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By providing a deep understanding of the WCDMA air interface, the practical approach of this third edition will continue to appeal to operators, network and terminal manufacturers, service providers, university students and frequency regulators.
Key third edition updates include:
WCDMA is designed for multimedia communications including high quality images and video, and access to services with high data rates.
Third generation systems are designed for multimedia communication: with them personto-person communication can be enhanced with high quality images and video, and access to information and services on public and private networks will be enhanced by the higher data rates and new flexible communication capabilities of third generation systems. This, together with the continuing evolution of the second generation systems, will create new business opportunities not only for manufacturers and operators, but also for the providers of content and applications using these networks.
In the standardisation forums, WCDMA technology has emerged as the most widely adopted third generation air interface. Its specification has been created in 3GPP (the 3"d Generation Partnership Project), which is the joint standardisation project of the standardisation bodies from Europe, Japan, Korea, the USA and China. Within 3GPP, WCDMA is called UTRA (Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division Duplex), the name WCDMA being used to cover both FDD and TDD operation.
Throughout this book, the chapters related to specifications use the 3GPP terms UTRA FDD and TDD, the others using the term WCDMA. This book focuses on the WCDMA FDD technology. The WCDMA TDD mode and its differences from the WCDMA FDD mode are presented in Chapter 12.
In addition to WCDMA, the other air interfaces that can be used to provide third generation services are EDGE and multicarrier CDMA (cdma2000). EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) can provide third generation services with bit rates up to 500 kbps within a GSM carrier spacing of 200 kHz . EDGE includes advanced features that are not part of GSM to improve spectrum efficiency and to support the new services. The multicarrier CDMA can be used as an upgrade solution for the existing IS-95 operators and will be presented in more detail in Chapter 13.
The expected frequency bands and geographical areas where these different air interfaces are likely to be applied are shown in Figure 1.1. Within each region there are local exceptions in places where multiple technologies are already being deployed.
The spectrum allocation in Europe, Japan, Korea and the USA is shown in Figure 1.2. In Europe and in most of Asia the IMT-2000 bands of 2 x 60 MHz (1920-1980 MHz plus 2110-2170 MHz) will be available for WCDMA FDD. The availability of the TDD spectrum varies: in Europe it is expected that 25 MHz will be available for licensed TDD use in the 1900-1920 MHz and 2020-2025 MHz bands. The rest of the unpaired spectrum is expected to be used for unlicensed TDD applications (SPA: Self Provided Applications) in the 2010-2020 MHz band. FDD systems use different frequency bands for uplink and for downlink, separated by the duplex distance, while TDD systems utilise the same frequency for both uplink and downlink.
In Japan and Korea, the IMT-2000 FDD band is the same as in the rest of Asia and in Europe. Japan has deployed PDC as a second generation system, while in Korea IS95 is used for both cellular and PCS operation. The PCS spectrum allocation in Korea is different from the US PCS spectrum allocation, leaving the IMT-2000 spectrum fully available in Korea. In Japan, part of the IMT-2000 TDD spectrum is used by PHS, the cordless telephone system.
In China, there are reservations for PCS or WLL (Wireless Local Loop) use on one part of the IMT-2000 spectrum, though these have not been allocated to any operators.
Depending on the regulation decisions, up to 2 x 60 MHz of the IMT-2000 spectrum will be available for WCDMA FDD use in China. The TDD spectrum is also available in China. In the USA no new spectrum has yet been made available for third generation systems. Third generation services can be implemented by refarming third generation systems within the existing PCS spectrum. This will require replacing part of the existing second generation frequencies with third generation systems. For the US PCS band, all third generation alternatives can be considered, but EDGE has an advantage as a narrowband system. With EDGE less spectrum will need to be cleared to deploy third generation services. Multicarrier CDMA and WCDMA can also be considered for refarming.
