WCDMA for UMTS: Radio Access for Third Generation Mobile Communications


WCDMA for UMTS provides a complete picture of the Wideband CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) air interface of the 3rd generation cellular systems - UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems). WCDMA is designed for multimedia communications including high quality images and video, and access to services with high data rates. These capabilities will create new business opportunities for manufacturers, operators and for the providers of content and applications.
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WCDMA for UMTS provides a complete picture of the Wideband CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) air interface of the 3rd generation cellular systems - UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems). WCDMA is designed for multimedia communications including high quality images and video, and access to services with high data rates. These capabilities will create new business opportunities for manufacturers, operators and for the providers of content and applications.
* Explains the key parts of the WCDMA standard and provides guidelines for its efficient use
* Presents network dimensioning and coverage and capacity planning of WCDMA
* Introduces radio resource management algorithms in the WCDMA network
* Examines the coverage and capacity of WCDMA up to 2Mbps using numerous simulation results
* Introduces the TDD (Time Divisions Duplex) mode
* Discusses the co-existence of TDD and FDD (Frequency Divisions Duplex) and highlights their main differences
Now includes the main modifications made to the 3GPP standard up until the end of 2000 and features the following new material:
* Reference terminal classes
* Current status of UMTS licensing
* Capacity upgrade paths and capacity per km2
* Inter-frequency handovers and inter-system handovers to GSM
* Antenna diversity gain measurements in the WCDMA experimental system
Written by leading experts in the field, this practical approach to the key features in WCDMA will have wide-ranging appeal to Research and Development Engineers, Practising Engineers, Cellular Operators, Technical Managers and Students on Telecommunications courses.

WCDMA is designed for multimedia communications including high quality images and video, and access to services with high data rates.

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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
Written for research and development engineers, cellular operators, technical mangers, and telecommunications students, this book provides an overview of the Wideband CDMA air interface of the third generation cellular systems (UMTS) and outlines a practical approach to the key features of the system. It explains the major features of the 3GPP/WCDMA standard and offers guidelines for its use. The book also introduces radio resource management algorithms and presents simulation results depicting the coverage of capacity of WCDMA. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471720515
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 6/23/2000
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 344
  • Product dimensions: 6.85 (w) x 10.02 (h) x 0.92 (d)

Meet the Author

Oliver O'Reilly, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA.


Ph. D., Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 1990.
M. S., Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 1988.
B.E. (Mech), National University of Ireland (Galway), 1985.

Professional Experience

  • 1998 - Present Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley.
  • 1992 - 1998 Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley.
  • 1990 - 1992 Post Doctoral Assistant, Institut für Mechanik, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zürich, Switzerland.

Research Interests:

My research interests lie in Continuum Mechanics and Nonlinear Dynamics. Specifically, I am interested in the Dynamics of Rigid Bodies and Particles, Cosserat and Directed Continuua, Dynamics of Rods, History of Mechanics and Vehicle Collision Dynamics.


  • 1995, Hellman Family Faculty Fund
  • 1997 and 1998, Pi-Tau-Sigma Excellence in Teaching Award
  • 1999, University Distinguished Teaching Award

Society Membership

  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers
  • Society of Engineering Science
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Read an Excerpt

I: Introduction

Harri Holma, Antti Toskala and Ukko Lappalainen

1.1 WCDMA in Third Generation Systems

Analog cellular systems are commonly referred to as first generation systems. The digital systems currently in use, such as GSM, PDC, cdmaOne (IS-95) and US-TDMA (IS-136), are second generation systems. These systems have enabled voice communications to go wireless in many of the leading markets, and customers are increasingly finding value also in other services such as text messaging and access to data networks, which are starting to grow rapidly.

Third generation systems are designed for multimedia communication: with them personto-person communication can be enhanced with high quality images and video, and access to information and services on public and private networks will be enhanced by the higher data rates and new flexible communication capabilities of third generation systems. This, together with the continuing evolution of the second generation systems, will create new business opportunities not only for manufacturers and operators, but also for the providers of content and applications using these networks.

In the standardisation forums, WCDMA technology has emerged as the most widely adopted third generation air interface. Its specification has been created in 3GPP (the 3"d Generation Partnership Project), which is the joint standardisation project of the standardisation bodies from Europe, Japan, Korea, the USA and China. Within 3GPP, WCDMA is called UTRA (Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division Duplex), the name WCDMA being used to cover both FDD and TDD operation.

Throughout this book, the chapters related to specifications use the 3GPP terms UTRA FDD and TDD, the others using the term WCDMA. This book focuses on the WCDMA FDD technology. The WCDMA TDD mode and its differences from the WCDMA FDD mode are presented in Chapter 12.

1.2 Air Interfaces and Spectrum Allocations for Third Generation Systems

Work to develop third generation mobile systems started when the World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) of the ITU (International Telecommunications Union), at its 1992 meeting, identified the frequencies around 2 GHz that were available for use by future third generation mobile systems, both terrestrial and satellite. Within the ITU these third generation systems are called International Mobile Telephony 2000 (IMT-2000). Within the IMT-2000 framework, several different air interfaces are defined for third generation systems, based on either CDMA or TDMA technology, as described in Chapter 3. The original target of the third generation process was a single common global IMT-2000 air interface. Third generation systems are closer to this target than were second generation systems: the same air interface -WCDMA-is to be used in Europe and Asia, including Japan and Korea, using the frequency bands that WARC-92 allocated for the third generation IMT-2000 system at around 2 GHz. In North America, however, that spectrum has already been auctioned for operators using second generation systems, and no new spectrum is available for IMT-2000. Thus, third generation services there must be implemented within the existing bands by replacing part of the spectrum with third generation systems. This approach is referred to as refarming. The global IMT-2000 spectrum is not available in countries that follow the US PCS spectrum allocation.

