Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources, Combined Volume / Edition 1

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Overview

Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources is a docutext combining a brief narrative with written and visual primary source collections, providing the convenience of a text and reader in one volume. Ways of the World is thoroughly global in its thematic and comparative approach. The brief narrative highlights major developments, giving students and instructors the room to explore the primary sources fully. Students can connect with Strayer’s distinctive voice and clear, powerful writing. A thoughtful prologue and part-opening essays emphasize the book’s “big picture” approach, and each chapter narrative ends with “Reflections,” a consideration of history and the human enterprise it explores.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780312489168
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 6/4/2010
  • Edition description: First Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 1328
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Robert W. Strayer (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin taught African, Soviet, and world history for many years at SUNY College at Brockport, where he received Chancellor’s Awards for Excellence in Teaching and for Excellence in Scholarship. In 1998 he was visiting professor of world and Soviet history at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Since 2002, he has taught world history at the University of California, Santa Cruz; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Cabrillo College. He is a long-time member of the World History Association and served on its Executive Committee.

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Table of Contents

Preface
Maps
Special Features
Working with Primary Sources
 
Prologue: From Cosmic History to Human History
    The History of the Universe
    The History of a Planet
    The History of the Human Species … in a Single Paragraph:
      A Preview
    Why World History?
    Comparison, Connection, and Change: The Three Cs of
      World History
    Snapshot: A History of the Universe as a Cosmic Calendar

Part One First Things First: Beginnings in History,
  to 500 B.C.E.
The Big Picture Turning Points in Early World History
The Emergence of Humankind  
The Globalization of Humankind  
The Revolution of Farming and Herding  
The Turning Point of Civilization  
A Note on Dates
Landmarks of Early World History, to 500 B.C.E. 

1 First Peoples: Populating the Planet, to 10,000 B.C.E.
Out of Africa to the Ends of the Earth: First Migrations 
  Into Eurasia  Into Australia  Into the Americas  Into the Pacific
The Ways We Were 
The First Human Societies  
Economy and the Environment  
The Realm of the Spirit  
Settling Down: “The Great Transition”
Comparing Paleolithic Societies 
  The San of Southern Africa  
  The Chumash of Southern California
Reflections: The Uses of the Paleolithic 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance?  Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: The Long Road to the Global Presence of Humankind 
Snapshot: The Paleolithic Era in Perspective 
 Documents  Glimpses of Paleolithic Life 
1.1—A Paleolithic Woman in the Twentieth Century: Nisa,
          The Life and Words of an !Kung Woman, 1969-1976  
1.2—Australian Aboriginal Mythology: Stories from the
          Dreamtime, Twentieth Century
  Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources The Aboriginal Rock Painting of Australia 
  Namondjok, Namarrgon (Lightning Man),
    and Barrginj Nabulwinjbulwinj  
Hunting Scene
  Using the Evidence  
 
2 First Farmers: The Revolutions of Agriculture,
  10,000 B.C.E.–3000 B.C.E. 
The Agricultural Revolution in World History 
Comparing Agricultural Beginnings 
  Common Patterns  Variations
The Globalization of Agriculture 
  Triumph and Resistance  The Culture of Agriculture
Social Variation in the Age of Agriculture 
  Pastoral Societies  Agricultural Village Societies   
  Chiefdoms
Reflections: The Legacies of Agriculture 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Agricultural Breakthroughs 
Snapshot: The History of Maize/Corn

Documents  Agricultural Village Societies 
 2.1—Germanic Peoples of Central Europe: Tacitus, Germania,
            First Century C.E.  
 2.2—Social Organization among the Gikuyu: Jomo Kenyatta,
            Facing Mount Kenya, 1938  
 2.3—Religion in a Caribbean Chiefdom: Bartolomé de las Casas,
           Apologetic History of the Indies, 1566
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  Art and Life in the Early Agrarian Era 
  Çatalhüyük: An Early Map and Landscape Painting  
  Women, Men, and Religion in Çatalhüyük  
  An African Pastoral Community  
  The Mystery of Stonehenge  
  A Sculpture from the Nok Culture
  Using the Evidence 

3 First Civilizations: Cities, States, and Unequal Societies,
  3500 B.C.E.–500 B.C.E. 
Something New: The Emergence of Civilizations 
Introducing the First Civilizations 
The Question of Origins An Urban Revolution
The Erosion of Equality 
  Hierarchies of Class Hierarchies of Gender Patriarchy in Practice
The Rise of the State 
Coercion and Consent  
Writing and Accounting 
The Grandeur of Kings
Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt 
  Environment and Culture 
  Cities and States 
  Interaction and Exchange
Reflections: “Civilization”: What’s in a Word? 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
  Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Writing in Ancient Civilizations 
Snapshot: Key Moments in Mesopotamian History 
Snapshot: Key Moments in Nile Valley Civilizations
 
