Welfare Reform in California: State and County Implementation of CalWORKs in the Second Year

Overview

This report describes the implementation of California's Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) program in its first two years. According to CalWORKs welfare-to-work model, immediately following the approval of the aid application, nearly all recipients search for jobs in the context of Job Clubs.

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Overview

This report describes the implementation of California's Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) program in its first two years. According to CalWORKs welfare-to-work model, immediately following the approval of the aid application, nearly all recipients search for jobs in the context of Job Clubs.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
In August 1997, California passed legislation that replaced the AFDC and GAIN programs with the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKS) program. This volume presents the results of an independent evaluation of the program in its first two years of implementation. The report draws upon fieldwork and surveys to discuss issues such as program funding and child care, transportation, education, and substance abuse services. The volume is not indexed. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780833028822
  • Publisher: RAND Corporation
  • Publication date: 7/13/2001
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Figures
Tables
Summary
Acknowledgments
Abbreviations
1. INTRODUCTION
Background
Objectives of This Report
Methods
A Theoretical Perspective on the Implementation Process
A Linear View of the Welfare Reform Implementation
A Richer View of Implementation
Organization of the Document
2. PRWORA AND CALWORKS: LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS
AND SUBSEQUENT CASELOAD TREND
S
Provisions of PRWORA
Provisions of CalWORKs
The CalWORKs Program Model
Caseload and Unemployment Trends after PRWORA and
CalWORKs
3. IMPLEMENTATION OF CALWORKS AT CDSS
CDSS's Role in Issuing CalWORKs Regulations
How the Regulatory Process Unfolded
CalWORKs Regulatory Issues
Federal Regulatory Issues
The New Administration and "Modified Work-First"
Reporting Requirements
What Information CDSS Needs
Problems with Current County Data Systems
Current Status of Reporting
What Is Needed for Program Management
The CDSS-CWD Relationship and CDSS
Conclusions
4. FUNDING OF CALWORKS
Funding Sources and Flows
Federal Funding for CalWORKs
State CalWORKs Budget and County Fund Allocations
Budgeted Spending by CDSS and Counties
Estimated State-Level Funding Trends
MOE Compliance
County Spending
Subsequent State Funding Decisions
Discussion
5. COUNTY IMPLEMENTATION: ORGANIZING FOR
CALWORKS
The Growth of Workload Under CalWORKs and the
Implications for Capacity
Intermediate-Term Workload Effects
Short-Term Workload Effects
How Counties Dealt with the Increasing Workload
Prioritizing Tasks
The Decision to Increase Capacity
TheStrategy of Outsourcing
Considerations in Making the Outsourcing Decision
What Was Outsourced to Whom?
Contracting Process for Outsourcing
Terms of Outsourcing Contracts
How Long Did It Take to Outsource?
The Strategy of Adding Staff
The Process of Adding Staff
The Process of Making Staffing Structure Changes
What Staffing Strategies Did the Counties Choose?
Labor Relations
Changing Program Philosophy and Outcomes-Based
Management
Conclusions
6. DELIVERING CALWORKS AT THE STREET LEVEL
The CalWORKs Process of Implementation
A Static View of the Status of Implementation
Initial Phase: Steps Through the Signing of a WTW Plan
Describing the Content of the Initial Phase
The Flow of Participants Through the Initial Phase
Processing the Existing Caseload
One Other Exit Route from the Initial Phase: Exemptions and
SIPs
Pure Work-First
Modified Work-First
Diversion
Second Phase-Welfare-to-Work Activities
Assessment and Development of a WTW Plan
WTW Activities
The 18/24-Month Time Limit
Another Exit Route from the Initial Phase: Noncompliance and
Sanction
Levels of Noncompliance
Reasons for Noncompliance
County Home Visit Programs
Legislative Provisions to Address Noncompliance
County Responses
Sanction Rates
Another Exit Route from the Initial Phase: Employment
The Need for PES Programs
The Goals of PES Programs
County PES Programs
Conclusions
7. CHILD CARE
Background
Policy and Legislative Context-Before PRWORA and
CalWORKs
Policy and Legislative Context-After PRWORA and
CalWORKs
Institutional Context
Funding Context
State-Level Issues
Interagency Cooperation in the Three-Stage System
Parental Choice
Equity
Child Care Quality
The Fair Labor Standards Act
County Concerns
The Lack of Local-Level Planning
Definitions of Stability
Who Should Staff Child Care?
Providing Training for CWD Staff in Child Care Needs
Providing Training for Child Care Providers
Child Care Availability
Providing Training Enabling Participants to Become Licensed
Providers
APP and Provider Issues with CalWORKs Clients
Payment to Providers
Coordination Between CWDs and APPs
Concerns About Fraud
Variation in County Spending on Child Care Services
Variations in How Counties Organized the Administration of
Child Care Funds Across the Three Stages
Conclusion
8. TRANSPORTATION
Background
Policy and Legislative Context-Before PRWORA and
CalWORKs
Policy and Legislative Context-After PRWORA and
CalWORKs
Institutional Context
Funding Context
State Implementation
Implementation
County Transportation Strategies
Providing Service to Clients in Remote or Rural Areas
Conclusion
9. EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Background
Policy and Legislative Context-Before PRWORA and
CalWORKs
Policy and Legislative Context-After PRWORA and
CalWORKs
Institutional Context
Funding Context
State Concerns
CDSS Collaboration with EDD
CDSS Collaboration with Educational Providers
County Concerns
Work-First Versus Human-Capital Approaches
Organization of Agencies at the Local Level
Duplication of Services
Coordination
Complicated Funding Streams and Reporting Requirements
Low Referral Rates
10. SUBSTANCE ABUSE, MENTAL ILLNESS, AND DOMESTIC
ABUSE SERVICES
Background
Policy and Legislative Context-Before PRWORA and
CalWORKs
Policy and Legislative Context-After PRWORA and
CalWORKs
Institutional Context
Funding Context
State Concerns
The Problem of Few Referrals and Lower Than Expected
Utilization of Services
Leadership and Coordination Efforts
Monitoring Utilization of Services
Available Treatment Capacity
Concerns About Spending Allocated Funds
County Concerns
The Problem of Few Referrals and Lower Than Expected
Utilization of Services
Variations in County Approaches to Identifying and Referring
CalWORKs Participants
Coordination Between CWD Staff and Behavioral Health and
Domestic Violence Services Providers
Quality of Care Issues
11. CHILD WELL-BEING AND WELFARE
Background
Policy and Legislative Context
Institutional Context
Funding Context
State Concerns
Coordination Between CDSS and CPS
Concern About Funding Sufficiency Using the Block Grant
Approach
Concerns About the Five-Year Time Limit
County Concerns
Coordination Between CWD and CPS
Lack of Reporting on Measures of Child Well-Being
Stresses on Child Welfare Caused by Work Requirement for
Single- and Two-Parent Families
Child Support As a Replacement for Welfare
School Attendance and Immunizations
12. ISSUES FOR FURTHER CONSIDERATION
The Central WTW Path: Issues for Further Consideration
Combining Eligibility and WTW Operations
Pace of Implementation Through the Sequence of Activities
Outcomes-Based Management
"Pure" Versus "Modified" Work-First Approach
The Noncompliance and Sanctions Path: Issues for Further
Consideration
The Issue of Noncompliance
Home Visits
Sanctions
The Post-Employment Services Path: Issues for Further
Consideration
Other Services
Child Care
Behavioral Health
Final Thoughts
Appendix
A. Methods
B. Federal Welfare Funding after PRWORA
C. Process for Categorizing Counties for Analysis Using WTW 25
Data and County-by-County Analysis
References
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