EDGE can be deployed within the existing GSM900 and GSM 1800 frequencies where those frequencies are in use. These GSM frequencies are not available in Korea and Japan. The total band available for GSM900 operation is 2 x 25 MHz plus EGSM 2 x LO MHz, and for GSM1800 operation 2 x 75 MHz. EGSM refers to the extension of the GSM900 band. The total GSM band is not available in all countries using the GSM system. Later, it will also be possible to refarm WCDMA to the GSM bands, but initially EDGE is the solution to providing third generation services within the GSM bands.
Licensing of the IMT-2000 spectrum is under way. The first IMT-2000 licences were granted in Finland in March 1999, and followed by Spain in March 2000. No auction was conducted in Finland or in Spain. Also, Sweden granted the licenses without auction in December 2000. However, in other countries, such as the UK, Germany and Italy, an auction similar to the US PCS spectrum auctions was conducted.
The UMTS licenses are shown in Table 1.1 in Japan and in those European countries where the licenses have been awarded by December 2000. The number of UMTS operators per country is between 4 and 6.
More frequencies have been identified for IMT-2000 in addition to the frequencies mentioned above. At the WARC-2000 meeting of the ITU in May 2000 the following frequency bands were identified for IMT-2000 use:
It is worth noting that some of the bands listed, especially below 2 GHz are partly used with systems like GSM. What shall be the exact duplexing arrangements etc. is under discussion at the moment.
1 Introduction (Harri Holma, Antti Toskala and Ukko Lappalainen).
1.1 WCDMA in Third Generation Systems.
1.2 Air Interfaces and Spectrum Allocations for Third Generation Systems.
1.3 Schedule for Third Generation Systems.
1.4 Differences between WCDMA and Second Generation Air Interfaces.
1.5 Core Networks and Services.
2 UMTS Services and Applications (Harri Holma, Martin Kristensson, Jouni Salonen and Antti Toskala).
2.2 Person-to-Person Circuit Switched Services.
2.2.1 AMR Speech Service.
2.2.2 Video Telephony.
2.3 Person-to-Person Packet Switched Services.
2.3.1 Images and Multimedia.
2.3.2 Push-to-Talk over Cellular (PoC).
2.3.3 Voice over IP (VoIP).
2.3.4 Multiplayer Games.
2.4 Content-to-person Services.
2.4.2 Audio and Video Streaming.
2.4.3 Content Download.
2.4.4 Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service, MBMS.