 Documents Life and Afterlife in Mesopotamia and Egypt 
3.1—In Search of Eternal Life: The Epic of Gilgamesh, ca.
          2700 B.C.E.–2500 B.C.E.  
3.2—Law and Justice in Ancient Mesopotamia: The Law Code of
          Hammurabi, ca. 1800 B.C.E.  
3.3—The Afterlife of a Pharaoh: A Pyramid Text, 2333 B.C.E.  
3.4—A New Basis for Egyptian Immortality: Book of the Dead,
          ca. 1550 1064 B.C.E.  
3.5—The Occupations of Old Egypt: Be a Scribe, ca.
           2066-1650 B.C.E.
  Using the Evidence 
 Visual Sources 
Indus Valley Civilization 
Ancient Harappa  
A Seal from the Indus Valley  
Man from Mohenjo Daro  
Dancing Girl
Using the Evidence 

Part Two The Classical Era in World History,
  500 B.C.E.–500 C.E.
The Big Picture After the First Civilizations: What Changed and
  What Didn’t
  Continuities in Civilization  
  Changes in Civilization 
  Classical Civilizations 
Landmarks of the Classical Era, 500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. 
Snapshot: World Population during the Age of Agricultural Civilization

4 Eurasian Empires, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. 
Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks 
  The Persian Empire  
  The Greeks  
  Collision: The Greco-Persian Wars  
  Collision: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era
Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese 
  Rome: From City-State to Empire  
  China: From Warring States to Empire  
  Consolidating the Roman and Chinese Empires  
  The Collapse of Empires
Intermittent Empire: The Case of India 
Reflections: Classical Empires and the Twentieth Century 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Key Moments in Classical Greek History 
Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of the Roman Empire 
Snapshot: Key Moments in Classical Chinese History 
Documents  Political Authority in Classical Civilizations 
4.1—In Praise of Athenian Democracy: Pericles, Funeral Oration,
          431-430 B.C.E.  
4.2—In Praise of the Roman Empire: Aelius Aristides, The Roman
          Oration, 155 C.E.   
4.3—Governing a Chinese Empire: The Writings of Master Han Fei,
           Third Century B.C.E.  
4.4—Governing an Indian Empire: Ashoka, The Rock Edicts,
           ca. 268-232 B.C.E.
Using the Evidence 
 Visual Sources 
Qin Shihuangdi and China’s Eternal Empire 
An Eighteenth-Century Representation of Qin Shihuangdi  
The Terra-Cotta Army of Shihuangdi  
  Terra-Cotta Infantry  
  Terra-Cotta Archer  
A Bronze Horse-Drawn Chariot
 Using the Evidence 
 
5 Eurasian Cultural Traditions, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. 
China and the Search for Order 
  The Legalist Answer  
  The Confucian Answer  
  The Daoist Answer
Cultural Traditions of Classical India  
South Asian Religion: From Ritual Sacrifice to Philosophical Speculation  
  The Buddhist Challenge  
  Hinduism as a Religion of Duty and Devotion
Moving toward Monotheism: The Search for God in the Middle East 
  Zoroastrianism  
  Judaism
The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece: The Search for a
 Rational Order 
  The Greek Way of Knowing  
  The Greek Legacy
 Comparing Jesus and the Buddha
  The Lives of the Founders  
  Establishing New Religions  
  Creating Institutions
Reflections: Religion and Historians 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Thinkers and Philosophies of the Classical Era 
Snapshot: Reflections on Human Love from Mediterranean

  Civilization 
 Documents  The Good Life in Classical Eurasia 
5.1—Reflections from Confucius: Confucius, The Analects,
          ca. 479-221 B.C.E.  
5.2—Reflections from the Hindu Scriptures: Bhagavad Gita, ca. Fifth
           to Second Century B.C.E.  
5.3—Reflections from Socrates: Plato, Apology, ca. 399 B.C.E.  
5.4—Reflections from Jesus: The Gospel of Matthew, ca. 70-100 C.E.
  Using the Evidence 226
Visual Sources  Representations of the Buddha 
  Footprints of the Buddha  
  A Classic Indian Buddha  
  A Bodhisattva of Compassion: Kannon of 1,000 Arms  
  The Chinese Maitreya Buddha  
  The Amitabha Buddha
  Using the Evidence 

