Web-Based Management of IP Networks and Systems / Edition 1

Web-Based Management of IP Networks and Systems / Edition 1

by Jean-Philippe Martin-Flatin, Jean-Philippe Martin-Flatin
     
 

"This book provides a wealth of ideas for designers and programmers of management applications and instrumentation. It is also a terrific resource for administrators and students. I definitely recommend it!"

Andrea Westerinen, Cisco Systems, VP of Technology of the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)

In Web-Based Management of IP Networks &

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Overview

"This book provides a wealth of ideas for designers and programmers of management applications and instrumentation. It is also a terrific resource for administrators and students. I definitely recommend it!"

Andrea Westerinen, Cisco Systems, VP of Technology of the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)

In Web-Based Management of IP Networks & Systems, the author makes an in-depth analysis of the technical advantages of using Web technologies, notably XML, in network and systems management. He describes a new management architecture, WIMA (Web-based Integrated Management Architecture), which leverages both the IETF’s

SNMP MIBs and the DMTF’s CIM schemas. He challenges traditional SNMP-based management solutions and demonstrates that Web-based management is not only trendy but also makes technical sense.

Main features:

• Highlights problems associated with SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).

• Presents and discusses engineering trade-offs.

• Proposes a new distributed management architecture (WIMA).

• Describes a research prototype (JAMAP) demonstrating the feasibility and simplicity of this architecture.

This book is a goldmine of practical hints and tips based on the author's extensive industrial experience. It is primarily aimed at engineers designing and writing management applications, administrators, and graduate students.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780471487029
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
11/28/2002
Series:
Wiley Series on Communications Networking & Distributed Systems Series
Pages:
362
Product dimensions:
6.81(w) x 9.78(h) x 0.98(d)