2.5 Business Connectivity.
2.6 IP Multimedia Sub-system, IMS.
2.7 Quality of Service Differentiation.
2.8 Capacity and Cost of Service Delivery.
2.8.1 Capacity per Subscriber.
2.8.2 Cost of Capacity Delivery.
2.9 Service Capabilities with Different Terminal Classes.
2.10 Location Services in WCDMA.
2.10.1 Location Services.
2.10.2 Cell Coverage Based Location Calculation.
2.10.3 Observed Time Difference Of Arrival, OTDOA.
2.10.4 Assisted GPS.
3 Introduction to WCDMA (Peter Muszynski and Harri Holma).
3.2 Summary of the Main Parameters in WCDMA.
3.3 Spreading and Despreading.
3.4 Multipath Radio Channels and Rake Reception.
3.5 Power Control.
3.6 Softer and Soft Handovers.
4 Background and Standardisation of WCDMA (Antti Toskala).
4.2 Background in Europe.
4.2.1 Wideband CDMA.
4.2.2 Wideband TDMA.
4.2.3 Wideband TDMA/CDMA.
4.2.6 ETSI Selection.
4.3 Background in Japan.
4.4 Background in Korea.
4.5 Background in the United States.
4.5.1 W-CDMA N/A.
4.6 Creation of 3GPP.
4.7 How does 3GPP Operate?
4.8 Creation of 3GPP2.
4.9 Harmonisation Phase.
4.10 IMT-2000 Process in ITU.
4.11 Beyond 3GPP Release ’99.
5 Radio Access Network Architecture (Fabio Longoni, Atte Länsisalmi and Antti Toskala).
5.1 System Architecture.
5.2 UTRAN Architecture.
5.2.1 The Radio Network Controller.
5.2.2 The Node B (Base Station).
5.3 General Protocol Model for UTRAN Terrestrial Interfaces.
5.3.2 Horizontal Layers.
5.3.3 Vertical Planes.
5.4 Iu, the UTRAN–CN Interface.
5.4.1 Protocol Structure for Iu CS.
5.4.2 Protocol Structure for Iu PS.
5.4.3 RANAP Protocol.
5.4.4 Iu User Plane Protocol.
5.4.5 Protocol Structure of Iu BC, and the SABP Protocol.
5.5 UTRAN Internal Interfaces.
5.5.1 RNC–RNC Interface (Iur Interface) and the RNSAP Signalling.
5.5.2 RNC–Node B Interface and the NBAP Signalling.
5.6 UTRAN Enhancements and Evolution.
5.6.1 IP Transport in UTRAN.
5.6.2 Iu Flex.
5.6.3 Stand Alone SMLC and Iupc Interface.
5.6.4 Interworking between GERAN and UTRAN, and the Iur-g Interface.
5.6.5 All IP RAN Concept.
5.7 UMTS Core Network Architecture and Evolution.
5.7.1 Release ’99 Core Network Elements.
5.7.2 Release 5 Core Network and IP Multimedia Sub-system.
6 Physical Layer (Antti Toskala).
6.2 Transport Channels and their Mapping to the Physical Channels.
6.2.1 Dedicated Transport Channel.
6.2.2 Common Transport Channels.
6.2.3 Mapping of Transport Channels onto the Physical Channels.
6.2.4 Frame Structure of Transport Channels.
6.3 Spreading and Modulation.
6.3.2 Channelisation Codes.
6.3.3 Uplink Spreading and Modulation.
6.3.4 Downlink Spreading and Modulation.
6.3.5 Transmitter Characteristics.
6.4 User Data Transmission.
6.4.1 Uplink Dedicated Channe.
6.4.2 Uplink Multiplexing.
6.4.3 User Data Transmission with the Random Access Channel.
6.4.4 Uplink Common Packet Channel.
6.4.5 Downlink Dedicated Channel.
6.4.6 Downlink Multiplexing.
6.4.7 Downlink Shared Channel.
6.4.8 Forward Access Channel for User Data Transmission.
6.4.9 Channel Coding for User Data.
6.4.10 Coding for TFCI Information.
6.5.1 Common Pilot Channel (CPICH).
6.5.2 Synchronisation Channel (SCH).
6.5.3 Primary Common Control Physical Channel (Primary CCPCH).
6.5.4 Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (Secondary CCPCH).
6.5.5 Random Access Channel (RACH) for Signalling Transmission.
6.5.6 Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH).
6.5.7 Paging Indicator Channel (PICH).
6.5.8 Physical Channels for the CPCH Access Procedure.
6.6 Physical Layer Procedures.
6.6.1 Fast Closed Loop Power Control Procedure.
6.6.2 Open Loop Power Control.
6.6.3 Paging Procedure.
6.6.4 RACH Procedure.
6.6.5 CPCH Operation.
6.6.6 Cell Search Procedure.
6.6.7 Transmit Diversity Procedure.
6.6.8 Handover Measurements Procedure.
6.6.9 Compressed Mode Measurement Procedure.
6.6.10 Other Measurements.
6.6.11 Operation with Adaptive Antennas.
6.6.12 Site Selection Diversity Transmission.
6.7 Terminal Radio Access Capabilities.
7 Radio Interface Protocols (Jukka Vialén and Antti Toskala).
7.2 Protocol Architecture.
7.3 The Medium Access Control Protocol.
7.3.1 MAC Layer Architecture.
7.3.2 MAC Functions.
7.3.3 Logical Channels.
7.3.4 Mapping Between Logical Channels and Transport Channels.
7.3.5 Example Data Flow Through the MAC Layer.
7.4 The Radio Link Control Protocol.
7.4.1 RLC Layer Architecture.
7.4.2 RLC Functions.
7.4.3 Example Data Flow Through the RLC Layer.
7.5 The Packet Data Convergence Protocol.
7.5.1 PDCP Layer Architecture.
7.5.2 PDCP Functions.
7.6 The Broadcast/Multicast Control Protocol.
7.6.1 BMC Layer Architecture.
7.6.2 BMC Functions.
7.7 Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service.