6 Eurasian Social Hierarchies, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. 
Society and the State in Classical China 
  An Elite of Officials  
  The Landlord Class  
  Peasants  
  Merchants
Class and Caste in India 
  Caste as Varna  
  Caste as Jati  
  The Functions of Caste
Slavery in the Classical Era: The Case of the Roman Empire 
Slavery and Civilization  
The Making of a Slave Society: The Case of Rome  
Resistance and Rebellion
Comparing Patriarchies of the Classical Era 
A Changing Patriarchy: The Case of China  
Contrasting Patriarchies in Athens and Sparta
Reflections: Arguing with Solomon and the Buddha 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Social Life and Duty in Classical India  
Snapshot: Comparing Greco-Roman and American Slavery 
Documents  Patriarchy and Women’s Voices in the Classical Era 
6.1—A Male View of Chinese Women’s Lives: Fu Xuan, How
         Sad It Is to Be a Woman, Third Century C.E.  
6.2—A Chinese Woman’s Instructions to Her Daughters: Ban Zhau,
         Lessons for Women, Late First Century C.E.  
6.3—An Alternative to Patriarchy in India: Psalms of the Sisters,
         First Century B.C.E.  
6.4—Roman Women in Protest: Livy, History of Rome, Late First
         Century B.C.E. to Early First Century C.E.
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  Pompeii as a Window on the Roman World 
  Terentius Neo and His Wife  
  A Pompeii Banquet  
  Scenes in a Pompeii Tavern  
  A Domestic Shrine  
  Mystery Religions: The Cult of Dionysus
  Using the Evidence

7 Classical Era Variations: Africa and the Americas,
    500 B.C.E.–1200 C.E. 
The African Northeast  
Meroë: Continuing a Nile Valley Civilization  
Axum: The Making of a Christian Kingdom
Along the Niger River: Cities without States 
South of the Equator: The World of Bantu Africa 
  Cultural Encounters  Society and Religion
Civilizations of Mesoamerica  
  The Maya: Writing and Warfare  
  Teotihuacán: America’s Greatest City
Civilizations of the Andes 
Chavín: A Pan-Andean Religious Movement   
Moche: A Regional Andean Civilization
North America in the Classical Era: From Chaco to Cahokia 
Pit Houses and Great Houses: The Ancestral Pueblo  
The Mound Builders of the Eastern Woodlands
Reflections: Deciding What’s Important: Balance in World History 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Continental Population in the Classical Era 
Documents  Axum and the World 
7.1—A Guidebook to the World of Indian Ocean Commerce:
         The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, First Century C.E.  
7.2—The Making of an Axumite Empire: Inscription on a Stone
         Throne, Second or Third Century C.E.  
7.3—The Coming of Christianity to Axum: Rufinus, On the
         Evangelization of Abyssinia, Late Fourth Century C.E.  
7.4—A Byzantine View of an Axumite Monarch: Julian, Report to the
         Byzantine Emperor on Axum, 530-531  
7.5—Axum and the Gold Trade: Cosmas, The Christian Topography,
         Sixth Century C.E.
 Using the Evidence 
 Visual Sources  Art and the Maya Elite 
Shield Jaguar and Lady Xok: A Royal Couple of Yaxchilan  
The Presentation of Captives  
Bloodletting Ritual  
The Ball Game  
An Embracing Couple
  Using the Evidence 

Part Three An Age of Accelerating Connections, 500–1500 
 The Big Picture Defining a Millennium 
  Third-Wave Civilizations: Something New, Something Old,
    Something Blended  
  The Ties That Bind: Transregional Interaction in the
    Postclassical Era
Landmarks in the Era of Accelerating Connections, 500 to 1500 

8 Commerce and Culture, 500–1500
Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia  
  The Growth of the Silk Roads   
  Goods in Transit  
  Cultures in Transit  
  Disease in Transit
Sea Roads: Exchange across the Indian Ocean 
  Weaving the Web of an Indian Ocean World  
  Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: Southeast Asia
    and Srivijaya  
  Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: East Africa
    and Swahili Civilization
  Sand Roads: Exchange across the Sahara 
  Commercial Beginnings in West Africa  
  Gold, Salt, and Slaves: Trade and Empire in West Africa
An American Network: Commerce and Connection in the
 Western Hemisphere 
 Reflections: Economic Globalization—Ancient and Modern 
Second Thoughts 
  What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
  Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Economic Exchange along the Silk Roads 
Snapshot: Economic Exchange in the Indian Ocean Basin
 
 Documents  Travelers’ Tales and Observations 
8.1—A Chinese Buddhist in India: Huili, A Biography of the
         Tripitaka Master and Xuanzang, Record of the Western
         Region, Seventh Century C.E.  
8.2—A European Christian in China: Marco Polo, The Travels of
         Marco Polo, 1299  
8.3—An Arab Muslim in West Africa: Ibn Battuta, Travels in Asia
         and Africa, 1354
  Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  Art, Religion, and Cultural Exchange in Central Asia 
  Greek Culture, Buddhism, and the Kushans  
  Buddhist Monks on the Silk Road  
  Manichaean Scribes  
  The Mongols in China  
   Islam, Shamanism, and the Turks
  Using the Evidence 

