe?

  Why Britain?

The First Industrial Society

  The British Aristocracy

  The Middle Classes

  The Laboring Classes

  Social Protest

  Europeans in Motion

Variations on a Theme: Comparing Industrialization in the United States and Russia

  The United States: Industrialization without Socialism

  Russia: Industrialization and Revolution

The Industrial Revolution and Latin America in the Nineteenth Century

  After Independence in Latin America

  Facing the World Economy

  Becoming like Europe?

Reflections: History and Horse Races

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Measuring the Industrial Revolution

Snapshot: The Industrial Revolution and the Global Divide

*Portrait: Ellen Johnston, Factory Girl and Poet

18 Colonial Encounters in Asia and Africa, 1750–1950

Industry and Empire

A Second Wave of European Conquests

Under European Rule

  Cooperation and Rebellion

  Colonial Empires with a Difference

Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies

  Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State

  Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market

  Economies of Wage Labor: Migration for Work

  Women and the Colonial Economy: Examples from Africa

  Assessing Colonial Development

Believing and Belonging: Identity and Cultural Change in the Colonial Era

  Education

  Religion

  "Race" and "Tribe"

Reflections: Who Makes History?

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Long-Distance Migration in an Age of Empire, 1846–1940

*Portrait: Wanjiku of Kenya, An Ordinary Woman in Extraordinary Times

19 Empire in Collision: Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia, 1800–1914

Reversal of Fortune: China’s Century of Crisis

  The Crisis Within

  Western Pressures

  The Failure of Conservative Modernization

The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century

  "The Sick Man of Europe"

  Reform and Its Opponents

  Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire

The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East Asian Power

  The Tokugawa Background

  American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration

  Modernization Japanese Style

  Japan and the World

Reflections: Success and Failure in History

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Chinese/British Trade at Canton, 1835–1836

*Portrait: Commissioner Lin, Confronting the Opium Trade

Part Six: The Most Recent Century, 1914–2012

The Big Picture

Since World War I: A New Period in World History?

*Mapping Part Six

20 Collapse at the Center: World War, Depression, and the Rebalancing of Global Power, 1914–1970s

The First World War: European Civilization in Crisis, 1914–1918

  An Accident Waiting to Happen

  Legacies of the Great War

Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression

Democracy Denied: Comparing Italy, Germany, and Japan

  The Fascist Alternative in Europe

  Hitler and the Nazis

  Japanese Authoritarianism

  A Second World War

  The Road to War in Asia

  The Road to War in Europe

  The Outcomes of Global Conflict

The Recovery of Europe

Reflections: War and Remembrance: Learning from History

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Comparing the Impact of the Depression

*Portrait: Etty Hillesum, Witness to the Holocaust

21 Revolution, Socialism, and Global Conflict: The Rise and Fall of World Communism, 1917–Present

Global Communism

Comparing Revolutions as a Path to Communism

  Russia: Revolution in a Single Year

  China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle

Building Socialism in Two Countries

  Communist Feminism

  Socialism in the Countryside

  Communism and Industrial Development

  The Search for Enemies

East versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War

  Military Conflict and the Cold War

  Nuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalry

Paths to the End of Communism

  China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party

  The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country

Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: China under Mao, 1949–1976

*Portrait: Anna Dubova, A Peasant Woman and Soviet Communist

22 The End of Empire: The Global South on the Global Stage, 1914–Present

Toward Freedom: Struggles for Independence

  The End of Empire in World History

  Explaining African and Asian Independence

Comparing Freedom Struggles

  The Case of India: Ending British Rule

  The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid

Experiments with Freedom

  Experiments in Political Order: Party, Army, and the Fate of Democracy

  Experiments in Economic Development: Changing Priorities, Varying Outcomes

  Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran

Reflections: History in the Middle of the Stream

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1950-2011

*Portrait: Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Muslim Pacifist

23 Capitalism and Culture: A New Phase of Global Interaction, since 1945

The Transformation of the World Economy

  Reglobalization

  Growth, Instability, and Inequality

  Globalization and an American Empire

The Globalization of Liberation: Focus on Feminism

  Feminism in the West

  Feminism in the Global South

  International Feminism

Religion and Global Modernity

  Fundamentalism on a Global Scale

  Creating Islamic Societies: Resistance and Renewal in the World of Islam

  Religious Alternatives to Fundamentalism

Experiencing the Anthropocene Era: Environment and Environmentalism

  The Global Environment Transformed

  Green and Global

Final Reflections: Pondering the OAR

Second Thoughts

  What’s the Significance?

  Big Picture Questions

  Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

*Snapshot: Global Development and Inequality: 2011

*Portrait: Rachel Carson, Pioneer of Environmentalism

Notes

Index

Acknowledgments

About the Author

*New to this edition

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