7.8 The Radio Resource Control Protocol.
7.8.1 RRC Layer Logical Architecture.
7.8.2 RRC Service States.
7.8.3 RRC Functions and Signalling Procedures.
7.9 Early UE Handling Principles.
8 Radio Network Planning (Harri Holma, Zhi-Chun Honkasalo, Seppo Hämäläinen, Jaana Laiho, Kari Sipilä and Achim Wacker).
8.2.1 Radio Link Budgets.
8.2.2 Load Factors.
8.2.3 Capacity Upgrade Paths.
8.2.4 Capacity per km2.
8.2.5 Soft Capacity.
8.2.6 Network Sharing.
8.3 Capacity and Coverage Planning and Optimisation.
8.3.1 Iterative Capacity and Coverage Prediction.
8.3.2 Planning Tool.
8.3.3 Case Study.
8.3.4 Network Optimisation.
8.4 GSM Co-planning.
8.5 Inter-operator Interference.
8.5.2 Uplink vs. Downlink Effects.
8.5.3 Local Downlink Interference.
8.5.4 Average Downlink Interference.
8.5.5 Path Loss Measurements.
8.5.6 Solutions to Avoid Adjacent Channel Interference.
8.6 WCDMA Frequency Variants.
8.6.2 Differences Between Frequency Variants.
8.6.3 WCDMA1900 in an Isolated 5 MHz Block.
9 Radio Resource Management (Harri Holma, Klaus Pedersen, Jussi Reunanen, Janne Laakso and Oscar Salonaho).
9.1 Interference-Based Radio Resource Management.
9.2 Power Control.
9.2.1 Fast Power Control.
9.2.2 Outer Loop Power Control.
9.3.1 Intra-frequency Handovers.
9.3.2 Inter-system Handovers Between WCDMA and GSM.
9.3.3 Inter-frequency Handovers within WCDMA.
9.3.4 Summary of Handovers.
9.4 Measurement of Air Interface Load.
9.4.1 Uplink Load.
9.4.2 Downlink Load.
9.5 Admission Control.
9.5.1 Admission Control Principle.
9.5.2 Wideband Power-Based Admission Control Strategy.
9.5.3 Throughput-Based Admission Control Strategy.
9.6 Load Control (Congestion Control).
10 Packet Scheduling (Jeroen Wigard, Harri Holma, Renaud Cuny, Nina Madsen, Frank Frederiksen and Martin Kristensson).
10.1 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
10.2 Round Trip Time.
10.3 User-specific Packet Scheduling.
10.3.1 Common Channels (RACH/FACH).
10.3.2 Dedicated Channel (DCH).
10.3.3 Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH).
10.3.4 Uplink Common Packet Channel (CPCH).
10.3.5 Selection of Transport Channel.
10.3.6 Paging Channel States.
10.4 Cell-specific Packet Scheduling.
10.4.2 Scheduling Algorithms.
10.4.3 Packet Scheduler in Soft Handover.
10.5 Packet Data System Performance.
10.5.1 Link Level Performance.
10.5.2 System Level Performance.
10.6 Packet Data Application Performance.
10.6.1 Introduction to Application Performance.
10.6.2 Person-to-person Applications.
10.6.3 Content-to-person Applications.
10.6.4 Business Connectivity.
10.6.5 Conclusions on Application Performance.
11 High-speed Downlink Packet Access (Antti Toskala, Harri Holma, Troels Kolding, Preben Mogensen, Klaus Pedersen and Karri Ranta-aho).