9 China and the World: East Asian Connections, 500–1300 
The Reemergence of a Unified China  
  A “Golden Age” of Chinese Achievement  
  Women in the Song Dynasty
 China and the Northern Nomads: A Chinese World Order
  in the Making 
  The Tribute System in Theory   
  The Tribute System in Practice  
  Cultural Influence across an Ecological Frontier
Coping with China: Comparing Korea, Vietnam, and Japan 
  Korea and China  
  Vietnam and China  
  Japan and China
China and the Eurasian World Economy 
  Spillovers: China’s Impact on Eurasia  
  On the Receiving End: China as Economic Beneficiary
China and Buddhism 
  Making Buddhism Chinese  
  Losing State Support: The Crisis of Chinese Buddhism
Reflections: Why Do Things Change? 
Second Thoughts 
  What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
   Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of Postclassical China 
Documents  The Making of Japanese Civilization 
9.1—Japanese Political Ideals: Shotoku, The Seventeen Article
         Constitution, 604  
9.2—Buddhism in Japan: The Zen Tradition: Dogen, Writings on
         Zen Buddhism, Thirteenth Century  
9.3—The Uniqueness of Japan: Kitabatake Chikafusa, The Chronicle
         of the Direct Descent of Gods and Sovereigns, 1339  
9.4—Social Life at Court: Sei Shonagon, Pillow Book, ca. 1000  
9.5—The Way of the Warrior: Shiba Yosimasa, Advice to Young
         Samurai, ca. 1400, and Imagawa Ryoshun,
         The Imagawa Letter, 1412
Using the Evidence 
Images  The Leisure Life of China’s Elites 
 A Banquet with the Emperor  At Table with the Empress  A Literary
  Gathering  Solitary Reflection  An Elite Night Party
 Using the Evidence 

10 The Worlds of European Christendom: Connected and
      Divided, 500–1300 
Eastern Christendom: Building on the Roman Past 
  The Byzantine State  
  The Byzantine Church and Christian Divergence  
  Byzantium and the World  The Conversion of Russia
Western Christendom: Rebuilding in the Wake of Roman Collapse  
  Political Life in Western Europe, 500–1000  
  Society and the Church, 500–1000  
  Accelerating Change in the West, 1000–1300  
  Europe Outward Bound: The Crusading Tradition
The West in Comparative Perspective 
  Catching Up  
  Pluralism in Politics  
  Reason and Faith
Reflections: Remembering and Forgetting: Continuity and Surprise
 in the Worlds of Christendom 
Second Thoughts 
  What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
  Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Key Moments in Byzantine History 
Snapshot: Key Moments in the Evolution of Western

 Civilization 
Documents  The Making of Christian Europe . . . and a
 Chinese Counterpoint 
10.1—The Conversion of Clovis: Gregory of Tours, History of the
           Franks, late sixth century  
10.2—Advice on Dealing with “Pagans”: Pope Gregory, Advice
           to the English Church, 601  
10.3—Charlemagne and the Saxons: Charlemagne, Capitulary
           on Saxony, 785
 10.4 and 10.5—The Persistence of Tradition: Willibald, Life of
                           Boniface, ca 760 C.E., and The
                           Leechbook, tenth century 
10.6—The Jesus Sutras in China: The Jesus Sutras, 635-1005
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  Reading Byzantine Icons
 Christ Pantokrator  The Nativity  Ladder of Divine Ascent
 Using the Evidence 

11 The Worlds of Islam: Afro-Eurasian Connections, 600–1500 
 The Birth of a New Religion 
  The Homeland of Islam 
  The Messenger and the Message  
  The Transformation of Arabia
The Making of an Arab Empire 
  War and Conquest  
  Conversion to Islam  
  Divisions and Controversies  
  Women and Men in Early Islam
Islam and Cultural Encounter: A Four-Way Comparison 
  The Case of India  
  The Case of Anatolia  
  The Case of West Africa  
  The Case of Spain
The World of Islam as a New Civilization 
  Networks of Faith  
  Networks of Exchange
 Reflections: Past and Present: Choosing Our History 
Second Thoughts 
  What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
  Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Key Moments in the Early History of Islam 
Snapshot: Key Achievements in Islamic Science and Scholarship 
Documents  Voices of Islam 
11.1—The Voice of Allah: The Quran, seventh century  
11.2—The Voice of the Prophet Muhammad: The Hadith, eighth
           and ninth centuries 
11.3—The Voice of the Law: The Sharia, ninth century   
11.4—The Voice of the Sufis: Inscription in Rumi’s Tomb, thirteenth
           century; Rumi, Poem, thirteenth century; and Rumi, “Drowned
           in God,” Mathnawi, thirteenth century
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Cources  Islamic Civilization in Persian Miniature Paintings
 An Arab Camp Scene  City Life in Islamic Persia  The Night Journey
  of Muhammad
 Using the Evidence 

