Welding Metallurgy / Edition 1

Welding Metallurgy / Edition 1

by Sindo Kou, Sindo Dou
     
 

ISBN-10: 0471840904

ISBN-13: 9780471840909

Pub. Date: 01/28/1987

Publisher: Wiley

Presents the fundamental aspects of fusion welding for students, and serves as a handy reference for practicing engineers and research workers involved with the welding of engineering alloys. Deals with the metallurgy of welding, complementing existing welding handbooks and manuals, which tend to emphasize procedures for welding various materials. Examines the thermal

Overview

Presents the fundamental aspects of fusion welding for students, and serves as a handy reference for practicing engineers and research workers involved with the welding of engineering alloys. Deals with the metallurgy of welding, complementing existing welding handbooks and manuals, which tend to emphasize procedures for welding various materials. Examines the thermal, chemical, and mechanical aspects of welding; the metallurgical aspects of welding in three different regions of the weld--the fusion, the partially-melted, and the heat-affected zones--and the microstructure and properties of the weld. Outlines the difficulties in producing sound welds and practical approaches to overcome them. Also covers several important alloy systems and their representative heat-affected-zone phenomena. Includes numerous examples, problems, and case studies, and contains extensive references to the literature.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780471840909
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
01/28/1987
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
432
Product dimensions:
6.75(w) x 9.58(h) x 1.36(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexiii
IIntroduction1
1Fusion Welding Processes3
1.1Overview3
1.2Oxyacetylene Welding7
1.3Shielded Metal Arc Welding11
1.4Gas-Tungsten Arc Welding13
1.5Plasma Arc Welding16
1.6Gas-Metal Arc Welding19
1.7Flux-Core Arc Welding22
1.8Submerged Arc Welding22
1.9Electroslag Welding24
1.10Electron Beam Welding27
1.11Laser Beam Welding29
References33
Further Reading34
Problems34
2Heat Flow in Welding37
2.1Heat Source37
2.2Analysis of Heat Flow in Welding47
2.3Effect of Welding Parameters53
2.4Weld Thermal Simulator58
References60
Further Reading62
Problems62
3Chemical Reactions in Welding65
3.1Overview65
3.2Gas-Metal Reactions68
3.3Slag-Metal Reactions82
References92
Further Reading95
Problems95
4Fluid Flow and Metal Evaporation in Welding97
4.1Fluid Flow in Arcs97
4.2Fluid Flow in Weld Pools103
4.3Metal Evaporation114
4.4Active Flux GTAW116
References117
Further Reading119
Problems120
5Residual Stresses, Distortion, and Fatigue122
5.1Residual Stresses122
5.2Distortion126
5.3Fatigue131
5.4Case Studies137
References140
Further Reading141
Problems141
IIThe Fusion Zone143
6Basic Solidification Concepts145
6.1Solute Redistribution during Solidification145
6.2Solidification Modes and Constitutional Supercooling155
6.3Microsegregation and Banding160
6.4Effect of Cooling Rate163
6.5Solidification Path166
References167
Further Reading168
Problems169
7Weld Metal Solidification I: Grain Structure170
7.1Epitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary170
7.2Nonepitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary172
7.3Competitive Growth in Bulk Fusion Zone174
7.4Effect of Welding Parameters on Grain Structure174
7.5Weld Metal Nucleation Mechanisms178
7.6Grain Structure Control187
References195
Further Reading197
Problems197
8Weld Metal Solidification II: Microstructure within Grains199
8.1Solidification Modes199
8.2Dendrite and Cell Spacing204
8.3Effect of Welding Parameters206
8.4Refining Microstructure within Grains209
References213
Further Reading213
Problems214
9Post-Solidification Phase Transformations216
9.1Ferrite-to-Austenite Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds216
9.2Austenite-to-Ferrite Transformation in Low-Carbon, Low-Alloy Steel Welds232
References239
Further Reading241
Problems241
10Weld Metal Chemical Inhomogeneities243
10.1Microsegregation243
10.2Banding249
10.3Inclusions and Gas Porosity250
10.4Inhomogeneities Near Fusion Boundary252
10.5Macrosegregation in Bulk Weld Metal255
References260
Further Reading261
Problems261
11Weld Metal Solidification Cracking263
11.1Characteristics, Cause, and Testing263
11.2Metallurgical Factors268
11.3Mechanical Factors284
11.4Reducing Solidification Cracking285
11.5Case Study: Failure of a Large Exhaust Fan295
References296
Further Reading299
Problems299
IIIThe Partially Melted Zone301
12Formation of the Partially Melted Zone303
12.1Evidence of Liquation303
12.2Liquation Mechanisms304
12.3Directional Solidification of Liquated Material314
12.4Grain Boundary Segregation314
12.5Grain Boundary Solidification Modes316
12.6Partially Melted Zone in Cast Irons318
References318
Problems319
13Difficulties Associated with the Partially Melted Zone321
13.1Liquation Cracking321
13.2Loss of Strength and Ductility328
13.3Hydrogen Cracking328
13.4Remedies330
References336
Problems338
IVThe Heat-Affected Zone341
14Work-Hardened Materials343
14.1Background343
14.2Recrystallization and Grain Growth in Welding347
14.3Effect of Welding Parameters and Process349
References351
Further Reading352
Problems352
15Precipitation-Hardening Materials I: Aluminum Alloys353
15.1Background353
15.2Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Mg-Si Alloys359
15.3Al-Zn-Mg Alloys367
15.4Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys370
References371
Further Reading372
Problems372
16Precipitation-Hardening Materials II: Nickel-Base Alloys375
16.1Background375
16.2Reversion of Precipitate and Loss of Strength379
16.3Postweld Heat Treatment Cracking384
References390
Further Reading392
Problems392
17Transformation-Hardening Materials: Carbon and Alloy Steels393
17.1Phase Diagram and CCT Diagrams393
17.2Carbon Steels396
17.3Low-Alloy Steels404
17.4Hydrogen Cracking410
17.5Reheat Cracking418
17.6Lamellar Tearing422
17.7Case Studies425
References427
Further Reading429
Problems430
18Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Stainless Steels431
18.1Classification of Stainless Steels431
18.2Austenitic Stainless Steels433
18.3Ferritic Stainless Steels446
18.4Martensitic Stainless Steels449
18.5Case Study: Failure of a Pipe451
References452
Further Reading453
Problems454
Index455

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