11.1 Release ’99 WCDMA Downlink Packet Data Capabilities.
11.2 HSDPA Concept.
11.3 HSDPA Impact on Radio Access Network Architecture.
11.4 Release 4 HSDPA Feasibility Study Phase.
11.5 HSDPA Physical Layer Structure.
11.5.1 High-speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH).
11.5.2 High-speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH).
11.5.3 Uplink High-speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH).
11.5.4 HSDPA Physical Layer Operation Procedure.
11.6 HSDPA Terminal Capability and Achievable Data Rates.
11.7 Mobility with HSDPA.
11.7.1 Measurement Event for Best Serving HS-DSCH Cell.
11.7.2 Intra-Node B HS-DSCH to HS-DSCH Handover.
11.7.3 Inter-Node B HS-DSCH to HS-DSCH Handover.
11.7.4 HS-DSCH to DCH Handover.
11.8 HSDPA Performance.
11.8.1 Factors Governing Performance.
11.8.2 Spectral Efficiency, Code Efficiency and Dynamic Range.
11.8.3 User Scheduling, Cell Throughput and Coverage.
11.8.4 HSDPA Network Performance with Mixed Non-HSDPA and HSDPA Terminals.
11.9 Terminal Receiver Aspects.
11.10 Evolution Beyond Release 5.
11.10.1 Multiple Receiver and Transmit Antenna Techniques.
11.10.2 High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA).
12 Physical Layer Performance (Harri Holma, Jussi Reunanen, Leo Chan, Preben Mogensen, Klaus Pedersen, Kari Horneman, Jaakko Vihria¨la¨ and Markku Juntti).
12.2 Cell Coverage.
12.2.1 Uplink Coverage.
12.2.2 Downlink Coverage.
12.3 Downlink Cell Capacity.
12.3.1 Downlink Orthogonal Codes.
12.3.2 Downlink Transmit Diversity.
12.3.3 Downlink Voice Capacity.
12.4 Capacity Trials.
12.4.1 Single Cell Capacity Trials.
12.4.2 Multicell Capacity Trials.
12.5 3GPP Performance Requirements.
12.5.1 Eb/N0 Performance.
12.5.2 RF Noise Figure.
12.6 Performance Enhancements.
12.6.1 Smart Antenna Solutions.
12.6.2 Multiuser Detection.
13 UTRA TDD Modes (Antti Toskala, Harri Holma, Otto Lehtinen and Heli Väätäjä).
13.1.1 Time Division Duplex (TDD).
13.1.2 Differences in the Network Level Architecture.
13.2 UTRA TDD Physical Layer.
13.2.1 Transport and Physical Channels.
13.2.2 Modulation and Spreading.
13.2.3 Physical Channel Structures, Slot and Frame Format.
13.2.4 UTRA TDD Physical Layer Procedures.
13.3 UTRA TDD Interference Evaluation.
13.3.1 TDD–TDD Interference.
13.3.2 TDD and FDD Co-existence.
13.3.3 Unlicensed TDD Operation.
13.3.4 Conclusions on UTRA TDD Interference.
13.4 HSDPA Operation with TDD.
13.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Outlook on UTRA TDD.
14 cdma2000 (Antti Toskala).
14.2 Logical Channels.
14.2.1 Physical Channels.
14.3 Multicarrier Mode Spreading and Modulation.
14.3.1 Uplink Spreading and Modulation.
14.3.2 Downlink Spreading and Modulation.
14.4 User Data Transmission.
14.4.1 Uplink Data Transmission.
14.4.2 Downlink Data Transmission.
14.4.3 Channel Coding for User Data.
14.5.1 Pilot Channel.
14.5.2 Synch Channel.
14.5.3 Broadcast Channel.
14.5.4 Quick Paging Channel.
14.5.5 Common Power Control Channel.
14.5.6 Common and Dedicated Control Channels.
14.5.7 Random Access Channel (RACH) for Signalling Transmission.
14.6 Physical Layer Procedures.
14.6.1 Power Control Procedure.
14.6.2 Cell Search Procedure.
14.6.3 Random Access Procedure.
14.6.4 Handover Measurements Procedure.