12 Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongol
     Moment, 1200–1500
Looking Back and Looking Around: The Long History of
 Pastoral Nomads 
  The World of Pastoral Societies  
  The Xiongnu: An Early Nomadic Empire  
  The Arabs and the Turks  
  The Masai of East Africa
Breakout: The Mongol Empire 
  From Temujin to Chinggis Khan: The Rise of the Mongol Empire  
  Explaining the Mongol Moment
Encountering the Mongols: Comparing Three Cases 
  China and the Mongols  
  Persia and the Mongols  
  Russia and the Mongols
The Mongol Empire as a Eurasian Network 
  Toward a World Economy  
  Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale  
  Cultural Exchange in the Mongol Realm  
  The Plague: A Eurasian Pandemic
Reflections: Changing Images of Nomadic Peoples 
Second Thoughts 
  What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
   Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Varieties of Pastoral Societies 
Snapshot: Key Moments in Mongol History 
Documents  Perspectives on the Mongols 
12.1—Mongol History from a Mongol Source: The Secret History
           of the Mongols, ca. 1240  
12.2—A Letter from Chinggis Khan: Chinggis Khan, Letter to
           Changchun, 1219  
12.3—A Russian View of the Mongols: The Chronicle of
           Novgorod, 1238  
12.4—Chinese Perceptions of the Mongols: Epitaph for the
           Honorable Menggu, 1274  
12.5—Mongol Women through European Eyes: William of Rubruck,
           Journey to the Land of the Mongols, ca. 1255
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  The Black Death and Religion in Western Europe  
 The Flagellants  
 Burying the Dead  
 A Culture of Death  
 In the Face of Catastrophe—Questioning or Affirming the Faith
 Using the Evidence 

13 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century 
The Shapes of Human Communities 
Paleolithic Persistence  
Agricultural Village Societies   
Herding Peoples
Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe 
  Ming Dynasty China    
  European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal    
  European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging
 Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World 
  In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires    
  On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires
Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Americas 
  The Aztec Empire  
  The Inca Empire
Webs of Connection 
A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern
  Era, 1500–2000 
 Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History 
Second Thoughts 
  What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
  Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Major Developments around the World in the 
 Fifteenth Century 
Snapshot: Key Moments in European Maritime Voyaging 
Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000–2000
  
 Documents  The Aztecs and the Incas through Spanish Eyes 
13.1—Diego Duran on the Aztecs: King Moctezuma I, Laws,
           Ordinances and Regulations, ca. 1450, and Diego Duran,
           Book of the Gods and Rites, 1574-76  
13.2— Pedro de Cieza de Léon on the Incas: Pedro de Cieza de
            Léon, Chronicles of the Incas, ca. 1550
Using the Evidence 
Visual Sourcws  Sacred Places in the World of the Fifteenth Century 
  Visual Source 13.1—The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest at the
                                   Temple of Heaven, Beijing, China
  Visual Source 13.2— Kinkakuji: A Buddhist Temple in Japan
  Visual Source 13.3— The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem
  Visual Source 13.4— The Church of St. George, Lalibela, Ethiopia
Using the Evidence 

Part Four The Early Modern World, 1450–1750 
The Big Picture Debating the Character of an Era 
  An Early Modern Era?  A Late Agrarian Era?
Landmarks of the Early Modern Era, 1450–1750  

14 Empires and Encounters, 1450–1750 
European Empires in the Americas 
  The European Advantage  The Great Dying  The
    Columbian Exchange
Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas 
In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas  Colonies of Sugar  
Settler Colonies in North America
The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire 
  Experiencing the Russian Empire  Russians and Empire
Asian Empires  
  Making China an Empire  
  Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire   
  Muslims, Christians, and the Ottoman Empire
Reflections: Countering Eurocentrism . . . or Reflecting It?  
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Ethnic Composition of Colonial Societies in
 Latin America 
Documents  State Building in the Early Modern Era  
14.1—The “Self-Portrait” of a Chinese Emperor: The Emperor
           Kangxi, Reflections, 1671-1722  
14.2—The Memoirs of Emperor Jahangir: Jahangir, Memoirs,
           1605-1627  
14.3—An Outsider’s View of Suleiman I: Ogier Ghiselin de
           Busbecq, The Turkish Letters, 1555-1562  
14.4 and 14.5—French State-Building and Louis XIV: Louis XIV,
                          Memoirs, 1670, and Jean-Baptiste Colbert,
                          Instructions for Intendants, 1680
Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  The Conquest of Mexico Through Aztec Eyes 
 Disaster Foretold  Moctezuma and Cortés  
 The Massacre of the Nobles  
 The Spanish Retreat from Tenochtitlan  
  Smallpox: Disease and Defeat
 Using the Evidence 
15 Global Commerce, 1450–1750 
Europeans and Asian Commerce 
A Portuguese Empire of Commerce  
Spain and the Philippines  
The East India Companies 
Asian Commerce
Silver and Global Commerce 
The “World Hunt”: Fur in Global Commerce 
Commerce in People: The Atlantic Slave Trade 
The Slave Trade in Context  
The Slave Trade in Practice  
Comparing Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa
Reflections: Economic Globalization—Then and Now 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Key Moments in the European Encounter with Asia 
Snapshot: The Slave Trade in Numbers 
Documents  Voices from the Slave Trade 
15.1—The Journey to Slavery: Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting
           Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1789  
15.2—The Business of the Slave Trade: Thomas Phillips, A Journal
           of a Voyage Made in the Hannibal of London, 1694  
15.3—The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Kongo: King Affonso
           I, Letters to King Jao of Portugal, 1526  
15.4—The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Asante: Osei Bonsu,
           Conversation with Joseph Dupuis, 1820
  Using the Evidence 
Images  Exchange and Status in the Early Modern World 
 Tea and Porcelain in Europe   A Chocolate Party in Spain  An
  Ottoman Coffeehouse  
  Clothing and Status in Colonial Mexico   
  Procession and Display in the Kingdom of Dahomey
  Using the Evidence 