In addition to WCDMA, the other air interfaces that can be used to provide third generation services are EDGE and multicarrier CDMA (cdma2000). EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) can provide third generation services with bit rates up to 500 kbps within a GSM carrier spacing of 200 kHz [1]. EDGE includes advanced features that are not part of GSM to improve spectrum efficiency and to support the new services. The multicarrier CDMA can be used as an upgrade solution for the existing IS-95 operators and will be presented in more detail in Chapter 13.

The expected frequency bands and geographical areas where these different air interfaces are likely to be applied are shown in Figure 1.1. Within each region there are local exceptions in places where multiple technologies are already being deployed.

The spectrum allocation in Europe, Japan, Korea and the USA is shown in Figure 1.2. In Europe and in most of Asia the IMT-2000 bands of 2 x 60 MHz (1920-1980 MHz plus 2110-2170 MHz) will be available for WCDMA FDD. The availability of the TDD spectrum varies: in Europe it is expected that 25 MHz will be available for licensed TDD use in the 1900-1920 MHz and 2020-2025 MHz bands. The rest of the unpaired spectrum is expected to be used for unlicensed TDD applications (SPA: Self Provided Applications) in the 2010-2020 MHz band. FDD systems use different frequency bands for uplink and for downlink, separated by the duplex distance, while TDD systems utilise the same frequency for both uplink and downlink.

In Japan and Korea, the IMT-2000 FDD band is the same as in the rest of Asia and in Europe. Japan has deployed PDC as a second generation system, while in Korea IS95 is used for both cellular and PCS operation. The PCS spectrum allocation in Korea is different from the US PCS spectrum allocation, leaving the IMT-2000 spectrum fully available in Korea. In Japan, part of the IMT-2000 TDD spectrum is used by PHS, the cordless telephone system.

In China, there are reservations for PCS or WLL (Wireless Local Loop) use on one part of the IMT-2000 spectrum, though these have not been allocated to any operators.

Depending on the regulation decisions, up to 2 x 60 MHz of the IMT-2000 spectrum will be available for WCDMA FDD use in China. The TDD spectrum is also available in China. In the USA no new spectrum has yet been made available for third generation systems. Third generation services can be implemented by refarming third generation systems within the existing PCS spectrum. This will require replacing part of the existing second generation frequencies with third generation systems. For the US PCS band, all third generation alternatives can be considered, but EDGE has an advantage as a narrowband system. With EDGE less spectrum will need to be cleared to deploy third generation services. Multicarrier CDMA and WCDMA can also be considered for refarming.

EDGE can be deployed within the existing GSM900 and GSM 1800 frequencies where those frequencies are in use. These GSM frequencies are not available in Korea and Japan. The total band available for GSM900 operation is 2 x 25 MHz plus EGSM 2 x LO MHz, and for GSM1800 operation 2 x 75 MHz. EGSM refers to the extension of the GSM900 band. The total GSM band is not available in all countries using the GSM system. Later, it will also be possible to refarm WCDMA to the GSM bands, but initially EDGE is the solution to providing third generation services within the GSM bands.

Licensing of the IMT-2000 spectrum is under way. The first IMT-2000 licences were granted in Finland in March 1999, and followed by Spain in March 2000. No auction was conducted in Finland or in Spain. Also, Sweden granted the licenses without auction in December 2000. However, in other countries, such as the UK, Germany and Italy, an auction similar to the US PCS spectrum auctions was conducted.

The UMTS licenses are shown in Table 1.1 in Japan and in those European countries where the licenses have been awarded by December 2000. The number of UMTS operators per country is between 4 and 6.

More frequencies have been identified for IMT-2000 in addition to the frequencies mentioned above. At the WARC-2000 meeting of the ITU in May 2000 the following frequency bands were identified for IMT-2000 use:

  • 1710-1885 MHz
  • 2500-2690 MHz
  • 806-960 MHz

It is worth noting that some of the bands listed, especially below 2 GHz are partly used with systems like GSM. What shall be the exact duplexing arrangements etc. is under discussion at the moment.

1.3 Schedule for Third Generation Systems

European research work on WCDMA was initiated in the European Union research projects CODIT [2] and FRAMES [3], and also within large European wireless communications companies, at the start of the 1990s [4]. Those projects also produced WCDMA trial systems to evaluate link performance [5] and generated the basic understanding of WCDMA...
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1
2 UMTS services and applications 11
3 Introduction to WCDMA 47
4 Background and standardisation of WCDMA 61
5 Radio access : network architecture 75
6 Physical layer 99
7 Radio interface protocols 149
8 Radio network planning 185
9 Radio resource management 231
10 Packet scheduling 269
11 High-speed downlink packet access 307
12 Physical layer performance 347
13 UTRA TDD modes 411
14 cdma2000 433
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