Table of Contents

List of Figures xv

List of Tables xvii

Foreword xix

Preface xxi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Background 1

1.2 Context of This Work 4

1.3 Caveat 6

1.4 Organization 7

2 Terminology 9

2.1 IP World vs. Telecommunications World 10

2.2 Different Types of Enterprise Management 10

2.3 Manager, Agent, Management Application, Management Platform, and Management System 14

2.4 Manager vs. Administrator 15

2.5 Agent, Mobile Agent, and Intelligent Agent 15

2.6 Proxy vs. Gateway 15

2.7 Delegation 16

2.8 Paradigm vs. Technology 17

2.9 Architecture vs. Framework 18

2.10 Firewalls and Trust Domains 18

2.11 Regular Management vs. Ad Hoc Management 20

2.12 Ontologies, Schemas, and Models 22

3 Problem Statement 25

3.1 Characteristics of SNMP-Based Management 25

3.2 Strengths of SNMP-Based Management 33

3.3 Problems with SNMP-Based Management 33

3.3.1 Scalability and efficiency issues 33

3.3.2 Missing features 46

3.3.3 Non-technical problems in SNMP-based management. 49

3.4 We Need a New Solution to a New Problem 53

3.5 Summary 56

4 Overview of the Solution Space 57

4.1 Simple Taxonomy of Network and Systems Management Paradigms 58

4.1.1 Centralized paradigm 60

4.1.2 Weakly distributed hierarchical paradigms 61

4.1.3 Strongly distributed hierarchical paradigms 63

4.1.4 Strongly distributed cooperative paradigms 69

4.1.5 Synthetic diagram 71

4.2 Enhanced Taxonomy of Network and Systems Management Paradigms 72

4.2.1 A stroll through organization theory 72

4.2.2 Other criteria for our enhanced taxonomy 78

4.2.3 Synthetic diagram 85

4.3 Summary 86

5 Analysis of the Solution Space 87

5.1 No Win-Win Solution 87

5.2 Do Not Focus on Technology Immediately 89

5.3 Reality Check: Support and Technical Maturity 90

5.4 The My-Middleware-Is-Better-Than-Yours Syndrome 92

5.5 Mobile Code and Security 94

5.6 Distribution 95

5.7 Web-Based Management 95

5.8 Summary 96

6 State of the Art in Web-Based Management 97

6.1 Browser-Based Usage Monitoring 98

6.2 Browser-Based Metamanagement 99

6.2.1 Online problem reporting 100

6.2.2 Online management procedures, online documentation 100

6.2.3 Online troubleshooting assistance 101

6.3 Browser-Based Management 101

6.3.1 Troubleshooting scripts executed via a Web browser 102

6.3.2 Configuration management 102

6.3.3 Java applet with an SNMP stack 103

6.4 Three-Tier Management 103

6.4.1 Deri et al.: SNMP-to-URL mapping 104

6.4.2 Kasteleijn: HTTP and SNMP 104

6.4.3 Integration of a Web browser in the SNMP-based management platform 105

6.4.4 Deri: Java RMI and SNMP 105

6.5 HTTP-Based Management 105

6.5.1 CLI wrappings and mappings 107

6.5.2 Embedded HTML pages and CGI programs 115

6.5.3 Embedded management applications 116

6.5.4 Low-footprint embedded HTTP servers 116

6.6 XML-Based Management 117

6.6.1 Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) 117

6.6.2 John et al.: XNAMI 122

6.7 Distributed Java-Based Management 123

6.7.1 Java Management Application Programming Interface (JMAPI) 123

6.7.2 Java Management eXtensions (JMX) 124

6.7.3 Federated Management Architecture (FMA) 124

6.7.4 Anerousis’s Marvel 124

6.8 Commercial Products 125

6.9 Summary 126

7 A New Management Architecture: WIMA 127

7.1 Main Architectural Decisions (Analysis Phase) 128

7.1.1 One management architecture, four models 128

7.1.2 No need to define yet another information model 131

7.1.3 Dissociation of the communication and information models 131

7.1.4 A new organizational model: WIMA-OM 132

7.1.5 A new communication model: WIMA-CM 137

7.2 Main Design Decisions (Design Phase) 138

7.2.1 Web technologies 138

7.2.2 Three-tier architecture 139

7.2.3 Management server: COTS components and object-oriented frameworks 140

7.2.4 Management-data transfers across firewalls 142

7.2.5 Data repository independent of the management platform 142

7.2.6 Bulk transfers of regular management data 144

7.2.7 Dealing with legacy systems 144

7.2.8 Richer semantics 144

7.2.9 Easy to deploy 145

7.3 Regular Management and Notification Delivery: The Push Model 145

7.3.1 Publication phase 146

7.3.2 Discovery phase 146

7.3.3 Subscription phase 152

7.3.4 Distribution phase 158

7.3.5 Distribution 163

7.3.6 Migration path: four-tier architecture 168

7.4 Ad Hoc Management: The Pull Model 168

7.4.1 Two-tier architecture (no firewall) 169

7.4.2 Three-tier architecture (with firewall) 171

7.4.3 Distribution 172

7.4.4 Migration path 173

7.5 Summary 173

8 A New Communication Model: WIMA-CM 175

8.1 Two Communication Problems 175

8.1.1 Simplified terminology 176

8.1.2 Communication problem for pushed data 176

8.1.3 Communication problem for pulled data 177

8.2 Main Design Decisions 177

8.2.1 Dissociation of the communication and information models 177

8.2.2 Reliable transport protocol: TCP 178

8.2.3 Persistent TCP connections 181

8.2.4 Firewalls: persistent connections must be created by the manager 191

8.2.5 Reversed client and server roles 193

8.3 The Sockets API as a Manager-Agent Communication API 194

8.4 HTTP-Based Communication for Pushed Data: WIMA-CM-push 195

8.4.1 MIME multipart.196

8.4.2 Some notifications are more equal than others 197

8.4.3 Specifying the information model in the MIME header 200

8.4.4 Optional compression of management data 202

8.4.5 Example of HTTP and MIME-part headers 203

8.4.6 Simplifications in case we do not have a firewall 204

8.5 Timeouts and Reconnections 205

8.5.1 Timeouts by the operating systems 205

8.5.2 Timeouts by the applications 215

8.5.3 Synthesis 219

8.6 HTTP-Based Communication for Pulled Data: WIMA-CM-pull 221

8.7 Summary 222

9 XML in Integrated Management 223

9.1 Why Use XML in NSM? 223

9.1.1 Overview of XML 224

9.1.2 Who uses XML? 224

9.1.3 Advantages of using XML in general 225

9.1.4 Advantages of using XML in NSM 226

9.1.5 Advantages of using XML in integrated management 227

9.1.6 Disadvantages of using XML in general 228

9.2 XML for Representing Management Data: Model- and Metamodel-Level Mappings 228

9.2.1 Model-level mapping 229

9.2.2 Metamodel-level mapping 232

9.2.3 Comparison between model- and metamodel-level mappings 235

9.3 XML for Dealing with Multiple Information Models 235

9.4 XML for High-Level Semantics 238

9.4.1 Transfer of an entire SNMP MIB table 238

9.4.2 Suppression of “holes” in sparse SNMP tables 239

9.4.3 Time series of a MIB variable 239

9.4.4 Distributed object-oriented programming with XML 241

9.5 XML for Integrated Management: a Unified Communication Model 242

9.6 Summary 244

10 A WIMA-Based Research Prototype: JAMAP 245

10.1 Overview of JAMAP 246

10.1.1 Key design decisions at a glance 246

10.1.2 More on the design of JAMAP 247

10.1.3 Advanced Java technologies in JAMAP 248

10.1.4 Overview of the communication aspects 249

10.1.5 Distribution phase for monitoring and data collection 251

10.1.6 Distribution phase for notification delivery 252

10.2 Management Station 253

10.2.1 SNMP MIB data subscription applet 253

10.2.2 SNMP notification subscription applet 254

10.2.3 Rule edition applet and rule mapping applet 254

10.2.4 Event log applet 255

10.3 Management Server 255

10.3.1 Pushed-data collector servlet 255

10.3.2 Notification collector servlet 257

10.3.3 Event manager servlet 257

10.4 Agent 258

10.4.1 Subscription servlet 258

10.4.2 Push dispatcher servlet 258

10.4.3 Notification dispatcher servlet 259

10.5 Reusability 259

10.6 Summary 260

11 How Does Our Solution Compare with Others? 261

11.1 Comparison with SNMP-Based Management 262

11.1.1 Almost all of the problems in SNMP have been solved 262

11.1.2 Complementarities between WIMA and SNMP 264

11.2 Comparison with WBEM 264

11.2.1 Similarities: HTTP and XML 264

11.2.2 Problems with WBEM 265

11.2.3 Complementarities between WIMA and WBEM 267

11.3 Comparison with JMX 267

11.4 Known Problems with WIMA 268

11.5 Summary 270

12 Conclusion 271

12.1 Summary.271

12.2 Directions for Future Work 274

Acronyms 277

References 283

Appendix A: The Interfaces Group in SNMP MIB-II 299

Appendix B: Metamodel-Level XML Mapping of the Interfaces Group in SNMP MIB-II 309

Appendix C: Metamodel-Level XML Mapping of a Simple CIM Class 319

Appendix D: Remote Method Invocation of a CIM Object 325

Index 327

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