16 Religion and Science, 1450–1750 
The Globalization of Christianity 
Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation  
Christianity Outward Bound  
Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America   
An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits
Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions 
Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World  
China: New Directions in an Old Tradition  
India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide
A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science 
  The Question of Origins: Why Europe?  
  Science as Cultural Revolution  
  Science and Enlightenment  
  Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century  
  European Science beyond the West
Reflections: Cultural Borrowing and Its Hazards 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Catholic/Protestant Differences in the
 Sixteenth Century 
Snapshot: Major Thinkers and Achievements of the

 Scientific Revolution 
Documents  Cultural Change in the Early Modern World 
16.1—Luther’s Protest: Martin Luther, Table Talk,
           early sixteenth century   
16.2—Progress and Enlightenment: Marquis de Condorcet, Sketch
           of the Progress of the Human Mind, 1793-1794  
16.3—Debating Confucianism: Wang Yangming, Conversations,
           early sixteenth century   
16.4—The Wahhabi Perspective on Islam: Abdullah Wahhab,
           History and Doctrines of the Wahhabis, 1803  
16.5—The Poetry of Kabîr: Kabîr, Poetry, ca. late fifteenth century
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  Global Christianity in the Early Modern Era 
 Pieter Seanredam, Interior of a Dutch Reformed Church  
Catholic Baroque: Interior of Pilgrimage Church, Mariazell, Austria  
Cultural Blending in Andean Christianity  
Making Christianity Chinese  
Christian Art at the Mughal Court
 Using the Evidence 
 
Part Five The European Moment In World History, 1750–1914
The Big Picture European Centrality and the Problem of Eurocentrism 
Eurocentric Geography and History  Countering Eurocentrism
Landmarks of the European Moment in World History, 1750–1914 

17 Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes, 1750–1914
Comparing Atlantic Revolutions 
The North American Revolution, 1775–1787   
The French Revolution, 1789–1815  
The Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804  
Spanish American Revolutions, 1810–1825
Echoes of Revolution 
  The Abolition of Slavery  
  Nations and Nationalism   
  Feminist Beginnings
Reflections: Revolutions Pro and Con 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of Atlantic Revolutions 
Snapshot: Key Moments in the Growth of Nationalism
 
 Documents  Claiming Rights  
17.1—The French Revolution and the “Rights of Man”: The
           Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789  
17.2—The Rights of Women: Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication
           of the Rights of Woman, 1792  
17.3—Rights and National Independence: Simón Bolívar, The
           Jamaica Letter, 1815  
17.4—Rights and Slavery: Frederick Douglass, What to the Slave
           Is the Fourth of July?, 1852  
17.5—Rights in the Colonial World: Raden Adjeng Kartini,
           Letter to a Friend, 1899
  Using the Evidence
 Visual Sources  Representing the French Revolution 
 The Early Years of the French Revolution: “The Joyous Accord”  
 A Reversal of Roles: The Three Estates of the Old Regime  
 Revolution and Religion: “Patience, Monsignor, your turn will come.”  
 An English Response to Revolution: “Hell Broke Loose or, the Murder of Louis”  
 Revolution, War, and Resistance: A German View of Napoleon
 Using the Evidence 

18 Revolutions of Industrialization, 1750–1914 
Explaining the Industrial Revolution 
  Why Europe?   
  Why Britain?
The First Industrial Society 
  The British Aristocracy  
  The Middle Classes  
  The Laboring Classes  
  Social Protest
Variations on a Theme: Comparing Industrialization in the United
 States and Russia 
The United States: Industrialization without Socialism  
Russia: Industrialization and Revolution
The Industrial Revolution in Latin America in the Nineteenth Century 
  After Independence in Latin America   
  Facing the World Economy  Becoming like Europe?
Reflections: History and Horse Races 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Measuring the Industrial Revolution 
Snapshot: The Industrial Revolution and the Global Divide
 
Documents  Varieties of European Marxism  
18.1—Socialism According to Marx: Karl Marx and Friedrich
           Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 1848  
18.2—Socialism without Revolution: Eduard Bernstein, Evolutionary
           Socialism, 1899  
18.3—Socialism and Women: Clara Zetkin, The German Socialist
           Women’s Movement, 1909  
18.4—Socialism in Song: Eugene Pottier, The Internationale, 1871  
18.5—Lenin and Russian Socialism: V.I. Lenin, What Is To
           Be Done?, 1902
 Using the Evidence 
Visua Sources  Art and the Industrial Revolution 
The Machinery Department of the Crystal Palace  
The Railroad as a Symbol of the Industrial Era  
Outside the Factory: Eyre Crowe, The Dinner Hour, Wigan  
Inside the Factory: Lewis W. Hine, Child Labor, 1912  
Philip James de Loutherbourg, Coalbrookdale by Night  
John Leech, Capital and Labour
Using the Evidence 

19 Internal Troubles, External Threats: China, the
 Ottoman Empire, and Japan, 1800–1914 
The External Challenge: European Industry and Empire 
  New Motives, New Means  New Perceptions of the “Other” 
Reversal of Fortune: China’s Century of Crisis 
The Crisis Within  
Western Pressures  
The Failure of Conservative Modernization
 The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century 
“The Sick Man of Europe”  
Reform and Its Opponents  
Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire
The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East Asian Power 
The Tokugawa Background  
American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration  
Modernization Japanese Style  
Japan and the World
Reflections: Success and Failure in History 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Chinese/British Trade at Canton, 1835–1836 
Snapshot: Key Moments in the Rise of Japan in the

 Nineteenth Century and Beyond 
Documents  Voices from the Opium War 
19.1—A Chinese Response to Lord Macartney: Emperor Qianlong,
           Message to King George III, 1793  
19.2 and 19.3—Debating the Opium Problem: Xu Naiji, An
                         Argument for Legalization, 1836, and Yuan Yulin,
                         An Argument for Suppression, 1836  
19.4—A Moral Appeal to Queen Victoria: Commissioner Lin Zexu,
           Letter to Queen Victoria, 1839   
19.5—War and Defeat: The Treaty of Nanjing, 1842
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  Changing Japanese Perceptions of the West 
  The Black Ships  
  Depicting the Americans  
  Women and Westernization  
  Kobayashi Kiyochika’s Critique of Wholesale Westernization   
  Japan, China, and Europe: A Reversal of Roles
 Using the Evidence 

20 Colonial Encounters, 1750–1914 
A Second Wave of European Conquests 
Under European Rule  
  Cooperation and Rebellion  
  Colonial Empires with a Difference
Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies 
Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State  
Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market  
Economies of Wage Labor: Working for Europeans   
Women and the Colonial Economy: An African Case Study  
Assessing Colonial Development
 Believing and Belonging: Identity and Cultural Change in the
  Colonial Era  
  Education  Religion  “Race” and “Tribe”
Reflections: Who Makes History? 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Long-Distance Migration in an Age of Empire,
 1846–1940 
 Documents  Indian Responses to Empire 
20.1—The Wonders of British Calcutta: Nawab Muhabbat Khan,
           On Calcutta, late eighteenth century  
20.2—Seeking Western Education: Ram Mohan Roy, Letter to
           Lord Amherst, 1823  
20.3—The Indian Rebellion: Bahadur Shah, The Azamgarh
           Proclamation, 1857  
20.4—The Credits and Debits of British Rule in India: Dadabhai
           Naoroji, Speech to a London Audience, 1871   
20.5—Gandhi on Modern Civilization: Mahatma Gandhi, Indian
           Home Rule, 1908
Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  The Scramble for Africa 
Prelude to the Scramble  
Conquest and Competition  
From the Cape to Cairo  
A French Critique of the Boer War  
The Ethiopian Exception
Using the Evidence

Part Six The Most Recent Century, 1914–2010
The Big Picture The Twentieth Century: A New Period in
 World History? 
  Old and New in the Twentieth Century  Three Regions—
   One World
Landmarks of the Most Recent Century, 1914–2010 

21 The Collapse and Recovery of Europe, 1914–1970s
The First World War: European Civilization in Crisis, 1914–1918
 An Accident Waiting to Happen  
 Legacies of the Great War
Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression 
 Democracy Denied: Comparing Italy, Germany, and Japan 
  The Fascist Alternative in Europe  
  Hitler and the Nazis   
  Japanese Authoritarianism
A Second World War 
The Road to War in Asia  
The Road to War in Europe  
World War II: The Outcomes of Global Conflict
The Recovery of Europe 
Reflections: War and Remembrance: Learning from History 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Comparing the Impact of the Depression 
Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of World War II  
 Documents  Ideologies of the Axis Powers 
21.1—Mussolini on Fascism: Benito Mussolini, The Political and
           Social Doctrine of Fascism, 1933  
21.2—Hitler on Nazism: Adolph Hitler, Mein Kampf (My Struggle),
           1925-1926  Document
21.3—The Japanese Way: Cardinal Principles of the National Entity
           of Japan, 1937
  Using the Evidence 
 Images  Propaganda and Critique in World War I
Women and the War  
Defining the Enemy  
War and the Colonies  
The Battlefield   
The Aftermath of War
Using the Evidence 
 

22 The Rise and Fall of World Communism, 1917–Present 
Global Communism 
Comparing Revolutions as a Path to Communism 
Russia: Revolution in a Single Year  
China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle
Building Socialism in Two Countries  
Communist Feminism   
Socialism in the Countryside  
Communism and Industrial Development  
The Search for Enemies
East versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War 
Military Conflict and the Cold War  
Nuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalry  
The United States: Superpower of the West, 1945–1975     
The Communist World, 1950s–1970s
Comparing Paths to the End of Communism 
 China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party  
 The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country
Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: China under Mao, 1949–1976 
 Documents  Experiencing Stalinism 
22.1—Stalin on Stalinism: Joseph Stalin, The Results of the First
           Five-Year Plan, 1933  
22.2—Living through Collectivization: Maurice Hindus,
           Red Bread, 1931  
22.3—Living through Industrialization: Personal Accounts of
           Industrialization, 1930s  
22.4—Living through the Terror: Personal Accounts of
           the Terror, 1930s
Using the Evidence 
 Visual Sources  Poster Art in Mao’s China 
Smashing the Old Society  
Building the New Society: The People’s Commune  
Women, Nature, and Industrialization  
The Cult of Mao  
Propaganda Posters after Mao
Using the Evidence 

23 Independence and Development in the Global South,
 1914–Present 
Toward Freedom: Struggles for Independence 
The End of Empire in World History   
Explaining African and Asian Independence
Comparing Freedom Struggles 
The Case of India: Ending British Rule  
The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid
 Experiments with Freedom 
  Experiments in Political Order: Comparing African Nations
   and India  
  Experiments in Economic Development: Changing Priorities,
   Varying Outcomes  
  Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey
   and Iran
Reflections: History in the Middle of the Stream 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Key Moments in South African History 
Snapshot: Economic Development in the Global South by the
 Early Twenty-first Century 
 Documents  Debating Development in Africa 
23.1—The Colonial Legacy for Modern Development: A. Adu
           Boahen, African Perspectives on Development, 1987  
23.2—Development and African Unity: Kwame Nkrumah,
           Africa Must Unite, 1963  
23.3—Development, Socialism, and Self-Reliance: Julius Nyerere,
           The Arusha Declaration, 1967  
23.4—Development and Women: Mildred Malineo Tau, Women:
           Critical to African Development, 1981  
23.5—Development, Elites, and the State: George B. N. Ayittey,
           Africa Betrayed, 1992, and Africa in Chaos, 1998
Using the Evidence 
 Visual Sources  Representing Independence 
 Non-Co-operation Tree and Mahatma Gandhi  
 African National Congress  
 Vietnamese Independence and Victory over the United States  
 Winning a Jewish National State  
 A Palestinian Nation in the Making
 Using the Evidence 
 
24 Accelerating Global Interaction, Since 1945
The Transformation of the World Economy 
Reglobalization  
Growth, Instability, and Inequality  
Globalization and an American Empire
The Globalization of Liberation: Comparing Feminist Movements 
Feminism in the West  
Feminism in the Global South   
International Feminism
Religion and Global Modernity 
Fundamentalism on a Global Scale  
Creating Islamic Societies: Resistance and Renewal in the
  World of Islam  
Religious Alternatives to Fundamentalism
The World’s Environment and the Globalization of Environmentalism
  The Global Environment Transformed  
  Green and Global
Final Reflections: Pondering the Uses of History 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  
Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Indicators of Reglobalization 
Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1950–2005
  
 Documents  Contending for Islam 
24.1—A Secular State for an Islamic Society in Turkey: Mustafa
           Kemal Atatürk, Speech to the General Congress of the
           Republican Party, 1927  
24.2—Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood: Hassan al-Banna, Toward
           the Light, 1936  
24.3—The Ideas of the Ayatollah Khomeini: Ayatollah Khomeini,
           Sayings of the Ayatollah Khomeini, 1980  
24.4—A Liberal Viewpoint from an Islamic Woman: Benazir Bhutto,
           Politics and the Muslim Woman, 1985  
24.5—Islam and 9/11: Kabir Helminski: “Islam and
           Human Values,” 2009
Using the Evidence 
 Visual Sources  Experiencing Globalization 
Globalization and Work  
Globalization and Consumerism  
Globalization and Migration  
Globalization and Protest  
Globalization: One World or Many?
Using the Evidence 

Notes
Index
Acknowledgments
About the Author

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